LGBT rights in Singapore
|Status||Illegal for men, legal for women|
|Penalty||Up to 2 years jail, caning, fines (not well enforced, repeal pending)|
|Gender identity||Sex reassignment surgery legal|
|Military||Yes, but only limited roles and with restrictions|
|Recognition of relationships||No recognition of same-sex unions|
|Part of a series on|
|lesbian ∙ gay ∙ bisexual ∙ transgender|
|Part of a series on|
|lesbian ∙ gay ∙ bisexual ∙ transgender|
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Singapore face challenges not faced by non-LGBT people. Same-sex sexual activity between males is illegal, even if it is consensual and takes place in private, and the Attorney-General of Singapore has declared that prosecutions under Section 377A occasionally still occur, although sources state that the law is not well enforced. Same-sex relationships are not recognized under the law, and adoption of children by same-sex couples is illegal. No anti-discrimination protections exist for LGBT people.
Singaporean society is generally regarded as conservative. Despite this, LGBT events such as Pink Dot have taken place every year since 2009, with increasing attendance. In line with worldwide trends, attitudes towards members of the LGBT community are slowly changing and becoming more accepting and tolerant, especially among young people.
Legality of same-sex sexual activity
Singapore law inherited from the British Empire prohibited sodomy regardless of sex. As such, heterosexual and homosexual anal or oral sex was illegal. In 2007, such sexual activity was legalised for heterosexuals and lesbians, but not for gay men. The punishment is two years' imprisonment, and Attorney-General Lucien Wong has declared that he still has the legal power to prosecute someone under Singapore's Section 377A. Section 377A can be used to prosecute if reports are lodged with the police, particularly in relation to minors.
In June 2019, at the Smart Nation Summit, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong reiterated that Singapore would keep Section 377A "for some time" saying, "Whatever your sexual orientation is, you're welcome to come and work in Singapore... You know our rules in Singapore. It is the way this society is: We are not like San Francisco, neither are we like some countries in the Middle East. [We are] something in between, it is the way the society is."
After an exhaustive Penal Code review in 2007, oral and anal sex were legalised for heterosexuals and lesbians. The changes meant that oral and anal sex between consenting heterosexual and female homosexual adults were no longer offences. However, Section 377A, which deals with sexual acts between consenting men, remains in force.
In his concluding speech on the debate over the partial repeal of Section 377A, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong told MPs before the vote that "Singapore is basically a conservative society... The family is the basic building block of this society. And by a family in Singapore, we mean one man, one woman, marrying, having children and bringing up children within that framework of a stable family unit."
Section 377A ("Outrages on decency")
Section 377A states that: "Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or abets the commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years." Section 377A remains sporadically enforced. Between 2007 and 2013, nine people were convicted under 377A provisions.
Section 354 of the Penal Code ("Outrage of Modesty")
Section 354 provides that if any person uses criminal force on any person intending to outrage, or knowing it would be likely to outrage, the modesty of that person, he shall be imprisoned for a maximum of 2 years, or with fine, or with caning, or with any two of such punishments. Crimes charged under section 354 require some physical contact involved. However, if no physical contact is made, homosexual behaviour can also be charged under Section 294A (see below).
Section 294 of the Penal Code
If the victim of an entrapment operation uses a symbolic gesture to signal intention to have sexual activity with the police decoy, he can be tried under Section 294 of the Penal Code, which covers the commission of any obscene act in any public place to the annoyance of others, subject to a maximum of 3 months imprisonment, a fine, or both. From 1990 to 1994, there were 6 cases of obscene acts brought before the courts in this context. The accused were fined between $200 and $800.
Miscellaneous Offences (Public Order and Nuisance) Act
Section 19 (soliciting in a public place) of the Miscellaneous Offences (Public Order and Nuisance) Act, which covers both prostitution and soliciting "for any other immoral purpose", can be used to prosecute homosexual activities. This offence carries a fine of up to $1,000, doubling on a subsequent conviction, including a jail term not exceeding 6 months.
According to documentation by National University of Singapore sociologist Laurence Leong Wai Teng, from 1990 to 1994, there were 11 cases where gay men were charged for soliciting. They were fined between $200 and $500.
Human rights activists have been calling for and pushing for the repeal of Section 377A, arguing that it infringes on privacy, the right to life and personal liberty, the two latter being constitutionally protected. In 2007, the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) called for the repeal of Section 377A.
