|Part of a series on|
LGBT stereotypes are stereotypes about lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. The stereotypes are conventional, formulaic generalizations, opinions, or images based on the sexual orientations or gender identities of LGBT people. Stereotypical perceptions may be acquired through interactions with parents, teachers, peers and mass media, or, more generally, through a lack of firsthand familiarity, resulting in an increased reliance on generalizations.
While LGBT people are associated with irreligiousness, the Human Rights Campaign promotes the idea that an individual can be gay and religious. Activists are working to bridge the gap between religion and homosexuality and to make denominations friendlier to the community. Many Protestants have opened their doors and the United Church of Christ has ordained gay ministers since 1972. LGBT clergy are also ordained in the Episcopal Church of America and the Presbyterian Church (US). Since 2005 the Scottish Episcopal Church has ordained gays as has the Church of Scotland since 2015 The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force has worked with Jewish individuals in the LGBT community, and organizations like Keshet continue to work with Jewish members of the community both to raise awareness of LGBTQ issues in Jewish communities and Jewish issues in LGBTQ communities.
The media has moved forward in equally representing members of the LGBT community. While there may still not be many prominent LGBT characters in the mainstream media, the community has completed many milestones in the recent years. In 2016, the coming-of-age drama film Moonlight became the first LGBT movie to win the Best Picture Oscar. In 2018, Love, Simon also became the first film from a major studio that focused on the hardships of being a closeted gay teenager.
LGBT members continue to be underrepresented and typecast. Of the 118 films released in 2019 by Disney, Lionsgate, Paramount, Sony, STX, United Artists, Universal, and Warner Bros, only about 19% included an LGBT character.
Murder and violence
LGBT rights activists have fought against fictional representations of LGBT people that depict them as violent and murderous. Columnist Brent Hartinger observed that "big-budget Hollywood movies until, perhaps, Philadelphia in 1993 that featured major gay male characters portrayed them as insane villains and serial killers". Community members organized protests and boycotts against films with murderous gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender characters, including Cruising (1980), Silence of the Lambs (1991), and Basic Instinct (1992). Theatre scholar Jordan Schildcrout has written about the recurrence of the "homicidal homosexual" in American plays, but notes that LGBT playwrights themselves have appropriated this negative stereotype to confront and subvert homophobia. Such plays include The Lisbon Traviata (1985) by Terrence McNally, Porcelain (1992) by Chay Yew, The Secretaries (1993) by the Five Lesbian Brothers, and The Dying Gaul (1998) by Craig Lucas.
The television series The L Word portrays a long-term lesbian couple attempting to start a family, and counters the negative "U-Haul" lesbian stereotype, which is that lesbians move in on the second date. However, at the same time, the series came under heavy criticism for reinforcing numerous other negative stereotypes, such as lesbians preying on and seducing straight women in relationships with men; mistreating bisexual women or outright shunning them if they had a history of sleeping with men (to the point where Alice Piezsecki, a bisexual character, refers to bisexuality as "gross"); for downplaying the main characters' misdeeds and unexplained tendency for adultery and instead focusing on their physical beauty and sex scenes; for randomly killing off main characters for no specific reason (referred to as "bury your gays"); for downplaying a rape scene as "angry sex"; reportedly attempting to "reify heteronormativity"; for depicting lesbianism or bisexuality as a gene passed from mothers to daughters which sometimes caused both to fight over the same woman (as demonstrated in the cases of Lenore and Alice Piezsecki, Cherie and Clea Jaffe, Peggy and Helena Peabody, Phyllis and Molly Kroll, an instance when Shane had sex with a mother and her two daughters separately on one of the daughters' wedding day, which led to all three of them falling in love with Shane and subsequently falling out with each other, and ultimately Tina and Angelica Kennard in the sequel series, The L Word: Generation Q); and showing lesbian relationships as destined to fail due to lesbians' apparent struggles with monogamy and commitment. Series creator Ilene Chaiken was labeled as "shameless in her professional upbringing" for her depiction of lesbians in general.
