LMS Royal Scot Class
LMS Royal Scot class No. 6137 'Vesta', 1928.
The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) Royal Scot Class is a class of 4-6-0 express passenger locomotive introduced in 1927. Originally having parallel boilers, all members were later rebuilt with tapered type 2A boilers, and were in effect two classes.
Until the mid-1920s, the LMS had followed the Midland Railway's small engine policy, which meant that it had no locomotives of sufficient power for its expresses on the West Coast Main Line. These trains were entrusted to pairs of LMS/MR Midland Compound 4-4-0s between Glasgow and Carnforth, and a 4-6-0 locomotive of the LNWR Claughton Class, piloted by an LNWR George V 4-4-0, southwards to Euston station .
The Operating and Motive Power Departments of the LMS were satisfied with the small engine policy. However, in 1926 the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Henry Fowler, began the design of a compound Pacific express locomotive. The management of the LMS, faced with disagreement between the CME and the other departments, obtained a loan of a GWR Castle class locomotive, Launceston Castle, which was operated for one month between Euston and Carlisle.
Following the success of the Castle 4-6-0 in working on the LMS, a decision was taken to cancel Fowler's Pacific project, and to replace it with a 4-6-0 with three cylinders and a simple-expansion steam circuit. Because there was an urgent need for new express locomotives the LMS placed an order with the North British Locomotive Company of Glasgow for 50 engines. The North British, with its extensive drawing office and two works, possessed sufficient capacity to expedite the order within a year. The Derby drawing office and North British staff collaborated in designing the class, with the latter producing the working drawings. Fowler took little part in the design process, which was carried out by Herbert Chambers, Chief Draughtsman at Derby, and his staff. The LMS requested a set of drawings of the Castle class from the GWR, but didn't receive them. Instead a set of drawings of the SR Lord Nelson Class were obtained, and used for the design of the firebox. The main features of the design followed existing Derby practice, with the cylinders and valve gear being derived from the Fowler 2-6-4T, also being designed at Derby at that time.
They were initially named after regiments of the British Army, and after historical LNWR locomotives. Those with LNWR names were renamed in 1935 and 1936 with more names of regiments.
From late 1931, after several bizarre forms of smoke deflectors were tried on various locomotives to stop drifting smoke obscuring the crew's forward vision, the straight sided smoke deflectors were added. These were later replaced by deflectors with angled top. From 1933 the class were taken off the top-link expresses, being superseded by the LMS Princess Royal Class and later the LMS Princess Coronation Class pacifics.
North American tour
In 1933 the LMS was invited to send a locomotive and train to the Century of Progress International Exposition in Chicago, USA. It was decided to send an engine of the Royal Scot class, and one was selected that was due for general overhaul. The identity of this locomotive is generally regarded as having been No. 6152 "The Kings Dragoon Guardsman". The coupled axleboxes were replaced with larger ones, based on a GWR design, and the bogie replaced by a De Glehn type, also derived from GWR practice. Springs and spring rigging were also updated, and the boiler replaced. The rebuilt locomotive assumed the identity of 6100 The Royal Scot with (on its return from the USA) an enlarged nameplate with details of its appearance at the exhibition. It retained this identity after its return from the USA.
LMS 6399 Fury, built in 1929, was an unsuccessful experimental prototype locomotive with a high-pressure, water tube boiler and compound 3-cylinder drive, based on the Royal Scot. It was rebuilt by William Stanier in 1935 with a Type 2 conventional boiler to become 6170 British Legion. This served as the blueprint for later rebuilding, but always remained a one-off.
In 1942 the LMS rebuilt two LMS Jubilee Class locomotives with Type 2A boilers, but later turned to the parallel-boilered Royal Scots whose boilers and cylinders were life-expired, and whose smokeboxes were difficult to keep airtight. Between 1943 and 1955 the whole class was rebuilt. The rebuild was quite substantial, requiring new boiler, frames and cylinders. But in most cases the original frame stretchers, wheels, cab and fittings were retained. The usual procedure carried out was that as each locomotive arrived for rebuilding, it was stripped and the identity transferred to a fresh frameset prepared using the parts recovered from the locomotive that had previously been re-built. The new frames were slightly shorter than the originals. Thus, most rebuilt examples retained their own cab, wheels etc., but most of the frame stretchers, and other integral parts of the frame were from the previously re-built loco.
The new 'Rebuilt Scot' design was carried out under the auspices of William Stanier, who was then engaged on war work, and so was actually undertaken by George Ivatt and E.S. Cox. Initially these too were built without smoke deflectors but later acquired them.
In the 1948 Locomotive Exchange Trials, carried out by the recently nationalised British Railways, a rebuilt 'Royal Scot' proved capable of matching the maximum performance of the much larger LMS Coronation Class.
