Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport

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Rome–Fiumicino International Airport "Leonardo da Vinci"

Aeroporto Internazionale di Roma–Fiumicino "Leonardo da Vinci"
Aeroporti di Roma Logo.svg
Rom Fiumicino 2011-by-RaBoe-02.jpg
Airport typePublic
OperatorAeroporti di Roma
ServesRome, Italy
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL15 ft / 5 m
Coordinates41°48′01″N 012°14′20″E / 41.80028°N 12.23889°E / 41.80028; 12.23889Coordinates: 41°48′01″N 012°14′20″E / 41.80028°N 12.23889°E / 41.80028; 12.23889
FCO is located in Lazio
Location in Lazio
FCO is located in Italy
FCO (Italy)
FCO is located in Europe
FCO (Europe)
Direction Length Surface
m ft
07/25 3,800 12,467 Asphalt
16R/34L 3,900 12,795 Asphalt
16L/34R 3,900 12,795 Asphalt
16C/34C 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
Statistics (2019)
Passenger change 18-19Increase 1.3%
Aircraft movement309.783
Movements change 18–19Increase 0.7%
Source: Italian AIP at EUROCONTROL[1] Assaeroporti Statistiche[2] WAD[3]

Rome–Fiumicino International Airport "Leonardo da Vinci" (Italian: Aeroporto Internazionale di Roma–Fiumicino "Leonardo da Vinci"; IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF) is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy. It is one of the busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic with almost 43 million passengers served in 2018.[4]

The airport serves as the main hub for Alitalia, the largest Italian airline, and Vueling, a Spanish low-cost carrier owned by International Airlines Group. Based on total passenger numbers, it is the eighth-busiest airport in Europe and was the world's 47th-busiest airport in 2017. It covers an area of 16 km2[5] and is named after polymath Leonardo da Vinci who, in 1480, designed a flying machine with wings and the first proto helicopter.


Early years[edit]

The airport was officially opened on 15 January 1961, with two runways, replacing the smaller Rome Ciampino Airport, which remains in service for some low-cost airlines as well as domestic and charter operations. Despite being officially opened in 1961, Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport had actually been in use since 20 August 1960. This was to help relieve air traffic that was congesting Rome Ciampino Airport during the 1960 Summer Olympics.[6]

During the 1960s, home-carrier Alitalia invested heavily in the new airport, building hangars and maintenance centres; in the same period a third runway was added (16L/34R).

Later development[edit]

Security Services transferred from the Polizia di Stato (Italian State Police) to Aeroporti di Roma S.p.A. in 2000. Aeroporti di Roma created ADR Security S.r.l. (100%-owned) to provide these services as well as security services to airlines (in competition with other security companies such as IVRI). Airport Security is supervised by Polizia di Stato, Guardia di Finanza (Italian Customs Police), Italian Civil Aviation Authority and Aeroporti di Roma S.p.A..[citation needed] Ground handling services were provided by Aeroporti di Roma until 1999, when it created Aeroporti di Roma Handling (to serve all airlines except for Alitalia, which continued to be handled by Aeroporti di Roma itself). Alitalia provided passenger assistance even before 1999. In 2001, Alitalia created "Alitalia Airport" and started providing ground handling for itself and other airlines. Aeroporti di Roma Handling remains the biggest handler in terms of airlines handled, but Alitalia Airport is the biggest handler in terms of airplanes handled as Alitalia aircraft account for 50% of the ones at Fiumicino. In May 2006, Italy's Civil Aviation Authority announced that it took off the limitation of 3 ramp handlers in Rome Leonardo da Vinci airport. ARE Group and Aviapartner announced that they would create a company called Aviapartner (51% Aviapartner; 49% ARE Group) to serve Milan Malpensa and Rome Leonardo da Vinci.[citation needed]

Since 2005, the airport operates a category III B instrument landing system (ILS). Further improvement work was implemented in 2007 to enable the airport to handle 30 takeoffs/landings per hour, up from 10, in the event of thick fog. Four runways presently operate at Leonardo da Vinci airport: 16L/34R and 16R/34L (separated by a distance of 4,000 m (13,000 ft)), 16C/34C (close to 16L/34R), mostly used as a taxiway or as a backup for 16L/34R, and 07/25, used only westwards for takeoffs owing to the prevailing winds.

In 2010, the new single baggage handling system for more efficient luggage delivery began operations.

Several projects are planned. These include the construction of an environmentally-friendly cogeneration system, which would allow the airport to produce its own energy; construction of Pier C (dedicated to international flights) with 16 additional loading bridges, to handle the expected growth from 38 million passengers per year in 2014 to 55 million by 2018; and the "Masterplan Fiumicino Nord", involving four new terminals and two new runways to be built in the future handling 100 million passengers per year.[citation needed]



The airport currently features three passenger terminals, of which two are operational.