In the television series Gotham, the character Renee Montoya is a lesbian and recovering drug addict, while the characters Fish Mooney, Barbara Kean and Tabitha Galvan are bisexual. Fish Mooney is introduced as the second-in-command of mafia boss Carmine Falcone, with a penchant for ruthlessness and ambition to overthrow both Falcone and Sal Maroni and become Gotham's sole crime boss. Montoya does not hide her grudge against James Gordon for being in a relationship with Barbara, her former lover. When rumors surface that Gordon may be corrupt, it is implied that Montoya is not entirely convinced, but she nevertheless becomes determined to put Gordon behind bars in the hopes of winning Barbara back rather than enforcing justice, even though it will cost the Gotham City Police Department one of its few honest cops determined to bring Falcone and Maroni down, and after she briefly succeeds in resuming her affair with Barbara, she pushes Barbara away when Barbara appears to be going back to depression and drug addiction. After Gordon begins a relationship with Leslie Thompkins, Barbara is driven insane with jealousy and eventually progresses to become one of the series' main antagonists. The second season introduces Tabitha Galvan, the bisexual sister of Theo Galvan, and who is also depicted as a ruthless, sadistic mercenary who has an on-again-off-again relationship with Barbara.
Many lesbians are associated with short hair, wearing baggy clothes and playing sports. Further, news coverage of LGBT issues reinforces stereotyped portrayals of lesbians. Often news broadcasts highlight stories on more "masculine" lesbians and fail to give equal coverage to other more faceted lesbian identities. Thus, the populations who receive information about marginalized communities from a news source begin to equate lesbian sexuality with a masculine presentation. The way lesbians are portrayed leads people to make assumptions about individuals in everyday life.
Typically, lesbians are stereotyped as belonging to one of the two following categories: "butch and femme". Butch lesbians dress in a more masculine manner than other women. "Dykes" (a pejorative term that the Lesbian community has reclaimed, to an extent) are considered members of a community that is perceived as being composed of strong and outspoken advocates in wider society. Actress Portia de Rossi has been credited for significantly countering the general societal misconception of how lesbians look and function when, in 2005, she divulged her sexual orientation in intimate interviews with Details and The Advocate which generated further discussion on the concept of the "lipstick lesbian" ("femme" women who tend to be "hyper-feminine"). These stereotypes play out within the LGBTIQ+ community itself, with many women reporting feeling rejected by the queer community for not appearing or acting in the accepted way.
Lesbian feminists assert that a sexual component is unnecessary for a woman to declare herself a lesbian if her primary and closest relationships are with women, on the basis that, when considering past relationships within an appropriate historical context, there were times when love and sex were separate and unrelated notions. In 1989, an academic cohort called the Lesbian History Group wrote:
"Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high degree of certainty is expected before historians or biographers are allowed to use the label. Evidence that would suffice in any other situation is inadequate here... A woman who never married, who lived with another woman, whose friends were mostly women, or who moved in known lesbian or mixed gay circles, may well have been a lesbian. ... But this sort of evidence is not 'proof'. What our critics want is incontrovertible evidence of sexual activity between women. This is almost impossible to find."
Gay men are often equated interchangeably with heterosexual women by the heterocentric mainstream and are frequently stereotyped as being effeminate, despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted to be distinct from each other. The "flaming queen" is a characterization that melds flamboyance and effeminacy, remaining a gay male stock character in Hollywood. Theatre, specifically Broadway musicals, are a component of another stereotype, the "show queen", which generalizes that gay men are involved with the performing arts, and are theatrical, overly dramatic, and camp.
The bear subculture of the LGBT community is composed of generally large, hairy men, referred to as bears. They embrace their image, and some will shun more effeminate gay men, such as twinks, and vice versa.
Appearance and mannerisms
Gay men are often associated with a lisp or a feminine speaking tone. Fashion and effeminacy have long been seen as stereotypes of homosexuality. They are often based on the visibility of the reciprocal relationship between gay men and fashion. Designers, including Dolce & Gabbana, have made use of homoerotic imagery in their advertising. Some commentators argue this encourages the stereotype that most gay men enjoy shopping. A limp wrist is also a mannerism associated with gay men.
Recent research by Cox and colleagues demonstrated that "gaydar" is often used as an alternate label for using stereotypes, especially those related to appearance and mannerisms, to infer orientation.
Sex and relationships
Research also suggests that lesbians may be slightly more likely than gay men to be in steady relationships. In terms of unprotected sex, a 2007 study cited two large population surveys as showing that "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women". Another study found that gay men sometimes faced social boundaries because of this stereotype. Participants in the study reported finding it difficult to befriend other gay men on a platonic basis. They found that when they would engage with other gay men there would be an assumption of sexual motivations, and when it became clear that this was not the case the other men would not be interested in continuing socialising. These stereotypes permeate throughout all facets of society, even influencing those subjected to it.
