LGBT rights in Peru
|LGBT rights in Peru|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal status||Legal since 1836-37|
|Gender identity/expression||Transgender people allowed to change legal gender without surgery|
|Military service||Lesbians, gays and bisexuals allowed to serve openly since 2009|
|Discrimination protections||No protection for LGBT people in hate crime or anti-discrimination laws|
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Peru may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity among consenting adults is legal. However, households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex couples. In January 2017, a decree issued by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski prohibiting all forms of discrimination and hate crimes on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity took effect, though this order was repealed by the Peruvian Congress in May 2017. In a landmark ruling published on 9 January 2017, the 7th Constitutional Court of Lima ruled in favor of recognizing and registering a same-sex marriage, between a Peruvian citizen and a Mexican citizen, performed in Mexico City in 2010. The National Registry of Identification and Civil Status has stated it will appeal the court ruling.
Homosexuality can also be used as grounds for separation or divorce. Laws meant to protect "public morals" are often used against lesbians and gays. Society's attitude towards homosexuals is generally hostile and is heavily influenced by the Catholic Church. In the 1980s the founding of the organisation Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (MHOL) managed to bring about at least a slight change in the way the media treated homosexuality. Known LGBT persons may face persecution by the public. During the first Lima pride parade in 2002, most demonstrators wore masks to avoid persecution by the public.
- 1 Legality of same-sex sexual activity
- 2 Recognition of same-sex unions
- 3 Recognition of same-sex marriage
- 4 Discrimination protections and hate crime laws
- 5 Gender identity and expression
- 6 Military service
- 7 Blood donation
- 8 Public opinion
- 9 Summary table
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Legality of same-sex sexual activity
The age of consent in Peru has changed several times during recent years, and has been subject to political debates, but today it is fixed at 14, regardless of gender and/or sexual orientation, in accordance with a 2012 decision of the Constitutional Court of Peru.
Recognition of same-sex unions
On 26 July 2010, Deputy José Vargas of the ruling party Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana announced that he would introduce a bill legalizing civil unions. However, in early 2011, the bill died in the Justice Committee because some of its members believed it would be necessary to change the Constitution in order to approve the law.
Months prior to the 2011 Peruvian general election, two of the main candidates for president, Keiko Fujimori and Alejandro Toledo, showed their support to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples, but neither of them won. The winner of the election, Ollanta Humala, has stated that he opposes legal recognition for same-sex couples. In April 2014, legislator Carlos Bruce received a petition signed by 10 thousand people in favor of allowing civil unions for same-sex couples. Bruce, who put forward the change in the law in September last year, hopes that it will alleviate the discrimination faced by gay Peruvians.
The bill was scheduled to be debated on 7 April in front of the Commission of Justice and Human Rights, but ultimately was postponed until after Easter. While the country has a history of rejecting bills that protect gay people, supporters and allies are hopeful that the Peruvian Congress will move forward with the bill. In June 2014, bills taking on different forms of recognition, some with more rights than others, were discussed in Congress. After a dramatic debate, it was decided by politician Carlos Bruce, who had earlier announced to the public that he was gay, that the original civil union bill he submitted with more rights should be voted on separately from other proposals. More than one bill allowing for recognition of same-sex relationships will be discussed in the next parliamentary session which begins in August, though the debate was eventually postponed once more.
In mid-December 2014, during the last week of the 2014 Legislative year, it was announced that the bill would be the first thing on the Government's agenda in the new Parliamentary session which begins in early March 2015. On 10 March, Bruce's civil union bill was rejected on a vote of 7-4 with 2 abstentions and 2 absences in the Justice Committee. One senator called for Congress to reconsider the bill and the motion was scheduled for a vote on 17 March, but the meeting was suspended due to a lack of attendance by senators. Also on the agenda was an alternate proposal called a solidary union which was scheduled for a vote within two weeks, though the meeting never materialised. On 14 April 2015, the bill was officially shelved by the Justice Committee after receiving only two votes in favor of its reconsideration.