Accidents and incidents
- On 30 September 1945, Locomotive No. 6157 The Royal Artilleryman was hauling an express passenger train that was derailed at Bourne End, Hertfordshire due to excessive speed through a set of points. Forty-three people were killed and 64 were injured.
- On 27 August 1950, locomotive No. 46119 Lancashire Fusilier was hauling an express passenger train which was in a rear-end collision with a light engine at Penmaenmawr, Denbighshire due to a signalman's error. One person was killed.
- On 21 April 1952, locomotive No. 46117 Welsh Guardsman was one of two hauling an express passenger train that was derailed at Blea Moor Loops, West Riding of Yorkshire due to a defect on the other locomotive causing a set of points to move under the train.
All were withdrawn between 1962 and 1965.
The class title of Royal Scot was subsequently re-used in 1976 as an official name for the then-new Class 87 electric locomotives, but it never stuck, partly out of respect for the original fleet.
Note: Date built refers to the 'LMS build date'.
|6100||46100||Royal Scot||Oct 1927||Jun 1950||Oct 1962||Permanently swapped identities with 6152 in 1933. Swap engine 6152 Preserved under 6100's identity.|
|6101||46101||Royal Scots Grey||Sep 1927||Nov 1945||Sep 1963|
|6102||46102||Black Watch||Sep 1927||Oct 1949||Dec 1962|
|6103||46103||Royal Scots Fusilier||Sep 1927||Jun 1943||Dec 1962||First locomotive to be rebuilt with a taper boiler.|
|6104||46104||Scottish Borderer||Sep 1927||Mar 1946||Dec 1962|
|6105||46105||Cameron Highlander||Sep 1927||Mar 1948||Dec 1962|
|6106||46106||Gordon Highlander||Sep 1927||Sep 1949||Dec 1962||Fitted with BR style smoke deflectors Dec. 1952|
|6107||46107||Argyll and Sutherland Highlander||Sep 1927||Feb 1950||Dec 1962|
|6108||46108||Seaforth Highlander||Sep 1927||May 1948||Jan 1963|
|6109||46109||Royal Engineer||Sep 1927||Jul 1943||Dec 1962|
|6110||46110||Grenadier Guardsman||Sep 1927||Jan 1953||Feb 1964|
|6111||46111||Royal Fusilier||Oct 1927||Oct 1947||Oct 1963|
|6112||46112||Sherwood Forester||Oct 1927||Sep 1943||May 1964|
|6113||46113||Cameronian||Oct 1927||Dec 1950||Dec 1962|
|6114||46114||Coldstream Guardsman||Oct 1927||Jun 1946||Oct 1963|
|6115||46115||Scots Guardsman||Oct 1927||Aug 1947||Jan 1966||Preserved – last to be withdrawn.|
|6116||46116||Irish Guardsman||Oct 1927||Aug 1944||Sep 1963|
|6117||46117||Welsh Guardsman||Nov 1927||Dec 1943||Nov 1962|
|6118||46118||Royal Welch Fusilier||Nov 1927||Dec 1946||Jun 1964|
|6119||46119||Lancashire Fusilier||Nov 1927||Sep 1944||Dec 1963|
|6120||46120||Royal Inniskilling Fusilier||Dec 1927||Nov 1944||Jul 1963|
|6121||46121||H.L.I. from 1928||Nov 1927||Aug 1946||Dec 1962||Renamed 15 January 1949|
|Highland Light Infantry, City of Glasgow Regiment|
|6122||46122||Royal Ulster Rifleman||Nov 1927||Sep 1945||Nov 1964|
|6123||46123||Royal Irish Fusilier||Nov 1927||May 1949||Oct 1962|
|6124||46124||London Scottish Regiment||Nov 1927||Dec 1943||Dec 1962|
|6125||46125||Lancashire Witch||Sep 1927||Aug 1943||Oct 1964||Renamed June 1936|
|6126||46126||Sans Pareil||Sep 1927||Jun 1945||Oct 1963||Renamed June 1936|
|Royal Army Service Corps|
|6127||46127||Novelty||Sep 1927||Aug 1944||Dec 1962||Renamed June 1936|
|The Old Contemptibles|
|6128||46128||Meteor||Sep 1927||Jun 1946||May 1965||Renamed April 1936|
|The Lovat Scouts|
|6129||46129||Comet||Sep 1927||Dec 1944||Jun 1964||Renamed January 1936|
|The Scottish Horse|
|6130||46130||Liverpool||Nov 1927||Dec 1949||Dec 1962||Renamed June 1935|
|The West Yorkshire Regiment|
|6131||46131||Planet||Sep 1927||Dec 1949||Dec 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The Royal Warwickshire Regiment|