In 2012, Tan Eng Hong was found in the company of another man, and was initially charged with Section 377A but later pled guilty to a lesser charge. Tan decided to pursue his case against Section 377A on the grounds that it was inconsistent with Articles 9, 12, and 14 of Singapore Constitution. These articles guarantee the right to life and personal liberty, and provide that all people are entitled to equal protection before the law. In deciding whether an appeal of Tan's case could be heard in the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal found that Section 377A may "arguably" violate the right to equality before law as offered in Article 12. The ruling however did not go into the merits of the case on technical grounds.
Tan's case was heard in the Supreme Court jointly with another appeal challenging Section 377A, and a ruling was given on 29 October 2014. The ruling upheld the country's ban on same-sex relations between consenting adult men. The court held that Section 377A does not violate Articles 9 and 12 of the Singapore Constitution. The applicant's attorney argued that Section 377A criminalises a group of people for an innate attribute, though the court concluded that "there is, at present, no definitive conclusion" on the "supposed immutability" of homosexuality. The court ultimately held that law reforms permitting private homosexual sex were a question for the Singapore Parliament to address.
In September 2018, following the high-profile repeal of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code by the Supreme Court of India, more than 50,000 people, including a former attorney-general and several former diplomats, signed a petition called "READY4REPEAL" urging the repeal of Section 377A as part of a major penal code review. However, government officials refused to do so. Diplomat Tommy Koh and former Attorney-General Walter Woon have called on members of the LGBT community to challenge the law.
Soon after the repeal of Section 377 in India in 2018, a Singaporean DJ, Johnson Ong Ming filed a suit with the High Court arguing that Singapore's Section 377A is "in violation of human dignity". Section 377 of India Penal Code and Section 377A of Singapore Penal Code are effectively identical, as both were put in place by the British Empire, raising hopes in Singapore that the discriminatory law would be struck down as well. Singapore's High Court gave the petitioner until 20 November to submit his arguments.
In November 2018, LGBT rights activist Bryan Choong Chee Hong filed another case with the Supreme Court, arguing that Section 377A is "inconsistent" with portions of Singapore's Constitution, and "is therefore void". According to court documents, the petitioner argues that Section 377A is inconsistent with Article 9, Article 12, and Article 14 of the Constitution.
A third legal challenge was launched in September 2019 by Roy Tan Seng Kee, a retired medical doctor. Tan stated in a statement that, "by institutionalising discrimination, it alienates [LGBT people] from having a sense of belonging and purposeful place in our society, and prevents them from taking pride in Singapore's achievements."
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Adoption and parenting
Adoption of children by gay and lesbian people are illegal in Singapore.
In December 2018, one rare exception was permitted when a gay Singaporean won the right to adopt a child he had fathered in the United States through a surrogate. The Singapore High Court overturned a 2017 ruling in which a district judge had ruled the man could not legally adopt his son because he was conceived through in vitro fertilization (which is only limited to heterosexual married couples) and brought to term through surrogacy, which is banned. In January 2019, in response, the Minister for Social and Family Development, Desmond Lee, told the Parliament that he was looking to strengthen Singapore's adoption laws to prevent more same-sex adoption cases and that it did not support "the formation of family units with children of homosexual parents through institutions and processes such as adoption". Under Singapore law, children born out of wedlock are considered illegitimate, and thus are not eligible for certain social benefits, unless the child is legally adopted.
No laws exist specifically protecting LGBT Singaporeans from discrimination in the workplace, housing or any other relevant areas. Previous attempts claim damages for alleged discriminatory conduct in such fields have been dismissed in Singaporean courts.
In 2019, the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act was amended to protect the LGBT community from religiously-motivated violence. Legal action can be taken against a religious group or its members for urging violence against certain "target groups". The Explanatory Statement states: "The target group need not be confined to persons who practise a certain religion. The target group may be made up of atheists, individuals from a specific racial community, who share a similar sexual orientation, or have a certain nationality or descent like foreign workers or new citizens."
Prior to 2003, homosexuals were barred from being employed in "sensitive positions" within the Singapore Civil Service. In the past, some conscripts in National Service were encouraged to attend conversion therapy. Some Singaporean conscripts who declare their homosexuality have been excluded from officer training, and others are refused security clearances needed to perform certain roles in the army.
In January 2006, the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) granted S$100,000 (US$61,500) to Liberty League, an organisation affiliated with the "ex-gay" movement, to promote conversion therapy. The organization says it "promotes gender and sexual health for the individual, family and society".