Congressmen Carlos Bruce and Alberto de Belaunde, from the center-right party Peruvians for Change, reintroduced a civil union bill in Congress in late November 2016. The bill bears the signatures of various politicians, namely Gino Costa, Sergio Dávila, Vicente Zeballos, Ana María Choquehuanca, Guido Lombardi, Janet Sánchez Alva, Juan Sheput and Vice President Mercedes Aráoz. President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski announced his support of same-sex civil unions during his presidential campaign.
Recognition of same-sex marriage
On 14 February 2017, a bill legalizing same-sex marriage was introduced in the Peruvian Congress. The bill is sponsored by Indira Huilca, Marisa Glave, Tania Pariona, Alberto Quintanilla, Manuel Dammert, Horacio Zeballos, Marco Arana and Edgar Ochoa from the Broad Front and Alberto de Belaunde, Guido Lombardi and Carlos Bruce from the Peruvians for Change. Mrs Huilca said that the legislation was not about "creating ad hoc legal recognition" for same-sex couples but to extend equal rights. "Neither more nor less than that." The proposal seeks to alter Article 234 of the Civil Code to define marriage as "the union voluntarily agreed upon by two persons legally able to do so".
Recognition of marriages performed abroad
On 16 September 2016, the Registry Tribunal of the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status (RENIEC) ruled in favor of a same-sex couple married abroad, considering that same-sex marriage does not contravene international law and order. The couple, married in Belgium, sought to register property they purchased in the country. However, the public registrar refused. On 3 February, the court determined that the applicable law in this case was Belgian law and not Peruvian law. As such, it ruled that the couple can purchase and register property in Peru. The public registrar again refused, saying that although in this case the marriage had been contracted under Belgian law, this contravened international law and order under international treaties signed by Peru. In September, the court ruled that the marriage could not be incompatible with international public order because same-sex marriage is allowed in many countries and again ruled that Peruvian law was not applicable to the case because it is a marriage governed under the laws of Belgium. As a result, same-sex couples who have married in a foreign country will have no problems in registering property they purchased in Peru and have their economic rights recognized.
In a ruling published on 9 January 2017, the 7th Constitutional Court of Lima ordered the RENIEC to recognize and register the marriage of a same-sex couple, Oscar Ugarteche and Fidel Aroche, who had previously wed in Mexico City. Ugarteche is the founder of the Homosexual Movement of Lima, a Peruvian LGBT advocacy group that was founded in 1982. The court ruled that not recognizing same-sex marriages performed in other countries would be highly discriminatory and contrary to both the Peruvian Constitution and many international provisions. The court found that the only reason upon which the marriage was not recognized was because it was concluded between persons of the same sex, and that argument is not reasonable and objective. Additionally, it cited many international precedents, including Atala Riffo and Daughters v. Chile and Obergefell v. Hodges. RENIEC has stated it will appeal the ruling, therefore the Superior Court of Justice of Lima will review the case.
Ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
After a motion lodged by Costa Rica, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued a ruling in favour of same-sex marriage on 9 January 2018. On 11 January, the president of the Supreme Court of Peru and chairman of the country's judiciary, Duberlí Rodríguez, stated that Peru should abide by the decision. On 29 January 2018, minister Carlos Bruce confirmed the Peruvian government's intention to follow the court's decision, and estimated that same-sex marriage would be allowed in Peru within two years.
Discrimination protections and hate crime laws
Peru's Constitution Art. 2.2 stipulates that "every person has the right to equality before the law. No person shall be discriminated against on the basis of origin, race, sex, language, opinion, economic status, or any other distinguishing feature". Sexual orientation and gender identity can be included under "any other distinguishing feature", but are not explicitly mentioned.
Nevertheless, since May 2004, the Constitutional Procedure Code (Law 28.237) expressly provides that the writ of amparo, a constitutional guarantee to protect people from the threat or violation of the rights recognized in the Constitution, can be used in the case of discrimination based on sexual orientation.
As of February 2016, a new Penal Code has been drafted and is pending within the Justice and Human Rights Committee. It would establish explicit protection to LGBT people against discrimination, persecution and incitement to hatred.
To break the political deadlock within Congress, a governmental decree adding the terms sexual orientation and gender identity to existing hate crime and anti-discrimination laws was published in the country's official gazette with the new Penal Code coming into effect on 7 January 2017. The decree was issued by the new President, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.
