LMS Patriot Class

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LMS Patriot Class
LMS 'Patriot' 4-6-0 entering Manchester Victoria railway station 2093405 f54a59c7.jpg
45500 Patriot at Manchester Victoria, 1960.
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerSir Henry Fowler
Build date1930–1934
Total produced52
 • Whyte4-6-0
 • UIC2′C h3
Gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading dia.3 ft 3 in (0.991 m)
Driver dia.6 ft 9 in (2.06 m)
Length62 ft 8 34 in (19.120 m)
Loco weight80.75 long tons (82.05 t; 90.44 short tons)
Tender weight42.70 long tons (43.39 t; 47.82 short tons)
Total weight123.45 long tons (125.43 t; 138.26 short tons)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity5.5 long tons (5.6 t; 6.2 short tons)
Water cap3,500 imp gal (16,000 l; 4,200 US gal)
 • Firegrate area
30 12 sq ft (2.83 m2)
Boiler pressure200 psi (1.4 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Tubes and flues
1,552 sq ft (144.2 m2)
 • Firebox183 sq ft (17.0 m2)
 • Heating area365 sq ft (33.9 m2)
Cylinder size18 in × 26 in (457 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Valve typePiston valves
Train brakesVacuum
Performance figures
Tractive effort26,520 lbf (118.0 kN)
Power class
  • 1930–51: 5XP
  • 1951–65: 6P5F
  • LMS (1934): 5500–5551
  • BR: 45500–45551
DispositionOriginal 52 withdrawn and scrapped; New-build project under construction

The Patriot Class was a class of 52 express passenger steam locomotives built for the London Midland and Scottish Railway. The first locomotive of the class was built in 1930 and the last in 1934. The class was based on the chassis of the Royal Scot combined with the boiler from Large Claughtons earning them the nickname Baby Scots. 18 were rebuilt between 1946 and 1948; the remaining 34 unrebuilt engines were withdrawn between 1960 and 1962.


The first two were rebuilt in 1930 from the 1912-built LNWR Large Claughton Class, retaining the original driving wheels with their large bosses, the "double radial" bogie truck and some other parts. Of the subsequent 50 locomotives of the class 40 were nominal rebuilds of Claughtons, being in fact new builds classified as rebuilt engines so that they could be charged to revenue accounts, rather than capital. The last ten were classified as new builds.

The two former Claughtons retained their original numbers until 1934, when they were renumbered 5500–1.[1] The 40 built as replacements took the numbers of the Claughtons that they replaced; these were renumbered 5502–41 in 1934.[2] The remainder of the class were allocated nos. 6030–9, but were numbered 5542–51 from new.[3] The numbering of the similar LMS Jubilee Class continued on from where the Patriots left off. This was because 5552–5556 were ordered as Patriots (to be numbered 6040–4) but built with taper boilers as Jubilees on the orders of Sir William Stanier.[4]

Naming of the class was somewhat erratic. Some retained old Claughton names, whilst others continued the military associations of the names Patriot and St Dunstans, and 13 carried names of holiday resorts served by the LMS. Seven remained unnamed, although they had been allocated names in 1943.


Between 1946 and 1949 eighteen were rebuilt with Stanier 2A boiler, cab and tender, though again these were largely paper rebuilds, based on the LMS Rebuilt Royal Scot Class. Seven (Nos 5514/21/6/9-31/40) had been rebuilt by the start of 1948 when British Railways inherited the remaining 45 Baby Scots. In March 1948 BR added 40000 to their numbers to number them 45500–13/15-20/2-5/7/8/32-9/41-51. Subsequently, BR rebuilt another 11, so that the rebuilt engines were (4)5512/14/21–23/25–32/34–36/45. The two original members of the class, and the first ten of the nominal rebuilds, were not rebuilt due to their non-standard parts.