Despite the legal conditions in the country, Singaporean government representatives have previously spoken positively of the conditions faced by LGBT citizens at a United Nations anti-discrimination committee, stating that "homosexuals are free to lead their lives and pursue their social activities. Gay groups have held public discussions and published websites, and there are films and plays on gay themes and gay bars and clubs in Singapore."
The Singapore Media Development Authority prohibits the "promotion or glamorization of the homosexual lifestyle" on television and the radio. Among other things, this means that that advertisements targeting the LGBT community, such as those for HIV/AIDS, are not allowed to be broadcast.
In July 2019, Singaporean rapper Joshua Su, better known as The G3sha, came out as gay in a new song titled "I'm OK" that highlights his childhood, the homophobia he faced and coming to terms with his sexuality. Days later, he pulled out of a TEDx radio talk in protest after he was censored and asked not to make "sensitive" comments about his sexuality. Reports indicate that another Singapore gay rights activist was barred from speaking in 2018 at a TEDx radio talk.
A 2005 poll by the Nanyang Technological University found that 69% of Singaporeans viewed homosexuality negatively, whilst 23% positively. In 2010, these numbers had changed to 64.5% negatively and 25% positively.
A 2018 opinion poll found that 55% of Singaporeans believed that gay men should have no right to privacy. On the other hand, a third of Singaporeans declared themselves more accepting of same-sex relationships and human rights than five years prior.
In 2019, a poll conducted by YouGov with 1,033 respondents showed that about one-third (34%) of Singaporeans backed same-sex partnerships, while 43% opposed their legalization, and the remaining 23% were uncertain. Support was more notable among younger respondents: 50% of people aged 18 to 34 supported civil partnerships and 20% were opposed. In contrast, only 22% of those aged 55 and over supported. 41% of university degree holders agreed with the legalisation of same-sex partnerships, whereas only 26% of respondents without a university degree were in favour. Of those who considered themselves "very much" religious, only 23% supported civil partnerships. 51% of people who considered themselves "not at all" religious expressed support. Apart from irreligious people, majority support for same-sex partnerships was also found in respondents who identified as LGBT (71% against 22%) and those who personally knew a person in a same-sex relationship (52% against 33%).
A survey conducted by the Institute of Policy Studies between August 2018 and January 2019 revealed that Singaporean society was still largely conservative but becoming more liberal on LGBT rights. The survey showed that more than 20% of people said that sexual relations between adults of the same sex were not wrong at all or not wrong most of the time, a rise of about 10% from 2013. Around 27% felt the same way about same-sex marriage (up from 15% in 2013) and 30% did so about same-sex couples adopting a child (up from 24% in 2013).
A 2019 poll conducted by the Institute of Policy Studies found that opposition to same-sex marriage in Singapore had fallen to 60%, down from 74% in 2013. The poll also found that nearly six in ten Singaporeans aged between 18 and 25 believed same-sex marriage is not wrong.
In June 2019, an online survey conducted by Yahoo Singapore asked 887 Singaporeans how they would react to a number of LGBT-related situations. When asked about an LGBT family member coming out, 53% of the respondents said they would react negatively. What's more, 14% expressed a "strongly negative" response, and 39% reported a "somewhat negative" reaction. When asked about a colleague coming out, 53% reported a positive reaction, while 46% reported a negative reaction. When asked about the marriage of Li Huanwu—the grandson of Singapore's founding prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew—to his partner, Heng Yirui, 54% reacted negatively to the marriage. Meanwhile, 46% reacted positively to it. When asked about Pink Dot SG, 55% of respondents said that they strongly or somewhat support Pink Dot Singapore, but the remaining 45% opposed it. 80% of Singaporeans agreed that LGBT people face discrimination.
In June 2019, an online survey conducted by Blackbox Research revealed that 56% of Singaporeans were opposed to other countries following Taiwan's example in legalising same-sex marriage, while 44% answered "yes". When asked on how they felt that more than 300 same-sex couples were married in Taiwan the first week after the new law was passed, about 49% of those surveyed felt positive about the statement, with 14% feeling "strongly positive" and 35% feeling "somewhat positive". Conversely, 51% responded negatively to this, 20% felt "strongly negative" and 31% were "somewhat negative". The respondents were also asked about how they felt concerning the decriminalisation of homosexuality in Bhutan. About 55% of respondents felt positive, with 15% feeling "strongly positive" and 40% were "somewhat positive". Conversely, about 44% responded negatively, 11% felt "strongly negative" and 33% felt "somewhat negative".
In May 2019, a study by the National University of Singapore estimated that there were 210,000 men who have sex with men in Singapore. The study estimates were more than double the previous estimates of 90,000 MSM, and said they could be at risk of a concentrated epidemic of HIV.