  • Terminal 1 (Gates B1–B13 and B14–B30) is used by Alitalia and other SkyTeam airlines.
  • Terminal 3 (Gates C8–C16, D1–D10, E1-E8, E11-E24, E31-44 and E51-61) is the largest terminal which is used by most of the companies.
  • Terminal 5 (under refurbishment) (formerly Gates E1-E8, E11-E24, E31-44 and E51-61) was used by all U.S. and Israeli carriers. This terminal is currently closed for extensive renovation.[7]


The terminals were upgraded during the 1990s and 2000s.[8] In 1991, the domestic Pier A with 12 gates opened. In 1995, the international Pier B with 10 gates opened. In 1999, the international Satellite C with 14 gates and an elevated automated people mover, called SkyBridge, connected it with the main terminal. In 2000, the new domestic Terminal A opened, and the terminal buildings, then consisting of Terminal A (with Pier A), Terminal AA, Terminal B (with Pier B) and Terminal C (with Satellite C), were reorganized. In 2004, the new Cargo City terminal opened. In 2008, Terminal 5 opened for check-in for American carriers and El Al. Passengers are then bused to what was then called Satellite C. The terminal serves 950,000 passengers per year. In 2009, the terminals were renamed – A was renamed T1, AA was renamed T2, B and C became T3 and T5 stayed the same. The former Terminal 2 has been closed permanently on 15 December 2017 to make way for the expansion of Terminal 1.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

The following airlines operate regular scheduled, seasonal and charter flights to and from Fiumicino:

