Low-power wide-area network

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A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long-range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery.[1][2] The low power, low bit rate, and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to connect users or businesses, and carry more data, using more power. The LPWAN data rate ranges from 0.3 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s per channel.[3]

A LPWAN may be used to create a private wireless sensor network, but may also be a service or infrastructure offered by a third party, allowing the owners of sensors to deploy them in the field without investing in gateway technology.

Attributes[edit]

  1. Long range: The operating range of LPWAN technology varies from a few kilometers in urban areas to over 10 km in rural settings. It can also enable effective data communication in previously infeasible indoor and underground locations.
  2. Low power: Optimized for power consumption, LPWAN transceivers can run on small, inexpensive batteries for up to 20 years.
  3. Low cost: LPWAN's simplified, lightweight protocols reduce complexity in hardware design and lower device costs. Its long range combined with a star topology reduce expensive infrastructure requirements, and the use of license-free or licensed bands reduce network costs.

Platforms and technologies[edit]

Some competing standards and vendors for LPWAN space include:[4]

  • DASH7, a low latency, bi-directional firmware standard that operates over multiple LPWAN radio technologies including LoRa.
  • Wize is an open and royalty free standard for LPWAN derived from the European Standard Wireless Mbus.[5]
  • Sigfox, UNB-based technology and French company.[6]
  • LoRa is a proprietary, chirp spread spectrum radio modulation technology for LPWAN used by LoRaWAN, Haystack Technologies, and Symphony Link.[7][8]
  • MIoTy, implementing Telegram Splitting technology.
  • Weightless is an open standard, narrowband technology for LPWAN used by Ubiik

Ultra-narrow band[edit]

Ultra Narrowband (UNB), modulation technology used for LPWAN by various companies including:

Others[edit]

  • DASH7 Mode 2 development framework for low power wireless networks, by Haystack Technologies.[12] Runs over many wireless radio standards like LoRa, LTE, 802.15.4g, and others.
  • LTE Advanced for Machine Type Communications (LTE-M), an evolution of LTE communications for connected things by 3GPP.[13]
  • MySensors, DIY Home Automation framework supporting different radios including LoRa.
  • NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT), standardization effort by 3GPP for a LPWAN used in cellular networks .[14]
  • Random phase multiple access (RPMA) from Ingenu, formerly known as On-Ramp Wireless, is based on a variation of CDMA technology for cellular phones, but uses unlicensed 2.4GHz spectrum..[15][16] RPMA is used in GE's AMI metering.[17]
  • Byron, a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technology from Taggle Systems in Australia.[18]
  • Wi-SUN, based on IEEE 802.15.4g.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beser, Nurettin Burcak. "Operating cable modems in a low power mode." U.S. Patent No. 7,389,528. 17 June 2008.
  2. ^ Schwartzman, Alejandro, and Chrisanto Leano. "Methods and apparatus for enabling and disabling cable modem receiver circuitry." U.S. Patent No. 7,587,746. 8 September 2009.
  3. ^ Ferran Adelantado, Xavier Vilajosana, Pere Tuset-Peiro, Borja Martinez, Joan Melià-Seguí and Thomas Watteyne. Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN (January 2017).
  4. ^ Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Maria-Dolores Cano (2016). "State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services". Sensors. 16 (5): 708. doi:10.3390/s16050708. PMC 4883399. PMID 27196909.
  5. ^ Sheldon, John (2019-06-25). "French IoT Satellite Company Kinéis Announces Strategic Partnerships With Objenious And Wize Alliance". SpaceWatch.Global (in American English). Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  6. ^ "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  7. ^ "LoRa Integration - Link Labs". Link Labs (in American English). Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  8. ^ Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Ramon Sanchez-Iborra (2017). "Experimental comparison of LoRa and FSK as IoT-communication-enabling modulations". IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom'17). doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2017.8254530. S2CID 44010035.
  9. ^ "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  10. ^ "Weightless-N - Weightless". www.weightless.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  11. ^ "What is NB-Fi Protocol – WAVIoT LPWAN". WAVIoT LPWAN (in American English). Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  12. ^ "Framework Details". haystacktechnologies.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  13. ^ Flynn, Kevin. "Evolution of LTE in Release 13". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  14. ^ "LTE-M, NB-LTE-M, & NB-IOT: Three 3GPP IoT Technologies To Get Familiar With". Link Labs (in American English). Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  15. ^ Freeman, Mike (2015-09-08). "On-Ramp Wireless becomes Ingenu, launches nationwide IoT network". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  16. ^ "Ingenu Launches the US's Newest IoT Network". Light Reading. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  17. ^ John, Jeff St (2013-02-01). "GE Dives Into AMI Fray With On-Ramp Wireless : Greentech Media". Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  18. ^ Peter Guiterrez (October 13, 2016). "How Taggle is spreading LPWAN across Australia". IoT HUB. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  19. ^ "Wi-SUN Alliance". Wi-SUN Alliance. 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2019-12-16.