Pink Dot SG is an annual event that started in 2009 in support of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community in Singapore. In recent years, record crowds of approximately 28,000 have attended the rally, with a heavy bent toward younger demographics. On 29 June 2019, during the 11th Pink Dot, Lee Hsien Yang, the brother of Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, as well as his wife and second son Li Huanwu and Li's husband, Heng Yirui, attended the event.
This section does not cite any sources. (November 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Same-sex sexual activity legal for men||(Not well enforced)|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal for women|
|Equal age of consent|
|Anti-discrimination laws in employment only|
|Anti-discrimination laws in the provision of goods and services|
|Anti-discrimination laws in all other areas (incl. indirect discrimination, hate speech)|
|Recognition of same-sex couples|
|Stepchild adoption by same-sex couples|
|Joint adoption by same-sex couples|
|Adoption by single people regardless of sexual orientation|
|Gays, lesbians and bisexuals allowed to serve in the military||/ Limited positions and with restrictions|
|Right to change legal gender|
|Access to IVF for lesbians|
|Commercial surrogacy for gay male couples||(Illegal for all couples regardless of sexual orientation)|
|MSMs allowed to donate blood|
- Human rights in Singapore
- LGBT culture in Singapore
- LGBT history in Singapore
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Singapore
- Transgender people in Singapore
- Pink Dot SG
- "Singapore reforms sex laws - but not for homosexuals". The Guardian. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
- "Section 377A in Singapore and the (De)Criminalization of Homosexuality" (PDF). National University of Singapore. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Chan Meng Choo (2011). "First sex reassignment surgery". Singapore Infopedia. National Library Board. Archived from the original on 1 June 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Wong, Jonathan (2 October 2018). "Government has not curbed public prosecutor's discretion for Section 377A: A-G Lucien Wong". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Section 377A: Public Prosecutor retains 'full prosecutorial discretion', says Attorney-General". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 2 October 2018. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- Glauert, Rik (2 October 2018). "Singapore has not curbed power of anti-gay law, says Attorney General". Gay Star News. London. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- Diplomat, Chirag Agarwal, The. "Singapore: Crazy Rich But Still Behind on Gay Rights". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Tommy Koh's Facebook comment reignites debate on Singapore's gay sex law". The Straits Times. 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "The Big Read: With a house still divided over 377A, time to seek common ground". CNA. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Views of Homosexuality Around the World". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Mokhtar, Faris (15 September 2018). "The Big Read: With a house still divided over 377A, time to seek common ground". Today. Singapore. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Glauert, Rik (27 June 2019). "Singapore will keep anti-gay law Section 377A 'for some time' says PM". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Maria, Anna (28 June 2019). "PM Lee: Whatever your sexual orientation, you're welcome to work in Singapore". The Independent News. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Global Rights/Commonwealth, Stage 1, Appendix 3". Alex Au. 3 October 2009. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "Penal Code - Singapore Statutes Online". sso.agc.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- "Gay rights in Singapore: On permanent parole". The Economist. London. 30 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- "Section 354 Penal Code". Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Section 294". Penal Code - Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Leong Wai Teng". NUS Department of Sociology. Archived from the original on 8 September 2005. Retrieved 13 July 2005.
- "Singapore DJ files court challenge against gay sex ban after India ruling" Archived 30 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 12 September 2018.
- Stolarchuk, Jewel (4 July 2019). "SDP's call to repeal section 377A 12 years ago recirculates online". The Independent News. Singapore. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Johnson, Constance (27 August 2012). "Singapore: Challenge to Law on Homosexuality Permitted". Library of Congress. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Singapore: Court Ruling a Major Setback for Gay Rights" Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Human Rights Watch, 29 October 2014
- "Tan Eng Hong v. Attorney-General (See Conclusion - section 187 of judgement)". SingaporeLaw.sg. 21 August 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Qin, Amy (16 December 2018). "Inspired by India, Singaporeans Seek to End Gay Sex Ban". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Veteran Singapore diplomat Tommy Koh calls for gay community to challenge sex ban". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Reuters. 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- "Anti-gay law targeted again in Singapore lawsuit". Erasing 76 Crimes. 9 October 2018. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- "Singapore: DJ has to file evidence challenging Section 377A by Nov 20". Equal Eyes. 25 September 2018. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- Chua, Alfred (11 October 2018). "DJ has to file evidence challenging Section 377A by Nov 20". Today. Singapore. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- "LGBT rights advocate files case against Attorney-General, stating Section 377A of Penal Code is void". The Straits Times. Singapore. 22 January 2019. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Singapore: LGBT rights advocate files case against Attorney-General, stating Section 377A of Penal Code is void". Equal Eyes. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Two suits challenge Singapore's colonial-era anti-gay law". 76crimes.com. 8 February 2019. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Singapore's ban on gay sex faces legal challenge". Pink News. London. 23 January 2019. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Kelleher, Patrick (26 September 2019). "Fresh battle to decriminalise gay sex launched in Singapore". Pink News. London.