Aegean Airlines Athens
Aer Lingus Dublin
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
Air Albania Tirana
Air Algérie Algiers
Air Arabia Maroc Fez
airBaltic Riga, Tallinn
Air Cairo Sharm El Sheikh
Air Canada Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
Air China Beijing–Capital, Hangzhou
Air Europa Madrid
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air France Hop Bordeaux, Lyon
Air India Delhi
Air Italy Milan–Malpensa, Olbia (both end 15 April 2020)[9]
Air Malta Malta
Air Moldova Chișinău
Air Serbia Belgrade, Niš
Air Transat Seasonal: Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
AlbaStar Seasonal: Lourdes/Tarbes
Alitalia Alghero, Algiers, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Bari, Beirut, Belgrade, Bergamo, Berlin–Tegel, Bologna, Boston, Brindisi, Brussels, Budapest, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cagliari, Cairo, Casablanca, Catania, Delhi, Düsseldorf, Florence, Frankfurt, Geneva, Genoa, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Kyiv–Zhuliany, Lamezia Terme, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Málaga, Malta, Marseille, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Munich, Naples, New York–JFK, Nice, Olbia (resumes 16 April 2020),[10] Palermo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pisa, Podgorica, Prague, Reggio Calabria, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Sofia, Tel Aviv, Tirana, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Toulouse, Trapani, Trieste, Tunis, Turin, Valencia, Venice, Verona, Warsaw–Chopin, Washington–Dulles, Zurich
Seasonal: Amman–Queen Alia, Chicago–O'Hare, Corfu, Dubrovnik, Havana, Heraklion, Ibiza, Kefalonia, Lampedusa, Larnaca, Malé, Mauritius, Menorca, Mykonos, Palma de Mallorca, Pantelleria, Rhodes, Saint Petersburg, San Francisco (begins 1 June 2020),[11] Split, Tenerife–South, Toronto–Pearson
American Airlines Philadelphia
Seasonal: Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth (resumes 7 May 2020),[12] New York–JFK
AnadoluJet Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Austrian Airlines Vienna
Belavia Minsk
Blue Air Bacău, Bucharest, Iași
Blue Panorama Airlines Cayo Largo, Havana, La Romana, Santiago de Cuba, Tirana
Seasonal: Corfu, Heraklion, Ibiza, Karpathos (begins 28 June 2020),[13] Kos, Lampedusa, Mykonos, Preveza, Rhodes, Santorini, Skiathos, Turin, Zakynthos
British Airways London–City, London–Gatwick, London–Heathrow
Brussels Airlines Brussels
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Cabo Verde Airlines Sal
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
China Airlines Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Wenzhou
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Wuhan
Croatia Airlines Split, Zagreb
Seasonal: Dubrovnik
Cyprus Airways Larnaca (resumes 13 June 2020)[14]
Czech Airlines Prague
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, New York–JFK
Seasonal: Boston (begins 21 May 2020),[15] Detroit
easyJet Amsterdam, Berlin–Tegel, Bristol, London–Gatwick, London–Luton, Lyon, Manchester (begins 7 June 2020),[16] Nantes, Nice, Paris–Orly, Toulouse
easyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva
EgyptAir Cairo
El Al Tel Aviv
Emirates Dubai–International
Estelar Latinoamerica Caracas
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Eurowings Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart
Finnair Helsinki
FlyBosnia Mostar, Sarajevo
Hainan Airlines Chongqing, Shenzhen, Xi'an
Iberia Madrid
Iran Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Israir Airlines Tel Aviv
Jet2.com Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester
Seasonal: Leeds/Bradford, Newcastle upon Tyne
Kenya Airways Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Kuwait Airways Kuwait
Lauda Vienna
Level Amsterdam
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Luxair Luxembourg
Middle East Airlines Beirut
Montenegro Airlines Podgorica
Neos Boa Vista, Cancún, Malé, Marsa Alam, Sal, Sharm El Sheikh, Tenerife–South
Seasonal: Fuerteventura, Heraklion, Ibiza, La Romana, Marsa Matruh, Menorca, Mombasa, Mykonos, Nosy Be, Rhodes, Salalah, Zanzibar
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Helsinki, New York–JFK, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Bergen, Boston, Chicago–O'Hare (begins 3 June 2020),[17] Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco
Nouvelair Seasonal: Djerba (begins 8 June 2020)[18]
Pegasus Airlines Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Pobeda Moscow–Vnukovo
Qatar Airways Doha
Rossiya Saint Petersburg
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia
Ryanair Alicante, Barcelona, Bari, Brindisi, Brussels, Catania, Málaga, Malta, Marseille, Palermo, Seville, Tel Aviv
Seasonal: Comiso, Ibiza, Kos, Rhodes
S7 AirlinesMoscow–Domodedovo
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh
Scandinavian Airlines Aarhus, Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Oslo–Gardermoen
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu
Singapore Airlines Singapore
SkyUpKyiv–Boryspil, Lviv
Smartwings Prague
Swiss International Air Lines Zurich
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon
TAROM Bucharest
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Transavia Rotterdam
Transavia France Nantes
Seasonal: Montpellier (begins 21 May 2020)[19]
Tunisair Tunis
Seasonal charter: Djerba, Monastir, Tabarka
Turkish Airlines Ankara, Istanbul
Ukraine International Airlines Kyiv–Boryspil
United Airlines Newark
Seasonal: Chicago–O'Hare, Washington–Dulles
Ural Airlines Moscow–Zhukovsky, Yekaterinburg
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent
Seasonal: Urgench
Vueling Alicante, Barcelona, Bilbao, Dubrovnik, London–Gatwick, Madrid, Málaga, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly, Seville, Tenerife–South, Valencia
Seasonal: Corfu, Heraklion, Ibiza, Karpathos, Kefalonia, Kos, Lampedusa, Marseille, Menorca, Mykonos, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza, Rhodes, Santorini, Split, Zadar, Zakynthos
WestJet Seasonal: Calgary (begins 2 May 2020)[20]
Wizz Air Budapest, Iași, Krakow, Kutaisi, Vienna, Warsaw–Chopin


Busiest domestic routes[edit]

Busiest domestic routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2018)[21]
Rank Rank
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1 Steady Sicily Catania, Sicily Decrease 1,976,230 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
2 Steady Sicily Palermo, Sicily Increase 1,663,453 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
3 Steady Lombardy Milan-Linate, Lombardy Decrease 1,095,824 Alitalia
4 Steady Sardinia Cagliari, Sardinia Increase 932,230 Alitalia
5 Steady Apulia Bari, Apulia Decrease 740,186 Alitalia, Ryanair
6 Increase 1 Apulia Brindisi, Apulia Increase 529,365 Alitalia, Ryanair
7 Decrease 1 Piedmont Turin, Piedmont Decrease 516,969 Alitalia, Blue Panorama Airlines
8 Increase 1 Veneto Venice, Veneto Decrease 493,929 Alitalia
9 Decrease 1 Calabria Lamezia Terme, Calabria Decrease 455,605 Alitalia
10 Steady Liguria Genoa, Liguria Increase 351,656 Alitalia
11 Increase 1 Sardinia Olbia, Sardinia Increase 325,838 Air Italy, Meridiana
12 Increase 1 Campania Naples, Campania Increase 318,419 Alitalia
13 Increase 3 Emilia-Romagna Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Increase 295,627 Alitalia
14 Decrease 3 Sardinia Alghero, Sardinia Decrease 281,128 Blue Air
15 Steady Tuscany Florence, Tuscany Increase 267,338 Alitalia
16 Decrease 2 Friuli Venezia Giulia Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia Decrease 260,527 Alitalia
17 Increase 4 Lombardy Milan-Malpensa, Lombardy Increase 242,114 Air Italy, Alitalia
18 Steady Veneto Verona, Veneto Increase 203,717 Alitalia, Neos
19 Decrease 2 Calabria Reggio Calabria, Calabria Decrease 183,115 Alitalia
20 Decrease 1 Tuscany Pisa, Tuscany Increase 166,516 Alitalia