Another persistent stereotype associated with the gay male community is excessive partying. Before the Stonewall riots in 1969, most LGBT people were extremely private and closeted, and house parties, bars, and taverns became some of the few places where they could meet, socialize, and feel safe. The riots represented the start of the modern LGBT social movement and acceptance of sexual and gender minorities, which has steadily increased since. Festive and party-like social occasions remain at the core of organizing and fundraising in the LGBT community. In cities where there are large populations of LGBT people, benefits and bar fundraisers are still common, and alcohol companies invest heavily in LGBT-oriented marketing. Ushered in by underground gay clubs and disc jockeys, the disco era kept the "partying" aspect vibrant and ushered in the more hardcore circuit party movement, hedonistic and associated with party and play.
The relationship between gay men and female heterosexual "fag hags" has become highly stereotypical. The accepted behaviors in this type of relationship can predominantly include physical affections (such as kissing and touching), as in the sitcom Will & Grace.
Film scholar Robin Wood called David Lynch's Dune (1984) "the most obscenely homophobic film I have ever seen"–referring to a scene in which Baron Harkonnen sexually assaults and kills a young man by bleeding him to death–charging it with "managing to associate with homosexuality in a single scene physical grossness, moral depravity, violence, and disease." Gay writer Dennis Altman suggested that the film showed how "AIDS references began penetrating popular culture" in the 1980s, asking, "Was it just an accident that in the film Dune the homosexual villain had suppurating sores on his face?"
Sex and drugs
The term party and play (PNP) is used to refer to a subculture of gay men who use recreational drugs and have sex together, either one-on-one or in groups. The drug chosen is typically methamphetamine, known as crystal or tina in the gay community. Other "party drugs" such as MDMA and GHB are less associated with this term. While PNP probably has its genesis in the distinct subculture of methamphetamine users, and is most associated with its use, it has become somewhat generalized to include partying with other drugs thought to enhance sexual experiences, especially MDMA, GHB, and cocaine.
A report from the National HIV Prevention Conference (a collaborative effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other governmental and non-government organizations) describes PNP as "sexual behavior under the influence of crystal meth or other 'party' drugs." It has been referred to as both an "epidemic" and a "plague" in the gay community. A meta-analysis of studies between 1996 and 2012 found that "some studies report that gay men are more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs than heterosexual men, while other studies report that gay and heterosexual men do not differ in alcohol and illicit drug use, alcohol-related problems, or treatment utilization, and still other studies report that gay men in college are less likely to binge drink than their heterosexual counterparts." Research on the minority stress model shows stigma toward gay men may contribute to elevated substance use. Representatives for Drugscope state that methamphetamine use is relatively unknown in the UK outside this PNP subculture, and it largely occurs in the heavy-end party scene.
Pedophilia and predation
It is a common stereotype that gay men are sexual predators or pedophiles. The former perception can lead to a knee-jerk reaction that created the "gay panic defense", usually in straight men, who fear being hit on by gay men, and can be either a cause or an expression of homophobia.
The perception that a greater proportion of gay than straight men are pedophiles or child sexual abusers is one contributing factor of discrimination against gay teachers, despite the stark contrast to statistical figures, which have generally revealed most male child sexual abusers, including those who target boys, are heterosexual and usually married with children of their own, and research on child sexual abuse shows that most instances of child sexual abuse (one cited percentage being over 90%) are perpetrated by heterosexual males raping underage females. Research has consistently indicated that a significant minority of child sex abuse perpetrators are female (5–20%), but other research has indicated that almost 40% of child sexual abuse against boys, and 6% of abuse against girls, is committed by women.
Many bisexual people are often characterized as indecisive due to their attraction to both men and women. As the term bisexual can refer to people who do have a sexual preference but are open to sexual interactions with other groups, bisexuals are sometimes seen as unwilling to commit to one sexual identity. This characterization can include stereotypes originating in the LGBT community itself as people who are bisexual do not always choose homosexual partners—they are often seen as being in a transitory or experimental phase between being heterosexual and homosexual.