|6132||46132||Phoenix||Sep 1927||Oct 1944||Oct 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The King's Regiment Liverpool|
|6133||46133||Vulcan||Oct 1927||Jul 1944||Feb 1963||Renamed May 1936|
|The Green Howards|
|6134||46134||Atlas||Oct 1927||Dec 1954||Nov 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The Cheshire Regiment|
|6135||46135||Samson||Oct 1927||Jan 1947||Dec 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The East Lancashire Regiment|
|6136||46136||Goliath||Oct 1927||Mar 1950||Apr 1964||Renamed May 1936 at Carlisle Citadel station|
|The Border Regiment|
|6137||46137||Vesta||Oct 1927||Mar 1955||Oct 1962||Renamed May 1936. Last locomotive to be rebuilt.|
|The Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire)|
|6138||46138||Fury||Oct 1927||Jun 1944||Feb 1963||Renamed October 1929|
|The London Irish Rifleman|
|6139||46139||Ajax||Oct 1927||Nov 1946||Oct 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The Welch Regiment|
|6140||46140||Hector||Oct 1927||May 1952||Nov 1965||Renamed May 1936|
|The King's Royal Rifle Corps|
|6141||46141||Caledonian||Nov 1927||Oct 1950||Apr 1964||Renamed June 1936|
|The North Staffordshire Regiment|
|6142||46142||Lion||Nov 1927||Feb 1951||Jan 1964||Renamed May 1936|
|The York and Lancaster Regiment|
|6143||46143||Nov 1927||Jun 1949||Dec 1963||Renamed July 1934|
|The South Staffordshire Regiment|
|6144||46144||Ostrich||Nov 1927||Jun 1945||Jan 1964||Renamed January 1933|
|Honourable Artillery Company|
|6145||46145||Condor||Dec 1927||Jan 1944||Dec 1962|
|The Duke of Wellington's Regt. (West Riding)|
|6146||46146||Jenny Lind||Nov 1927||Oct 1943||Dec 1962||Renamed May 1936|
|The Rifle Brigade|
|6147||46147||Courier||Nov 1927||Sep 1946||Dec 1962|
|The Northamptonshire Regiment|
|6148||46148||Velocipede||Dec 1927||Jul 1954||Nov 1964||Renamed October 1935|
|The Manchester Regiment|
|6149||46149||Lady of the Lake||Dec 1927||Apr 1945||Aug 1963||Renamed May 1936|
|The Middlesex Regiment|
|6150||46150||The Life Guardsman||Jun 1930||Dec 1945||Nov 1963|
|6151||46151||The Royal Horse Guardsman||Jun 1930||Apr 1953||Dec 1962|
|6152||46152||The King's Dragoon Guardsman||Jun 1930||Aug 1945||Apr 1965||Permanently swapped identities with 6100 in 1933. Preserved under identity of 6100 - first to be withdrawn.|
|6153||46153||The Royal Dragoon||Jun 1930||Aug 1949||Dec 1962|
|6154||46154||The Hussar||Jul 1930||Mar 1948||Dec 1962|
|6155||46155||The Lancer||Jul 1930||Aug 1950||Dec 1964|
|6156||46156||The South Wales Borderer||Oct 1930||May 1954||Oct 1964|
|6157||46157||The Royal Artilleryman||Jul 1930||Jan 1946||Jan 1964|
|6158||46158||The Loyal Regiment||Aug 1930||Sep 1952||Oct 1963|
|6159||46159||The Royal Air Force||Aug 1930||Oct 1945||Dec 1962|
|6160||46160||Queen Victoria's Rifleman||Aug 1930||Feb 1945||May 1965|
|6161||46161||The King's Own||Sep 1930||Oct 1946||Dec 1962||The King's Own carried from Sep. 1930 to Jun. 1931|
|6162||46162||Queen's Westminster Rifleman||Sep 1930||Jan 1948||May 1964|
|6163||46163||Civil Service Rifleman||Sep 1930||Oct 1953||Aug 1964|
|6164||46164||The Artists' Rifleman||Sep 1930||Jun 1951||Dec 1962|
|6165||46165||The Ranger (12th London Regt.)||Sep 1930||Jul 1952||Nov 1964|
|6166||46166||London Rifle Brigade||Oct 1930||Jan 1945||Sep 1964|
|6167||46167||The Hertfordshire Regiment||Oct 1930||Dec 1948||Apr 1964|
|6168||46168||The Girl Guide||Oct 1930||Apr 1946||May 1964|
|6169||46169||The Boy Scout||Oct 1930||May 1945||May 1963|
|6170||46170||British Legion||Feb 1930||Oct 1935||Dec 1962||Rebuilt from experimental high pressure locomotive Fury with non-interchangeable boiler.
It was the only Rebuilt Scot to carry Crimson Lake livery in service, and a single chimney.
