LMS Stanier Class 8F

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LMS Stanier Class 8F
Stanier 8F 2-8-0 No. 48479.jpg
Stanier 8F No. 48476 at Lostock Hall shed, late July 1968
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer William Stanier
Builder
- (50)
Build date 1935–1946
Total produced 852
Specifications
Configuration 2-8-0
UIC class 1′D h2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading dia. 3 ft 3 12 in (1.003 m)
Driver dia. 4 ft 8 12 in (1.435 m)
Length 63 ft 0 12 in (19.22 m)
Loco weight 72.10 long tons (73.26 t; 80.75 short tons)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 9 long tons (9.1 t; 10.1 short tons)
Water cap 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
28 12 sq ft (2.65 m2)
Boiler LMS type 3C
Boiler pressure 225 lbf/in2 (1.55 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Tubes
1,479 sq ft (137.4 m2)
 • Firebox 171 sq ft (15.9 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area 215–245 sq ft (20.0–22.8 m2)
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 18 12 in × 28 in (470 mm × 711 mm)
Performance figures
Tractive effort 32,440 lbf (144.30 kN)
Career
Operators
Power class LMS & BR: 7F, later 8F
Axle load class Route Availability 6
Withdrawn BR: 1960–1968
Disposition 12 preserved, 2 dumped in Turkey but still extant, 1 parts donor, 23 lost at sea, remainder scrapped

The London Midland and Scottish Railway's 8F class 2-8-0 heavy freight locomotive is a class of steam locomotive designed for hauling heavy freight. 852 were built between 1935 and 1946 (not all to LMS order), as a freight version of William Stanier's successful Black Five, and the class saw extensive service overseas during and after the Second World War.

Background[edit]

LMS freight traction suffered from the adoption of the Midland Railway's small engine policy which had left it with trains double-headed by underpowered 0-6-0s supplemented by inadequate Garratts and Fowler 7F 0-8-0s.

The 8F design incorporated the two-cylinder arrangement of the Black Fives. They were initially classified 7F, but this was later changed to the more familiar 8F.

On the outbreak of the Second World War, the design was chosen to become the country's standard freight design, reprising the role the GCR Class 8K had in the First World War. The War Department had 208 8Fs built by Beyer Peacock and North British Locomotive Company and requisitioned 51 more.

Stanier 8F production for the WD continued until 1943, when the cheaper WD Austerity 2-8-0 was introduced. Production for British domestic use continued until 1946.

Construction[edit]

Order Builder Delivered Quantity Original Numbers Notes
London, Midland & Scottish Railway LMS Crewe Works 1935–44 137 LMS 8000–8026, 8096–8175, 8301–8330 13 requisitioned by War Department
London, Midland & Scottish Railway Vulcan Foundry 1936–37 69 LMS 8027–8095 38 requisitioned by War Department
London, Midland & Scottish Railway North British Locomotive Co. 1942 50 LMS 8176–8225
London, Midland & Scottish Railway LMS Horwich Works 1943–45 75 LMS 8331–8399, 8490–8495
War Department North British Locomotive Co. 1940–42 158 WD 300–399, 500–524, 540–571, 623 300-337 delivered as LMS 8226–8263, on loan from WD
War Department Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1940–42 50 WD 400–449 400-414 delivered as LMS 8286-8300, on loan from WD
Railway Executive Committee GWR Swindon Works 1943–45 80 LMS 8400–8479
Railway Executive Committee LNER Darlington Works 1944–45 30 LMS 8500–8509, 8540–8559
Railway Executive Committee LNER Doncaster Works 1944–45 30 LMS 8510–8539
Railway Executive Committee order SR Eastleigh Works 1943–44 23 LMS 8600–8609, 8650–8662
Railway Executive Committee order SR Ashford Works 1943–44 14 LMS 8610–8612, 8618–8624, 8671–8674
Railway Executive Committee order SR Brighton Works 1943–44 68 LMS 8613–8617, 8625–8649, 8663–8670, 8675–8704
London & North Eastern Railway (Class O6) SR Brighton Works 1944 25 LNER 7651–7675 renumbered LNER 3100–3124, then LNER 3500–3524, then LMS 8705–8729
London & North Eastern Railway (Class O6) LNER Darlington Works 1945–46 23 LNER 3125–3147 renumbered LNER 3525–3547, then LMS 8730–8752
London & North Eastern Railway (Class O6) LNER Doncaster Works 1945–46 20 LNER 3148–3167 renumbered LNER 3548–3567, then LMS/(BR) (4)8753–8772
Total 852