Another common stereotype is that bisexual people are promiscuous and incapable of having steady or long-term relationships. This includes belief that, according to a bisexuality study, "compared to lesbians or gay targets, bisexual targets in a relationship with lesbian or gay partners were evaluated as more likely to transmit STDs and less likely to sexually satisfy their partners." by the public. Bisexual people are sometimes seen as being incapable of monogamy or sexually manipulative. Bisexual people are also assumed to want to engage in threesomes.
Due to negative characterizations of bisexuality, media personalities are often reluctant to share their identity with the public, leading to reduced visibility. Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. Bowie later regretted revealing his sexuality, stating, "I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer ... "
Regarding the portrayal of bisexual people by Hollywood, stigma is present, especially for men. From the end of the McCarthy era to even today, "The history of male bisexual characters in film has been one of negative stereotyping." With so many negative stereotypes surrounding bisexual characters, they are often relegated to supporting or one-note characters.
Transgender is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of people with more specific identities. In general, a person who is transgender identifies with a gender other than their gender assigned at birth. The term may apply to any number of distinct communities, such as cross-dressers, drag queens, and drag kings, in addition to transsexuals. The beliefs that transgender people are all prostitutes and caricatures of men and women are two of many erroneous misconceptions.
One common stereotype of trans women is that they are assumed to be drag queens. While historically some trans women have been innovators within the drag scene alongside gay men, trans women are not drag queens.
A transsexual is a person born with the physical characteristics of one sex who psychologically and emotionally identifies with a variant or different gender than their physical sex characteristics. Stereotypes of trans women include them always being taller and having larger hands than cisgender women. Trans men, conversely, are often stereotyped as being cuter, more feminine, and more passive than their cisgender counterparts, being classified as "softboys" (or "softbois" or "softybois"). Both transgender men and women are often conflated with being gay, with trans men being mistaken for lesbians and trans women being mistaken for gay men, respectively.
Transvestites and cross-dressers
Transvestites are often assumed to be homosexuals. The word transvestism comes from the combination of Latin words trans meaning "across, over" and vestitus meaning dressed. Most transvestites are heterosexual. Although many people use the words interchangeably, transvestite has increasingly become a derogatory term. Most prefer to use the term cross-dresser or cross-dressing.
Origins and prevalence
Social scientists have attempted to understand why there are such negative connotations associated with the lesbian community. William James assumed that it was a repulsive instinct that came naturally to each woman and that, when an individual enjoyed same-sex interaction, it was because it became a habit. In short, he assumed that "tolerance is learned and revulsion is inborn" (PBS). In 1908, James and Edward Westermack attempted to understand the violent actions taken toward homosexuals by Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian religions. They believed hostility existed because of the historical association between homosexuality and idolatry, heresy, and criminal behavior. Sigmund Freud asserted in 1905 that homophobia was shaped by society, an individual's environment, and the individual's exposure to homo-eroticism. Sandor Ference (1914) believed that heterosexual women's feelings of repulsion toward those identifying as lesbians was a reaction formation and defense mechanism against affection from the same sex. In other words, he believed heterosexual females feared being labeled as lesbians.
Taking an individual that adheres to stereotypes of LGBT people and putting them in face-to-face interaction with those of the LGBT community tends to lessen tendencies to rely upon stereotypes and increases the presence of individuals with a similar ethnic, religious, or geographical background, and who are accepting of homosexuals.
Intersections between LGBT, race, and class stereotypes
According to the theory of intersectionality, discrimination leveled against an individual can compound based on several factors, including race, class, gender, and sexuality. As members of the LGBT community can be members of other minority groups and stand at all ends of the socioeconomic spectrum, intersectional stereotypes are often perpetuated, including those related to class and race.
As people of color and those of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to go to prison, LGBT members of these groups are often misrepresented as being criminally inclined. LGBT individuals often face discrimination in prisons as they are typically gender-segregated and are stereotyped as being sexually available to other prisoners. This makes them vulnerable to assault and discrimination both behind bars and in the outside world. Shows like Orange is the New Black and other forms of media perpetuate stereotypes of LGBT expression within prisons.