- "High Court dismisses challenges against law that criminalises sex between men". The Straits Times. Singapore. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Singapore court upholds gay sex ban". BBC News. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Singapore court rejects challenge to gay sex ban". The Guardian. London. Agence France-Presse. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Women's Charter". Section 12, Ordinance No. 18 of 15 September 1961. Legislative Assembly of Singapore.
- "Gay Singaporean man can adopt son born via surrogacy, court rules". CNN. 17 December 2018. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- Tan, Yvette (17 December 2018). "Gay Singaporean man wins landmark appeal to adopt surrogate child". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- "Singapore may tighten adoption law after gay father adopted son". Reuters. 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Singapore's landmark gay adoption case may lead to tighter laws". South China Morning Post. 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "7 Brutal Truths About Having an Illegitimate Child in Singapore". Singapore Legal Advice. 20 February 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Singapore (Gay Rights)". GayLawNet. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Elangovan, Navene (14 October 2019). "New legislation protects LGBTQ community from religiously motivated violence but law is 'same for all'". Today. Singapore. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- Elegant, Simon (7 July 2003). "The Lion In Winter". Time Asia. Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2007.
- "What's It Like To Come Out As Gay To The SAF?". RICE. 27 June 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- Sylvia Tan (17 January 2006). "Singapore government awards S$100,000 grant to group with ex-gay affiliation". Fridae.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Mosbergen, Dominique (13 October 2015). "How One Of The World's Richest Countries Is Limiting Basic Human Rights". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via Huff Post.
- Frois, Andre (10 July 2019). "Singapore rapper comes out as gay in song, recalls childhood when he 'didn't have anyone to turn to'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Koh, Lydia (4 July 2019). ""I'm OK", a song about a gay guy's journey by Singaporean Joshua Su makes its debut". The Independent News. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Gay DJ pulls out of Singapore TEDx talk over censorship". Reuters. Kuala Lumpur. 4 July 2019. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Wear white to protest pink gay rally, religious groups say". Reuters. 23 June 2014. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Ng, Gilaine (11 September 2018). "55 per cent of Singapore residents still support gay law: Poll". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Ho, Kim (18 February 2019). "Singaporeans split on same-sex civil partnerships". YouGov. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- Glauert, Rik (19 February 2019). "A third of Singaporeans support same-sex civil partnership". Gay Star News. London. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Singaporeans remain deeply divided on the issue of recognizing gay civil partnerships here". Yahoo! News. 19 February 2019. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Singaporeans remain deeply divided on the issue of recognizing gay civil partnerships here". Coconuts Singapore. 19 February 2019. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Greater public acceptance of gay sex and marriage: Survey". The Straits Times. Singapore. 3 May 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- Yuen-C, Tham (2 May 2019). "Singapore society still largely conservative but becoming more liberal on gay rights: IPS survey". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- Beh Lih Yi (2 May 2019). "Support for gay rights seen growing in Singapore". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Wong, Cassandra (16 July 2019). "80% of Singaporeans say LGBTQ community still faces discrimination: survey". Yahoo Singapore. Singapore. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Glauert, Rik (17 July 2019). "80% of Singaporeans agree LGBTI people face discrimination". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Glauert, Rik (18 July 2019). "53% of Singaporeans would react negatively if a family member came out". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "56% of Singaporeans opposed to more countries following Taiwan on same-sex marriages: survey". sg.news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Glauert, Rik (5 June 2019). "Study finds there are 210,000 men who have sex with men in Singapore". Gay Star News. London. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "Study estimates 210,000 men who have sex with men in S'pore, at risk of HIV". Today. Singapore. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "Singapore's annual gay rights rally sees largest turnout". Reuters. 13 June 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Lee, Joshua (29 June 2019). "Lee Hsien Yang attends Pink Dot for first time with Li Huanwu & Heng Yirui". mothership. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Surrogacy law: regulated, unregulated - Whereivf.com". www.whereivf.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018.