Overseas Service[edit]

The War Department originally ordered 8Fs for service in support of the British Expeditionary Force, but they were not delivered until after the Fall of France. However, most of them did see wartime military service overseas in Egypt, Palestine, Iran and Italy. Many of these locomotives were later sold to the local railways in these countries, and some were also sold to Turkey and Iraq.[2]

Egypt[edit]

The British Army's Middle East Forces (MEF) in Egypt received 42 8Fs in 1941-42, with another some having been lost at sea en route (246-304, 322, 370, 371, 415, 416, 428, 429, 444 & 445)[3] possibly on the SS Thistlegorm.[4] Some of these were loaned to Egyptian State Railways (ESR) and the others were used by the MEF on the Western Desert Extension Railway. The scarcity of water made steam locomotive operations on the WDER difficult, and their smoke also attracted unwanted attention from enemy aircraft, so once American diesels began to arrive from late 1942 the use of 8Fs on the WDER declined. Forty locomotives were sold to ESR in 1942-44. The other two locomotives had accident damage, and were made into one good locomotive which was also sold to ESR in 1945. The remains of the last locomotive were bought by ESR for spares in 1946.

The MEF received another 50 8Fs from Iran in 1944, for use in both Egypt and Palestine, although 15 of these were transferred to Italy later in the year. Some of the 50 were not in operational condition, and 4 were scrapped by the MEF in 1946 without further use. Another 59 former Iranian 8Fs were transferred to the MEF in 1946, most of which were initially used in Palestine. This brought the number of 8Fs in the Middle East Forces up to 90.

After the war the British military presence in the region waned, so the need for military locomotives declined. The MEF's fleet was largely sold off in 1947-48 to British Railways (39), Palestine Railways (24) and ESR (11). Five returned to Britain for continued WD use in 1952. MEF railway operation ended in 1954, with 10 8Fs being sold to ESR, and 1 scrapped by MEF following bomb damage.

ESR thus purchased a total of 62 8Fs from MEF between 1942 and 1954, and operated the type until 1963.

Iran[edit]

Following the occupation of Iran in 1941, WD locomotives were required to operate the Persian Corridor supply route, delivering war materials to the Soviet Union via the Trans-Iranian Railway. 163 8F were dispatched to Iran in 1941-42, but only 143 arrived (12 being lost at sea (246-444, 445, 608, 617, 619, 622 (latter 4 former LMS 8066, 8068, 8071, 8087)[3]) and 8 returned to Britain with sea damage). These operated as Iranian State Railways' Class 41.[5]

The arrival of US Army Transportation Corps units in Iran with their own locomotives (including diesels which were more suitable for use in desert regions) made many of the 8Fs redundant, and 50 locomotives were transferred to the Middle East Forces in 1944. At the end of the war the need for steam locomotives in Iran was further reduced and another 71 locomotives left for the MEF (59) and Iraq (12) in 1945-48. The remaining 22 locomotives in Iran had all been withdrawn by 1963.

Iraq[edit]

Ten WD locomotives were transferred from Iran in 1946-47, being purchased by Iraqi State Railways in 1947, and two more locomotive were purchased from Iran in 1948. These became Iraqi Class TD,[6][7][8] and operated until the 1970s. One example, no. 1429, was still in existence in Baghdad, in 2014.[9]

Italy[edit]

15 former Iranian 8F were transferred to Italy by way of the MEF during 1944. After the war they were sold to Ferrovie dello Stato, where they operated as FS Class 737 until the early 1950s.[10]

Palestine and Israel[edit]

Israel Railways 8F 70513 (NBL 24721 of 1941), taking water at Zichron Ya'akov on 4 January 1949. This was one of 24 WD 8Fs sold to Palestine Railways after wartime service in Iran and Palestine.

Some MEF 8Fs were loaned to Palestine Railways during 1942, but larger numbers of former Iranian locomotives arrived in 1944, being used on the Haifa Beirut Tripoli Railway and other lines. In 1947 24 MEF 8Fs were sold to Palestine Railways. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War 23 of these locomotives were taken over by Israel Railways, being operated until 1958. The war stranded the other 8F, 70372 (NBL works no. 24680),[11] on a small section of the main line near Tulkarm on the West Bank side of the 1949 Armistice line.[12] It remained there, increasingly derelict, until after the 1967 Israeli invasion of the West Bank. The Israelis finally removed and scrapped it in about 1973.[13]

Israel Railways 8F 70414, after its restoration.