However, in May 2017, the Peruvian Congress voted by 66 votes to 29 to remove these provisions from hate crime and anti-discrimination laws. Members of the largest party in Congress, Popular Force, whose leader narrowly lost to Kuczynksi in the 2016 elections, were joined by members of the Alliance For Progress, to remove the provisions issued in the decree. As a result, Peru is one of three South American countries (along with Paraguay and Guyana) with no laws prohibiting discrimination against its LGBT population.
Gender identity and expression
Transgender people are allowed to change their name, so that it matches their gender identity, following sex reassignment surgery. In May 2014, the Peruvian Constitutional Court ruled that a transgender woman could not change her gender on her national identity document.
On 4 November 2016, a bill allowing transgender people to legally change their gender without the need for surgery was introduced in the Peruvian Congress. It bill also seeks to allow transgender people access to passports and other identity documents which match their gender identity.
On 21 October 2016, the Constitutional Court of Peru reversed its 2014 decision, in which the court had determined that sex could only be biological and chromosomal. In this new ruling, published on 8 November, the court acknowledged that people are not only defined by their biological sex, but one must also take into consideration their psychic and social reality. Therefore, the court now recognizes the right of transgender persons to their gender identity. With this decision, transgender people in Peru may apply for a gender change before a judge without the need for sex reassignment surgery. Judges Manuel Miranda Canales, Marianella Ledesma Narváez, Carlos Ramos Núñez and Eloy Espinosa-Saldaña Barrera were part of the majority.
Until 2009, military and police personnel, who engaged in same-sex sexual activity, could be punished with between 60 days to 20 years imprisonment or discharge from the forces. However, in December 2009, the Constitutional Court of Peru ruled that homosexual or bisexual orientation or engaging in homosexual sex cannot be an impediment to membership of the police forces and the military.
There is no official prohibition on gay and bi men donating blood in Peru.
In May 2015, PlanetRomeo, a LGBT social network, published its first Gay Happiness Index (GHI). Gay men from over 120 countries were asked about how they feel about society’s view on homosexuality, how do they experience the way they are treated by other people and how satisfied are they with their lives. Peru was ranked 87th with a GHI score of 24.
|Same-sex sexual activity legal||(Since 1836-37)|
|Equal age of consent||(Since 2012)|
|Anti-discrimination laws in employment|
|Anti-discrimination laws in the provision of goods and services|
|Anti-discrimination laws in all other areas (incl. indirect discrimination, hate speech)|
|Hate crime laws include sexual orientation and gender identity|
|Same-sex marriage||(Legalisation required per a 2018 IACHR ruling)|
|Recognition of same-sex couples (e.g. civil unions)||(Legalisation required per a 2018 IACHR ruling)|
|Stepchild adoption by same-sex couples||(Legalisation required per a 2018 IACHR ruling)|
|Joint adoption by same-sex couples||(Legalisation required per a 2018 IACHR ruling)|
|Gays, lesbians and bisexuals allowed to serve openly in the military||(Since 2009)|
|Right to change legal gender||(Since 2016)|
|Access to IVF for lesbians|
|Commercial surrogacy for gay male couples|
|MSMs allowed to donate blood||(No official prohibition)|
- Ottosson, Daniel (May 2009). "State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults" (PDF). International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- Legal survey: Peru Retrieved on 23 August 2007.
- Lindsay Goldwert (2007-06-22). "Peru Lowers Age Of Consent To 14". CBS NEWS. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- "Pleno Reconsidero Exoneracion de Sedunda Votacion a Proyecto Sobre Libertad Sexual" [House Reconsidered and Excluded Second Vote for Project on Sexual Freedom] (in Spanish). El Heraldo. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- "Demanda de inconstitucionalidad interpuesta por diez mil seiscientos nueve ciudadanos contra el artículo 1° de la Ley N° 28704 que modifica el artículo 173°, inciso 3° del Código Penal, sobre delito de violación sexual contra víctima entre 14 y 18 años de edad" (PDF) (in Spanish). 2013-01-07.