Year Number rebuilt Numbers
1946 2 5521/30
1947 5 5514/26/9/31/40
1948 10 45512/23/5/7/8/32/4-6/45
1949 1 45522
Total 18


Note some never received BR numbers as unrebuilt engines because either they were rebuilt by the LMS. In the table below BR numbers for BR-rebuilt engines are given, but some engines may not have received BR numbers while in an unrebuilt condition as renumbering took several years (sources should indicate these).

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 13 March 1935, a milk train was in a rear-end collision with an express freight train at King's Langley, Hertfordshire due to a signalman's error. Locomotive No. 5511 was hauling a freight train that collided with the wreckaged. A fourth freight train then ran into the wreck. One person was killed.[5]
  • On 16 October 1939, locomotive No. 5544 was hauling a train that was in a collision with another train at Winwick Junction, Cheshire and was derailed.[6]
  • On 13 October 1940, locomotive No. 5529 was hauling an express passenger train that collided with a platform barrow obstructing the line at Wembley Central station, Middlesex and was derailed. Several people were killed and many more were injured.[7]


All of the Unrebuilt Patriots were withdrawn between 1960 and 1962 in accordance with the BR Modernisation Plan.

Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Locomotive numbers
1960 34 2 to be added
1961 32 7 to be added
1962 25 25 to be added

New Build Patriot Locomotive - 'The Unknown Warrior'[edit]

The chassis of Newbuild LMS Patriot 4-6-0 no 45551 The Unknown Warrior inside the shed at Llangollen.

No Patriot in either rebuilt or unrebuilt form survived into preservation, however a new 'Patriot' is under construction at the Llangollen Railway. The LMS-Patriot Project,[8] a registered charity, is intending to build the new, 3 cylinder, Fowler designed, parallel boiler, 4-6-0 express passenger loco. It will carry the number of the last built – LMS number 5551 or British Railways number 45551. After a public poll, the new Patriot locomotive will be named The Unknown Warrior, whose tomb is located in Westminster Abbey.

The engine currently wears crimson lake on the left side of its cab and BR Green on the right, showing what it would look like in either livery when it is running. In November 2016 the society announced that the first livery that The Unknown Warrior will wear upon completion is LMS crimson lake with both LMS and BR Black to follow alongside BR Green.

In fiction[edit]

This class of engine forms the basis of Big City Engine from the Railway Series of children's books by the Rev. W. Awdry.

00 Gauge Models[edit]

Bachmann Industries make a model of the original Patriot. Hornby introduced an original Patriot in the 1980s that has remained in production and now forms part of the 'Railroad' budget range.

Rebuilt Patriots were for a time produced by Bachmann, but they discontinued the old moulding and do not intend to produce a new moulding, as Hornby have released Rebuilt Patriots in their own main range.


  1. ^ Toms, Essery & James 2006, p. 65.
  2. ^ Toms, Essery & James 2006, p. 63.
  3. ^ Toms, Essery & James 2006, p. 69.
  4. ^ Toms, Essery & James 2006, pp. 67, 69.
  5. ^ Hall 1990, p. 99.
  6. ^ Earnshaw 1990, p. 22.
  7. ^ Earnshaw 1990, pp. 24-25.
  8. ^ "Creating the new Royal British Legion Endorsed National Memorial Engine". Lms-patriot.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-24.


  • Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-37-0.
  • Hall, Stanley (1990). The Railway Detectives. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0 7110 1929 0.
  • Hugh Longworth British Railway Steam Locomotives 1948-1968 ISBN 0-86093-593-0
  • Nock, O. S. Royal Scots and Patriots of the LMS.
  • Rowledge, J.W.P. (1975). Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5.
  • Toms, George; Essery, R.J.; James, F. (2006). Historical Locomotive Monographs No. 3: Claughton & Patriot 4-6-0s. Didcot: Wild Swan. ISBN 1-905184-19-0.
  • Whiteley, John S.; Morrison, Gavin W. The Power of the Patriots. ISBN 0-86093-232-X.

External links[edit]