Turkey[edit]

Twenty five new WD locomotives were sold to Turkish State Railways (TCDD) in 1941 for diplomatic reasons, but seven of these were lost at sea en route (246-338, 343-345, 354-356.[3] 345 sunk when the SS Jesmore collided with Baron Pentland on 16 February 1941). Two more locomotives were delivered in 1943, making a total of 20. These served as the TCDD 45151 Class, operating until the 1980s.

War Department use in UK[edit]

With their intended role in France having ceased to exist, early WD 8Fs were loaned to British railway companies in 1940-42, being given temporary numbers in the LMS series. However, by late 1941 the need for locomotives in Iran and Egypt was such that all of the WD locomotives which had been completed up to that point were recalled for military service, and 50 more locomotives were requisitioned from the LMS. Locomotive WD 407 (LMS 8293) had been damaged in an accident whilst on loan to the Great Western Railway, so a 51st LMS engine was requisitioned as a replacement.[2]

By 1942 the need for locomotives overseas had been satisfied, and the final 24 new WD 8Fs remained in the UK on loan to LMS. Also remaining in the UK were nine damaged locomotives (WD 407 and 8 requisitioned locomotives whose voyage to Iran had been aborted after the SS Pentridge Hill suffered severe storm damage – 4 other locomotives had had to be jettisoned into the sea to save the ship). Two locomotives were sold to Turkey in 1944, and the other 31 were sold to the LMS in 1943.

In 1952 five WD 8Fs returned to the UK from the MEF in poor condition. These were refurbished for WD use at the Longmoor Military Railway (LMR). Three of these were sold to British Railways in 1957 becoming Nos. 48773-75. The other two were transferred to the Cairnryan Military Railway and were scrapped in 1959, ending the WD's use of 8F locomotives.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

British civilian use[edit]

'The Big Four' railways[edit]

Some 331 locomotives were built for the London Midland and Scottish Railway between 1935-45. A further 245 were built by the London and North Eastern Railway, Great Western Railway and Southern Railway in 1943-45 for LMS stock, though mostly retained on loan by the other railways during the war. The LNER also purchased 68 Stanier 8Fs for its own use in 1944-46, classifying them O6, though these were also sold to the LMS after the war. As noted above, 51 LMS locomotives were requisitioned by the WD in 1941, but 31 WD locomotives were subsequently purchased by the LMS in 1943 (including 8 of the requisitioned engines).

British Railways[edit]

As a result, 624 8Fs passed into British Railways ownership when Britain's railways were nationalised in 1948. A further 39 (10 requisitioned) were purchased from MEF stock in 1948, and a final 3 (1 requisitioned) from the Longmoor Military Railway in 1957, bringing the total to 666. The 8Fs were concentrated on the London Midland Region, but were also allocated to former LMS sheds on other regions. Despite some having operated in Scotland by the LMS, they were not common on the Scottish Region under BR ownership as the later WD 'Austerity' 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 types were used instead.

8F No. 48600 was used in the 1953 Glenn Ford film Time Bomb, also called Terror on a Train.

Withdrawal[edit]

End of the line: withdrawn 8Fs in spring 1968 at Newton Heath, Manchester awaiting scrapping

The 8Fs were successful and durable locomotives in BR service, with all 666 locomotives surviving until 1960 and routine withdrawals not beginning until 1964. The first to go in 1960 was 48616, followed two years later by 48009. 48773–48775 (the former Longmoor Military Railway locomotives which were the only 8Fs on the Scottish Region) were also withdrawn in 1962, but these were reinstated into London Midland Region stock in 1963. The remaining 664 were withdrawn between 1964 and 1968, with 150 surviving to the last year of steam on BR.

During the late 1960s, no. 48773 had diagonal yellow stripes painted on the cabsides to indicate that it could not run south of Crewe due to it being out of gauge for the new 25kV AC overhead electrification.[20]

Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Quantity
withdrawn
Locomotive number(s)
1960 666 1 48616
1961 665 0
1962 665 4 48009/773–775[21]
1963 661 -3 (48773–775 reinstated)[21]
1964 664 26 etc.
1965 638 95 etc.
1966 543 162 etc.
1967 381 231 etc.
1968 150 150 48010/2/26/33/6/45/6/56/60/2/3/77/81/90
48107/11/5/7/24/32/51/3/67/8/70/82/91–3/7
48200/1/6/12/24/47/52/3/7/67/72/8/82/92/4
48304/5/7/8/17/9/21–3/5/7/9/34/5/8/40/4/5/8/51/6/65/8/9/73/4/80/4/90/2/3
48400/10/21/3/4/33/7/41/2/5/8/51/3/65/7/8/71/6/91–3
48503/4/7/10/29/32/3/44/6/9/51/3/9
48609/12/4/7/20/6/31/2/9/46/52/65/6/77/8/83/4/7/92
48700/2/15/20/2/3/7/30/40/4–6/9/50/2/63/5/73/5