No original Royal Scot's in as built condition survive as all were rebuilt by 1955, out of seventy locomotives built only two have been preserved. These are 6100 Royal Scot (formerly 6152 prior to 1933) and 6115 Scots Guardsman. Both engines have even worked on the mainline in preservation hauling charter trains, 46100 worked her debut railtour on 6 February 2016.
|6100 (former 6152)||46100||Royal Scot (former "The King's Dragoon Guardsman")||Derby Works||Jun 1930 (Original engine built Oct 1927)||Oct 1962||BR Green, Early Emblem||Southall||Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust||Operational, Mainline Certified. Mainline Ticket Expires: 2022|
|6115||46115||Scots Guardsman||North British Locomotive Company||Oct 1927||Jan 1966||BR Green, Late Crest||West Coast Railway Company, Carnforth||David Smith||Operational, Mainline Certified. Mainline Ticket Expires: 2018|
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Models to 00 scale of the Royal Scot in both unrebuilt and rebuilt forms have been produced by several manufacturers, and each has been available in several liveries with a variety of numbers and names. Mainline (Palitoy) introduced a model of the rebuilt locomotives in 1977 and they were followed by Airfix who introduced their own version in 1978, but after the Airfix range was incorporated into the Mainline range, the ex-Airfix model was dropped. In unrebuilt form, G & R Wrenn introduced a model in 1980; and Mainline introduced their own version in 1982. Bachmann took over the tooling for both of the Mainline locomotives, and did do several production runs, with the ultimate intention of re-tooling the design to upgrade it to modern standards and detailing, but unfortunately for them, Hornby beat them to it.
Hornby produced their own Rebuilt Scots, these being introduced in 2007, along with the rebuilt patriot locomotives. Rivarossi (now part of Hornby) made a similar model of the No. 6100 in an intermediate 1:80 scale (approx. 3.8 mm/ft) between HO & OO in 1977 based on the original unrebuilt form in LMS livery. It also made another model of the No. 6140 "Hector" sister engine.
Graham Farish released a 'N' gauge model in 2009, in LMS Black, and BR Brunswick Green liveries.
Comet Models produce a 4 mm kit in brass and white metal for the rebuilt Scot. Wills produced an original version kit in whitemetal which Southeastern Finecast have revised this kit and added an etched chassis. Eames/Jamieson produced a rebuilt version using nickel silver for the superstructure.
Brassmasters did a limited edition kit in 4 mm.
The erstwhile Kitmaster company produced an unpowered polystyrene injection moulded model kit for TT gauge. In late 1962, the Kitmaster brand was sold by its parent company (Rosebud Dolls) to Airfix. It is thought that the moulds for this locomotive were amongst those lost or destroyed at about this time or before. As a result, unmade examples of this kit exchange hands between collectors for considerable sums.
- Cox 1970, p. 9.
- Cox 1970, p. 10.
- Cox 1970, p. 15.
- Cox 1970, p. 16.
- Cox 1970, p. 8.
- Classic British steam locomotives, Abbeyille Press, 2004. p.117.
- Nock, O.S. (1984). British locomotives of the twentieth century, vol. 2 1930-1960. Patrick Stephens. pp. 136–7.
- Tuplin, W.A. (1971). British Steam since 1900. Pan. p. 149. ISBN 0 330 02721 2.
- Earnshaw 1989, pp. 32-33.
- Earnshaw 1990, p. 30.
- Ramsay, John; Hammond, Pat (2002) . King, John, ed. Ramsay's British Model Trains Catalogue (3rd ed.). Felixstowe: Swapmeet Publications. p. 205. ISBN 0-9528352-7-4.
- Ramsay & Hammond 2002, p. 24
- Ramsay & Hammond 2002, p. 314
- Ramsay & Hammond 2002, pp. 32–33
- Knight, Stephen (1999). Let's Stick Together: An Appreciation of Kitmaster and Airfix Railway Kits. Clopthill: Irwell Press. pp. 7, 9, 41, 46, 66. ISBN 1-871608-90-2.
- Cox, E.S. (1970). The Royal Scots of the LMS. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0165-0.
- Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-35-4.
- Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-37-0.
- Jenkinson, David (1986). The Power of the Royal Scots (reprint ed.). OPC Railprint. ISBN 0-86093-175-7.
- Nock, O.S. (1978). Royal Scots and Patriots of the LMS. David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7480-X.
- Packer, David (2009). On the Trail of the Royal Scot. The History Press. ISBN 0-7509-4625-3.
- Radford, J.B. (1971). Derby Works and Midland Locomotives: The story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0185-5.
- Reed, Brian (1971). Loco Profile 8 – The Royal Scots. Windsor, Berkshire: Profle Publications Limted.
- Sixsmith, Ian (1999). The Book of the Royal Scots. Irwell Press. ISBN 1-871608-99-6.
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