African American gay men are often characterized as being dominant in relationships both sexually and emotionally. This bias stems from a history of racism and characterization of African American men as brutish in addition to stereotypes which categorize homosexual men as either "top" or "bottom". These stereotypes can be observed in many forms of media, including pornography which depicts gay African American men as aggressive. African American members of the LGBT community also face discrimination and stereotypes from other African Americans who are historically likely to be religious and stereotype homosexuals as having loose morals. Religious stereotypes surrounding the LGBT community are especially prevalent in certain Black evangelical churches where gay and transsexual members are thought to be "damned to hell".
Hispanics generally have a difficult time within the culture of the Hispanic American countries, yet not in Spain, due to these cultures being more traditionalist (except for Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile). There have been some shifts away from these stereotypes in recent years, but it has been to different extents depending on the culture. The strong belief in "machismo" has caused these shifts in attitude to be so small. Machismo refers to the male dominant role in society that provides more social authority to men that are not experienced by women. Female homosexuality is less explicitly accepted in many of these cultures, while in certain countries and in certain social status it is accepted, they do not enjoy the acceptance similar to that of other Western countries. Many Hispanics stray away[clarification needed] from coming out because of religion. The LGBTQ Hispanic community of faith helps people understand that they can be gay and also be religious without judgement.
Asian American women who identify as lesbian or bisexual may face sexual fetishization by white men or women and are stereotyped as "spicy", leading to frustrations about Asian lesbians feeling they are not taken seriously by society, stereotypes about Asian women as "freaky", and yellow fever. Gay and bisexual Asian men are stereotyped as "effeminate, submissive, and docile". As both ethnocentric and heterocentric minority groups, LGBT Asian Americans face intersectional invisibility, which offers them some protection from stereotyping and active prejudice while also making it difficult for them to establish recognition or be recognized. Asian Americans are typically overlooked in discussion of race, which focuses mostly on a white/black dichotomy and renders Asian Americans invisible. Similarly, gay and lesbian Asian Americans are marginalized within mostly-white LGBT communities at large.
Gay Asian American men in media are portrayed as both hypersexual (as gay men) and asexual (as Asian men). Stereotypes of Asian women as either a "dragon lady" or China doll are dominant in mainstream media representation of Asian women, and butch Asian women are relatively invisible, giving way to more femme, or feminized, depictions. GLAAD is working to have a fair depiction of the Asian community in the media by educating the public on language referring to Asian Americans, including refraining from phrases that are Eurocentric like "The Orient", "Far East", and "Asiatic", among other measures. GLAAD is also working to connect media networks with Asian and Pacific Islander LGBT leaders and organizations in order to create less biased media coverage.
In Japan, adult lesbians are frequently portrayed as smokers in Japanese media. Japanese culture also heavily fetishizes LGBTQ relationships, often seen in the prevalence of yaoi (male homosexuality) and yuri (female homosexuality/lesbianism). While Japanese culture heavily discourages interest in homosexual fiction matching the reader's sex, certain publications, such as manga magazine Yuri Hime, have repeatedly reported their dominant consumers as the same gender as portrayed for most of their operational life.
- Anti-LGBT rhetoric
- Gay bashing
- Homophobic propaganda
- Violence against LGBT people
- Stangor, Charles (ed.) (2000). Stereotypes and Prejudice: Essential Readings. Philadelphia, Pa.: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-86377-588-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- McCrady, Richard; Jean Mccrady (August 1976). "Effect of direct exposure to foreign target groups on descriptive stereotypes held by American students". Social Behavior and Personality. 4 (2): 233. doi:10.2224/sbp.19184.108.40.206.[permanent dead link]
- "The Face of Homophobia/Heterosexism". Carlton University Equity Services. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- Nachbar, Jack; Kevin Lause (1992). Popular Culture: An Introductory Text. Bowling Green University Popular Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-87972-572-3.
- "Gay Images: TV's Mixed Signals". The New York Times. 1991-05-19. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
- "About our LGBT Ministries". www.ucc.org.
- and the Evangelical Church in America
- "Human Rights Campaign's Harry Knox Is Candidate for Senior Pastor of Houston's Resurrection Metropolitan Community Church." Human Rights Campaign's Harry Knox Is Candidate for Senior Pastor of Houston's Resurrection Metropolitan... Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
- "LGBTQ Representation in the Media".
- Lang, Brent (2018-03-09). "'Love, Simon' Stars Say Gay Teen Romance Will Save Lives". Variety. Retrieved 2019-08-03.