Preservation[edit]

Fourteen 8Fs are known to have survived with six LMS/BR locomotives been preserved in the UK, a seventh was used a spares donor for other preserved 8Fs and a number of new build projects. Three members of the class have over the years been repatriated to the UK from Turkey, with one later sent to a museum in Israel. In addition, two Turkish Railway (TCCD) locomotives have been preserved in Turkey, and some more remain there in a derelict state. One locomotive has even survived in Iraq.[22] The complete list is shown below. Two more are also visible underwater on the wreck of the SS Thistlegorm.

Of the fourteen engines known to have survived into preservation, all the British located examples except 48173 & 45170 have run in preservation (The latter is undergoing restoration). Two of the British-based engines have even seen main line operation: Nos. 48151 and 48773. These have been regular main line performers in recent years with 48773 being withdrawn from operation in 2000. At present no 8F's are operational on the mainline, 48151 was until late 2016 the only member of her class to operate on the mainline but was withdrawn for overhaul. Despite being limited to only 50 mph due to its driving wheel size, she was still occasionally used for main line trips.

Some of the preserved examples have stars on their cabsides indicating that they have specially balanced wheelsets/motion. This practice began under the auspices of British Railways, to denote that locomotives thus treated were able to work fast, vacuum-braked goods services.[23]

Loco numbers in bold mean their current number.

Number Manufacturer Year Balanced Motion Location Status Notes
LMS BR WD TCCD
8151 48151 Crewe Works 1942 Yes West Coast Railway Company (Carnforth) Stored, Awaiting Overhaul. In November 1995 it was loaned to Tunstead Quarry to haul a 975-ton train of hopper wagons for a special train out of Tunstead, it also on 19 December 2000 worked a special one off freight train along the Settle and Carlisle line from Hellifield to Ribblehead Quarry where the hopper wagons were loaded and it then worked the loaded train on from Ribblehead Quarry to Carlisle.
8173 48173 Crewe Works 1943 Yes Churnet Valley Railway Stored, awaiting restoration. Loco is in ex-Barry scrapyard condition.
8233 48773 307 North British Locomotive Co. 1940 Yes Severn Valley Railway Static Display Built as WD 307 and loaned to LMS as 8233. To Iran as 41.109, then War Department (MEF) 70307, WD (Longmoor Military Railway) 500 and BR 48773. Currently on static display in the Engine House awaiting overhaul.
8305 48305 Crewe Works 1943 Yes Great Central Railway Undergoing Overhaul Built at Crewe Works, 48305 spent much of its career operating across the Midlands. It was withdrawn in 1968, just before the end of steam. During the time spent at Barry scrapyard it was sprayed with the words "Please don't let me die!" on the smokebox door, but was saved by Roger Hibbert in 1985 and was restored back to steam in the next 10 years. In 2011, half way though its boiler ticket the decision was taken to perform another overhaul which is currently in progress.
8431 48431 Swindon Works 1944 No Keighley and Worth Valley Railway Static Display Only surviving Swindon-built example.
8624 48624 Ashford Works 1943 Yes Great Central Railway Operational Only surviving Southern-built example. Restored to working order in 2009 by Peak Rail in fictional LMS Crimson Lake livery as 8624, now based at the Great Central Railway as British Railways 48624 in black. Boiler certificate expires in 2019.
357 45173 North British Locomotive Co. 1941 No Turkey Stored Dumped in Cankiri
8274 48274 348 45160 North British Locomotive Co. 1940 No Great Central Railway (Nottingham) Operational Exported as a kit of parts to Turkey in 1940, returned to UK in 1989 and restored to operational condition. This engine has variously run as TCDD 45160, LMS 8476 and British Railways 48274. Currently carries the LMS number 8274.
522 45161 North British Locomotive Co. 1941 No Preserved in Turkey Static Display On display in Çamlık Railway Museum
8279 - 353 45165 North British Locomotive Co. 1940 No Turkey Stored Dumped in Alasehir, Photographed in 2008
8267 341 45166 North British Locomotive Co. 1940 No Be'er Sheva Turkish Railway Station Static Display Recovered from Sivas in December 2010 by the Churchill 8F Trust; later sold to the Municipality of Beersheba, Israel in December 2012. Currently displayed at the former Be'er Sheva Turkish Railway Station on the former Railway to Beersheba as Israel Railways No. 70414.[24][25]
8266 340 45168 North British Locomotive Co. 1940 No Preserved in Turkey Static Display Static display in İzmit old railway station Pictures from 2009
554 45170 North British Locomotive Co. 1942 No Bo'ness and Kinneil Railway Stored awaiting restoration. Recovered from Sivas in December 2010 by the Churchill 8F Trust. Recently purchased by the Scottish Railway Preservation Society.
8188 547 North British Locomotive Co. 1942 No Iraqi Republic Railways (IRR), Baghdad Stored Built as WD 547, then to Iran as 41.222, WD (Iraq) 70547, to ISR as 909 then 1429. Currently in storage pending formal preservation, formerly dumped near a railway yard in Baghdad minus tender. 33°20′43.20″N 44°21′13.90″E / 33.3453333°N 44.3538611°E / 33.3453333; 44.3538611