Busiest European routes[edit]

Busiest European Routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2018)[21]
Rank Rank
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1 Steady Spain Barcelona, Spain Increase 1,327,312 Alitalia, Ryanair, Vueling
2 Increase 1 Spain Madrid, Spain Increase 1,218,462 Air Europa, Alitalia, Iberia, Vueling
3 Increase 1 France Paris–Charles de Gaulle, France Increase 1,207,436 Alitalia, Joon, Vueling
4 Increase 1 United Kingdom London–Heathrow, United Kingdom Increase 1,075,100 Alitalia, British Airways
5 Decrease 3 Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands Decrease 1,064,254 Alitalia, KLM, easyJet, Vueling
6 Steady France Paris–Orly, France Increase 741,093 easyJet, Vueling
7 Increase 2 Germany Munich, Germany Increase 725,483 Alitalia, Lufthansa, Vueling
8 Decrease 1 Belgium Brussels, Belgium Increase 719,056 Alitalia, Brussels Airlines, Ryanair
9 Decrease 1 Germany Frankfurt am Main, Germany Increase 718,684 Alitalia, Lufthansa
10 Steady United Kingdom London–Gatwick, United Kingdom Decrease 693,885 British Airways, easyJet, Vueling
11 Steady Greece Athens, Greece Increase 571,935 Aegean Airlines, Alitalia
12 Increase 1 Russia Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Russia Increase 518,044 Aeroflot, Alitalia
13 Decrease 1 Switzerland Zurich, Switzerland Decrease 477,394 Alitalia, Swiss International Air Lines
14 Steady Portugal Lisbon, Portugal Increase 427,352 TAP Portugal
15 Increase 11 Austria Vienna, Austria Increase401,344 Eurowings, Laudamotion, Vueling, Wizz Air
16 Steady Turkey Istanbul–Atatürk, Turkey Increase 399,669 Turkish Airlines
17 Increase 4 Malta Luqa, Malta Increase 367,718 Air Malta, Alitalia, Ryanair
18 Decrease 3 Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Decrease 343,211 Alitalia, easyJet
19 Increase 1 Albania Tirana, Albania Increase 330,545 Alitalia, Blue Panorama Airlines, Ernest Airlines
20 Decrease 2 France Nice, France Decrease 320,514 Alitalia, easyJet

Busiest intercontinental routes[edit]

Busiest intercontinental routes from/to Rome–Fiumicino (2018)[21]
Rank Rank
Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1 Increase 1 Israel Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Israel Increase 813,363 Alitalia, El Al, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Vueling, Ryanair
2 Decrease 1 United States New York–John F. Kennedy, United States Increase 754,088 Alitalia, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines
3 Steady United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates Decrease 607,288 Emirates
4 Increase 1 South Korea Seoul–Incheon, South Korea Increase 420,872 Alitalia, Asiana Airlines, Korean Air
5 Increase 9 Brazil São Paulo–Guarulhos, Brazil Increase 403,276 Alitalia, LATAM Brasil
6 Increase 1 Qatar Doha, Qatar Increase 382,292 Qatar Airways
7 Decrease 3 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Decrease 372,266 Alitalia, Etihad Airways
8 Decrease 2 Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Argentina Increase 352,692 Aerolíneas Argentinas, Alitalia
9 Decrease 1 Canada Toronto–Pearson, Canada Increase 342,957 Alitalia, Air Canada, Air Transat
10 Increase 15 United States Newark, United States Increase 291,841 Norwegian Air Shuttle, United Airlines
11 Decrease 2 Egypt Cairo, Egypt Increase 284,924 Alitalia, EgyptAir
12 Steady Tunisia Tunis, Tunisia Increase 241,850 Alitalia, Tunisair
13 Decrease 2 United States Atlanta, United States Decrease 224,958 Delta Air Lines
14 Decrease 1 United States Chicago–O'Hare, United States Decrease 215,099 Alitalia, American Airlines, United Airlines
15 Decrease 5 China Beijing–Capital, China Decrease 214,536 Air China
16 Increase 22 India Delhi, India Increase 214,506 Air India, Alitalia
17 Decrease 2 Turkey Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Turkey Decrease 205,216 Pegasus Airlines, Turkish Airlines
18 Increase 12 United States Los Angeles, United States Increase 202,335 Alitalia, Norwegian Air Shuttle
19 Decrease 3 Japan Tokyo–Narita, Japan Increase 199,053 Alitalia
20 Steady Canada Montréal–Trudeau, Canada Increase 182,677 Air Canada, Air Transat