- "2020 GLAAD Studio Responsibility Index". GLAAD. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
- Hartinger, Brent. "Ask the Flying Monkey (August 18, 2008)". After Elton / New Now Next. Logo. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Weir, John (29 March 1992). "Gay-Bashing, Villainy and the Oscars". New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Schildcrout, Jordan (2014). Murder Most Queer: The Homicidal Homosexual in the American Theater. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-05232-5.
- Myers, Randy. "Hollywood Has a Long History of Stereotyping Gays, Lesbians." Elvaq.com. Knight Ridder Newspaper, 9 Jan. 2006. Web. 17 Oct. 2014.
- Margaret McFadden, "We cannot afford to keep being so high-minded": Fighting the Religious Right on The L Word" The New Queer Aesthetic on Television: Essays on Recent Programming, edited by James R. Keller and Leslie Stratyner. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers (2006): 125
- Samuel A. Chambers, "Heteronormativity and The L Word: From Politics of Representation to a Politics of Norms" Reading the L Word, edited by Kim Akass and Janet McCabe. London: I. B. Tauris (2006): 91
- Ginia Bellafante (2009-01-16). "So Many Temptations to Succumb to, So Many Wandering Eyes to Track". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- Geiger, Wendy. "College Students' multiple Stereotypes of Lesbians: A Cognitive
- Stossel, John, and Gena Binkley. "Gay Stereotypes: Are They True?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 15 Sept. 2006. Web. 16 Oct. 2014.
- Krantz, S. E. (1995). "Reconsidering the Etymology of Bulldike". American Speech. 70 (2): 217–221. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.425.8628. doi:10.2307/455819. JSTOR 455819.
- Roffee, James A.; Waling, Andrea (2016). "Rethinking microaggressions and anti-social behaviour against LGBTIQ+ youth". Safer Communities. 15 (4): 190. doi:10.1108/SC-02-2016-0004. S2CID 151493252.
- Rothblum, Esther, Brehony, Kathleen, eds. (1993). Boston Marriages: Romantic But Asexual Relationships Among Contemporary Lesbians, University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-875-2, p. 4–7.
- Norton, Rictor (1997). The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity, Cassell. ISBN 0-304-33892-3, p. 184.
- Scott Jacobson, Todd Levin, Jason Roede, Sex: Our Bodies, Our Junk, pages 204-206, Random House, Inc., 2010, ISBN 0-307-59216-2, ISBN 978-0-307-59216-3.
- Joan Z. Spade, Catherine G. Valentine, The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities, Pine Forge Press, 2007, pages 293-296, ISBN 1-4129-5146-1, ISBN 978-1-4129-5146-3.
- "Chrysler TV ad criticized for using gay stereotypes". The Advocate. 2006-04-07. Archived from the original on 2006-04-23. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- "Gender Identity and Expression Issues at Colleges and Universities". National Association of College and University Attorneys. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- The Celluloid Closet; (1995) Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman.
- Clum, John M. (1999). "Something for the Boys: Musical Theater and Gay Culture". Modern Drama. 43 (4). Archived from the original on 2006-11-11.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2011-01-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "WOOF! - What is a Bear?". Thecompletebear.com. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Corey Sinclair (18 August 2016). Star Observer Magazine September 2016. Star Observer. p. 14. GGKEY:1QTGYQEYHS4.
- Mackenzie, Ian (2004-03-18). "Dunk the faggot: A gay radio voice, back from hell". Xtra!.
- Stuever, Hank (2003-04-19). "Dishy Delight: Steven Cojocaru, a Glamour Boy in TV's Post-Gay Embrace". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008.
- Madon, Stephanie (1997). "What do people believe about gay males? A study of stereotype content and strength". Sex Roles. 37 (9–10): 663–685. doi:10.1007/BF02936334. S2CID 51916291.
- "Fashion". glbtq. Archived from the original on 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- Tatchell, Peter (1996-08-16). "Yobs for the boys". Tribune.
- Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures - Page 491, Bonnie Zimmerman - 2000
- Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.; Bischmann, Alyssa A.; Hyde, Janet S. (2015). "Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth". The Journal of Sex Research. 52 (8): 1–15. doi:10.1080/00224499.2015.1015714. PMC 4731319. PMID 26219212.
- Garnets, Linda D.; Douglas C. Kimmel (1993). Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-07885-6.