- (in Spanish) Vargas afirma que uniones de hecho entre parejas del mismo sexo son "un derecho humano"
- (in Spanish) Legislador peruano anuncia proyecto para legalizar uniones homosexuales
- (in Spanish) Comisión de Justicia discutió la unión civil entre homosexuales
- (in Spanish) Toledo hizo polémicas declaraciones sobre consumo de drogas y aborto
- (in Spanish) Keiko difiere con Kenji sobre adopción de niños por parejas homosexuales Archived 8 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- (in Spanish) Perú: aspirante izquierdista Ollanta Humala se suma a rechazo de iglesia a bodas gay
- 10 thousand sign petition in favor of civil union for gay couples Archived 13 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Peru this Week, 2 April 2014
- "Peru Compiles Signatures For LGBT Civil Unions". HuffPost. 2014-04-10.
- (in Spanish) La unión civil y unión solidaria volverán a debatirse en agosto en Perú
- (in Spanish) El Proyecto de Ley de Unión Civil está como punto número 1 en la agenda de la Comisión de Justicia y por lo tanto será el 1° punto que se verá en la próxima legislatura los primeros días de marzo
- Unión Solidaria: Se suspendió debate del dictamen por falta de quórum
- Unión civil fue archivada definitivamente por este Congreso
- (in Spanish) Unión civil: Nuevo proyecto de ley se presentaría la siguiente semana y estas serían algunas de sus novedades
- (in Spanish) Unión civil: bancada de PPK presentará nuevo proyecto de ley
- (in Spanish) Presentaron al Congreso proyecto de Unión Civil entre personas del mismo sexo
- Peruvian Lawmakers Introduce Gay Marriage Bill On Valentine's Day
- (in Spanish) Se presentó proyecto de ley de Matrimonio Igualitario en el Peru
- (in Spanish) Matrimonios gay pueden adquirir e inscribir bienes en el Perú
- (in Spanish) Ordenan a RENIEC reconocer e inscribir matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo realizado en México.
- (in Spanish) Poder Judicial emitió histórica sentencia en favor del matrimonio homosexual
- "Court orders Peru to recognize its first same-sex marriage". Gay Star News. 10 January 2017.
- "Peru takes step toward recognizing same-sex marriage". AP Wires. Daily Mail UK. 11 January 2017.
- "¿Por qué es importante que Reniec apele fallo sobre matrimonio de Óscar Ugarteche?" (in Spanish). 10 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- (in Spanish) Perú debe respetar decisión CorteIDH sobre matrimonio homosexual lavanguardia
- Carlos Bruce hace anuncio: “Matrimonio gay se dará pronto en Perú”
- CÓDIGO PROCESAL CONSTITUCIONAL
- Gloobal - Discriminación por orientación sexual en Perú: Situación de las lesbianas, trans, gays y bisexuales en Perú
- Peruvian Congress voted down gay rights law
- #AlertaPerú : Congreso eliminaría orientación sexual e identidad de género como motivos de discriminación - Sin Etiquetas
- (in Spanish) DECRETO LEGISLATIVO Nº 1323
- (in Spanish) Perú: aprueban ley contra crímenes de odio y brindan tratamiento especializado a población penitenciaria LGTBIQ
- "Peruvian Congress Vote to Remove LGBT from Hate Crime Legislation". The Perchy Bird Blog. 5 May 2017.
- "El Congreso derogó protección contra crímenes de odio por orientación sexual e identidad de género". LimaGay.net. 5 May 2017.
- Peru rejects change of gender for transgender individuals on national identity document
- (in Spanish) Perú necesita una Ley de Identidad de Género y hoy se hizo algo importante
- (in Spanish) Perú: Tribunal Constitucional reconoce derecho a la identidad de género
- Author Carlos A. Quiroz (2009-12-10). "Peru's Constitutional Court ordered Police School to accept expelled Gay Student". Peruanista.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- Blood donation: Frequent questions
- (in Spanish) ESTUDIO DE OPINIÓN PÚBLICA A NIVEL PERÚ URBANO - Informe de resultados - (5 al 9 de agosto de 2010) Archived 14 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Religion in Latin America Chapter 5: Social Attitudes
- Religion in Latin America Appendix A: Methodology
- ATTITUDES TOWARDS MARRIAGE EQUALITY IN 51 COUNTRIES
- The Gay Happiness Index. The very first worldwide country ranking, based on the input of 115,000 gay men Planet Romeo
- Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (MHOL) - Gay and lesbian group established in 1982