No 48518, formerly LMS 8518. Built in 1944, was the only surviving LNER-built example. Formerly part of the 'Barry Ten', 48518 was used as a parts donor for 1014 County of Glamorgan and 45551 The Unknown Warrior. Dismantled and the frames scrapped at Bury, mid-2013.

In Popular Culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hughes 1981, pp. 122–124.
  2. ^ a b Tourret, R., 1995, Allied Military Locomotives of the Second World War, Abingdon: Tourrett Publishing.
  3. ^ a b c HaRakevet: Rothschild PhD, Rabbi Walter (march 1991), ROD 2-8-0s in Palestina, 11942-1946. Issue 12
  4. ^ In the fins of Cousteau … The S.S. Thistlegorm and its incredible cargo
  5. ^ Hughes 1981, p. 124.
  6. ^ The Restoration & Archiving Trust: Image no. br670327
  7. ^ The Restoration & Archiving Trust: Image no. br670616
  8. ^ The Restoration & Archiving Trust: Image no. br670315
  9. ^ "8F still intact... in Iraq". The Railway Magazine. 160 (1,362): 65. September 2014. ISSN 0033-8923. 
  10. ^ Kalla-Bishop, P.M. (1986). Italian state railways steam locomotives: together with low-voltage direct current and three-phase motive power. Abingdon: Tourret. pp. 68–9. ISBN 0905878035. 
  11. ^ Cotterell 1984, p. 132.
  12. ^ Cotterell 1984, p. 69.
  13. ^ Cotterell 1984, p. 70.
  14. ^ Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-906899-03-6. 
  15. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 32. ISBN 0-906899-37-0. 
  16. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1991). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 7. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 35. ISBN 0-906899-50-8. 
  17. ^ a b Earnshaw, Alan (1993). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 8. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 31, 35. ISBN 0-906899-52-4. 
  18. ^ "Lucky escapes in derailment", "The Birmingham Post", Birmingham, 13 November 1961.
  19. ^ Kelly, Pat (15 July 2016). "While Didcot slept". Steam Railway. Peterborough: Bauer Consumer Media Ltd (456): 50–52. ISSN 0143-7232. 
  20. ^ Hunt et al. 2005, p. 117.
  21. ^ a b Rowledge 1975, p. 29.
  22. ^ Railways of Iraq: Locomotives and rolling stock in Iraq
  23. ^ Foster, Michael (1998). Hornby Dublo, 1938-1964: The Story of the Perfect Table Railway. London: New Cavendish. ISBN 0-904568-18-0.
  24. ^ http://www.gwsr.com/news/2011/march/monster-moves-turkish-adventure.aspx
  25. ^ Stanier 8F sold to museum in Israel, Robin Jones, Heritage Railway, 6 December 2012

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cotterell, Paul (1984). The Railways of Palestine and Israel. Tourret Publishing. ISBN 0-905878-04-3. 
  • Hudson, Mike; Atkins, Philip (September 2007). "Locos lost at sea. The all-time definitive record". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 153 no. 1277. IPC Media Ltd. pp. 14–19. ISSN 0033-8923. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1981). Middle East Railways. Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9503469-7-7. 
  • Hunt, David; Jennison, John; James, Fred; Essery, R.J. (2005). LMS Locomotive Profiles, no. 8 - The Class 8F 2-8-0s. Didcot: Wild Swan. ISBN 1-905184-08-5. 
  • Rowledge, J.W.P. (1975). Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5. 
  • Tourret, R. (1995). Allied Military Locomotives of the Second World War. Abingdon, Oxon: Tourret Publishing. ISBN 0-905878-06-X. 

External links[edit]