- Marech, Rona (2004-02-27). "Gay couples can be as stable as straights, evidence suggests". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- "Sexual Behavior Does Not Explain Varying HIV Rates Among Gay And Straight Men". Medical News Today.
- Goodreau SM, Golden MR (October 2007). "Biological and demographic causes of high HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Infect. 83 (6): 458–62. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.025627. PMC 2598698. PMID 17855487.
- Jay, Karla; Young, Allen (1979). The gay report: Lesbians and gay men speak out about sexual experiences and lifestyles. New York: Summit. ISBN 978-0-671-40013-2.
- Roffee, James A. (2016). "Rethinking microaggressions and anti-social behaviour against LGBTIQ+ youth". Safer Communities. 15 (4): 190–201. doi:10.1108/SC-02-2016-0004. S2CID 151493252.
- Sismondo, Christine (20 June 2016). "Taste the rainbow: How the queer-focused booze market is growing fast". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Elliott, Stuart (26 October 2011). "Absolut Celebrates Its 30 Years of Marketing to Gay Consumers". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- DANCE OF DEATH, First of three parts, CRYSTAL METH FUELS HIV Christopher Heredia, May 4, 2003, SF Gate
- "Reinventing Privilege: The (New) Gay Man in Contemporary Popular Media" (PDF). csun.edu.
- Robin Wood. Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan. Columbia University Press, 1986. ISBN 978-0-231-05777-6. Page 174.
- Altman, Dennis. AIDS and the New Puritanism London: Pluto Press, 1986, p. 21
- "How MSM manage HIV risk behavior within the online "party and play" subculture". 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- "PSA tackles 'PNP': TV ad warns against crystal meth usage in the gay male community". Metro Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21.
- John-Manuel Andriote (November 8, 2005). "Meth Comes Out of the Closet". Washington Post.
- Green, Kelly E.; Feinstein, Brian A. (2012-06-01). "Substance Use in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: An Update on Empirical Research and Implications for Treatment". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 26 (2): 265–278. doi:10.1037/a0025424. ISSN 0893-164X. PMC 3288601. PMID 22061339.
- Duncan Walker (6 August 2013). "Breaking Bad: Why doesn't the UK have a crystal meth problem?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Whiteman, Hilary (2010-04-14). "Gay outrage over cardinal's child abuse comment". CNN. Archived from the original on 2010-10-18. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Chuang HT, Addington D (Oct 1988). "Homosexual panic: a review of its concept". Can J Psychiatry. 33 (7): 613–7. doi:10.1177/070674378803300707. PMID 3197016. S2CID 30737407.
- Marshall; et al. (1988), "Sexual offenders against male children: Sexual preferences", Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26 (5): 383–391, doi:10.1016/0005-7967(88)90071-x, PMID 3190647
- "Readers' forum: Most pedophiles are straight". Deseret News. 2006-10-19. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Pietrzyk, Mark E. "Homosexuality and Child Sexual Abuse: Science, Religion, and the Slippery Slope". Independent Gay Forum. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Rahman, Mahrin. "Definition of the Problem". Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Carole Jenny; Thomas A. Roesler; Kimberly L. Poyer (July 1994). "Are Children at Risk for Sexual Abuse by Homosexuals?". Pediatrics. 94 (1): 41–44. PMID 8008535. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Dube, Shata R., et al. "Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim" Am J Prev Med 2005
- "10 Anti-Gay Myths Debunked". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
- "GLAAD Media Reference Guide - In Focus: Covering the Bisexual Community". GLAAD. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma (2014-02-21). "The Invisible Stereotypes of Bisexual Men" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (6): 1165–1176. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0263-9. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 24558124. S2CID 207091114.
- "Fetishised and forgotten: Why bisexuals want acceptance". BBC News. 2018-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-06.
- Carr, Roy; Murray, Charles Shaar (1981). Bowie: An Illustrated Record. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-77966-8.
- Collis, Clark (August 2002). "Dear Superstar: David Bowie". blender.com. Alpha Media Group Inc. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- Bryant, Wayne (2005). "Is That Me Up There?". Journal of Bisexuality. 5 (2–3): 305–312. doi:10.1300/J159v05n02_35. S2CID 144059023.
- Currah, Paisley; Juang, Richard M.; Minter, Shannon Price, eds. (2007). Transgender Rights. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4312-7.
- "Transgendered Youth at Risk for Exploitation, HIV, Hate Crimes". Inter-Q-Zone. 1995. Archived from the original on 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- "Myth #10: Drag queens and kings are transgender". Vox. Vox Media. 2016-05-13.
- "GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Transgender". GLAAD. GLAAD. 2011-09-09.
- "transexual - definition of transexual by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Money, J. (1994). "The Concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 20 (3): 163–177. doi:10.1080/00926239408403428. PMID 7996589.
- Green, Jamison (June 2004). Becoming a Visible Man. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-8265-1457-8.
- Strapagiel, Lauren. "Here's Why Boys All Over Social Media Are Proudly Calling Themselves "Softboys"". Buzzfeed News. Buzzfeed. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Sommer, Liz (2019-04-23). "Softboy/Softboi". Stayhipp. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Gazzola, Stephanie; Morrison, Melanie (8 August 2014). "Cultural and Personally Endorsed Stereotypes of Transgender Men and Transgender Women: Notable Correspondence or Disjunction?". International Journal of Transgenderism. 15 (2): 76–99. doi:10.1080/15532739.2014.937041. S2CID 144592753.
- Hirschfeld, Magnus: Die Transvestiten. Eine Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material. Berlin 1910: Alfred Pulvermacher
Hirschfeld, M. (1910/1991). Transvestites: The erotic drive to cross dress.(M. A. Lombardi-Nash, Trans.) Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
- Feinbloom, Deborah Heller (1976). Transvestites & Transsexuals: Mixed Views. Delacorte Press/S. Lawrence. ISBN 978-0-440-08513-3.
- "Transgender FAQ". Archived from the original on 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- Brown, Michael J. "Homophobia and Acceptance of Stereotypes About Gays and Lesbians." 7.3 (2009): 159,160-167. Print.
- Herek, Gregory. "Hating Gays: An Overview of Scientific Studies." PBS. PBS. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
- Crenshaw, Kimberle (July 1991). "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color". Stanford Law Review. 43 (6): 1241–1299. doi:10.2307/1229039. ISSN 0038-9765. JSTOR 1229039.
- Knight, Charlotte; Wilson, Kath (2016), "LGBT People as Offenders within the Criminal Justice System", Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans People (LGBT) and the Criminal Justice System, Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 85–111, doi:10.1057/978-1-137-49698-0_5, ISBN 978-1-137-49697-3
- "Transgender People Behind Bars" (PDF). transequality.org.
- Robinson, Russell. "LGBT Equality and Sexual Racism" (PDF). Fordham Law Review. 86: 2739–2754.
- Andrews, Edwanna (2017-01-01). "Damned to Hell: The Black Church Experience for College Educated Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals". Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019.
- Forsloff, Carol. "Gay Hispanics Struggle to End Sex Stereotypes." Gay Hispanic Struggle to End Sex Stereotypes. Digital Journal, 19 Jan. 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
- "Human Rights Campaign".[full citation needed]
- Sung, Mi Ra; Szymanski, Dawn M.; Henrichs-Beck, Christy (2015). "Challenges, coping, and benefits of being an Asian American lesbian or bisexual woman". Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. 2 (1): 52–64. doi:10.1037/sgd0000085. ISSN 2329-0390.
- Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E.; Holt, Martin (2015). "Is Sexual Racism Really Racism? Distinguishing Attitudes Toward Sexual Racism and Generic Racism Among Gay and Bisexual Men". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (7): 1991–2000. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0487-3. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 26149367. S2CID 7507490.
- Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Eibach, Richard P. (2008). "Intersectional Invisibility: The Distinctive Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiple Subordinate-Group Identities". Sex Roles. 59 (5–6): 377–391. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9424-4. ISSN 0360-0025. S2CID 35469591.
- Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Torino, Gina C. (2007). "Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 13 (1): 72–81. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.13.1.72. ISSN 1939-0106. PMID 17227179. S2CID 7607812.
- Greene, Beverly (1994). "Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.243. ISSN 1939-2117. PMID 8201060.
- Russell Leong (17 June 2014). Asian American Sexualities: Dimensions of the Gay and Lesbian Experience. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-71778-1.
- Sara E. Cooper (13 September 2013). Lesbian Images in International Popular Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-99212-7.
- "Asian Pacific Islander Resource Kit | GLAAD". 2011-09-05. Retrieved 10 November 2016.