Ground transportation[edit]


Fiumicino Aeroporto railway station is served by the Leonardo Express train operated by Trenitalia, available at the airport terminal. It takes 30 minutes to get to Termini Station in a non-stop trip that is provided every 15 minutes. Alternatively, local trains (FL1 line) leave once every 15 minutes, stopping at all stations. However, these trains do not head to Termini station. Passengers have to change at Trastevere, Ostiense (Metro Piramide) or Tuscolana.[22] The railway opened in December 1989, with nonstop and several stop services available.[23]


Leonardo da Vinci is about 35 km (22 mi) by car from Rome's historic city centre. The airport is served by the six-lane Autostrada A91 motorway and numerous buses and taxis.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

From the 1960s until the 1980s, the airport experienced significant aircraft hijackings as well as being the scene of two major terrorist attacks and the port of origin for an aircraft bombing in flight—some engendered by Palestinians as part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.


  1. ^ "EAD Basic". Ead.eurocontrol.int. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  2. ^ Assaeroporti Statistiche
  3. ^ "FIUMICINO". World Aero Data. WorldAeroData.com. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  4. ^ Article in GV-Guida Viaggi
  5. ^ Studio Impatto Ambientale ENAC
  6. ^ "Fiumicino: Italy's Fast Growing Airport | Italy". Lifeinitaly.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Expansion projects at Fiumicino". Airport-technology.com. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2014.[unreliable source?]
  9. ^ https://www.lanuovasardegna.it/olbia/cronaca/2020/02/22/news/air-italy-voli-da-olbia-fino-al-16-aprile-in-vendita-sul-sito-web-1.38502305
  10. ^ https://www.galluraoggi.it/olbia/alitalia-continuita-territoriale-olbia-nuova-20-febbraio-2020/
  11. ^ McGinnis, Chris; Jue, Tim (1 October 2019). "Benvenuto! Alitalia to launch San Francisco - Rome nonstops". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  12. ^ "American Airlines S20 International service changes as of 0400GMT 17MAR20". RoutesOnline. 17 March 2020.
  13. ^ https://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/288498/blu-express-expands-greek-network-in-s20/
  14. ^ https://www.cyprusairways.com/home/info/schedule/jun20/
  15. ^ Palma, Kristi (25 September 2019). "Delta will fly from Boston to Rome starting in 2020". Boston.com. Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC.
  16. ^ https://www.easyjet.com/en/book/our-new-routes
  17. ^ Schropshire, Corilyn (12 November 2019). "Norwegian Air to offer cheap flights from Chicago to Paris and Rome, starting at $209, next summer". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ https://www.ttgitalia.com/stories/trasporti/157278_transavia_svela_il_network_da_montpellier_per_litalia_roma_e_palermo/
  20. ^ Heidenreich, Phil (30 October 2019). "WestJet now taking passengers to Rome directly from Calgary – so why not from Edmonton?". Global News. Corus Entertainment Inc.
  21. ^ a b c "Italy 2018 Civil Aviation Statistics" (PDF) (in Italian). ENAC. 28 March 2019. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  22. ^ [2] Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Flight International. 23 May 1987. 5.
  24. ^ a b Ramsden, J. M., ed. (27 December 1973). "Rome hijacking". FLIGHT International. IPC Transport Press Ltd. 104 (3380): 1010. Retrieved 11 February 2015 – via flightglobal.com/pdfarchive. ... ran on to the apron and two phosphorus bombs were thrown into the front and rear entrances of a Pan American 707 Celestial Clipper, with 170 passengers on board
  25. ^ a b "Hijacking description: Monday 17 December 1973". aviation-safety.net. Flight Safety Foundation. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  26. ^ Official Italian accident report issued by ANSV and its english translation. Aviation Accidents Database. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  27. ^  Posted by foxcrawl at 2:31 am. "Carpatair ATR-72 plane overruns runway on landing in Rome". Foxcrawl. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  28. ^ Squires, Nick (4 February 2013). "Alitalia paints over crashed plane's markings". Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2013.

External links[edit]

Media related to Fiumicino Airport at Wikimedia Commons
Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage