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A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery. The low power, low bit rate and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to connect users or businesses, and carry more data, using more power. The LPWAN data rate ranges from 0.3 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s per channel.
A LPWAN may be used to create a private wireless sensor network, but may also be a service or infrastructure offered by a third party, allowing the owners of sensors to deploy them in the field without investing in gateway technology.
Platforms and technologies
There are a number of competing standards and vendors in the LPWAN space, the most prominent of which include:
Chirp spread spectrum based
- LoRa is a proprietary, chirp spread spectrum (CSS) radio modulation technology for LPWAN used by LoRaWAN, Haystack Technologies, and Symphony Link.
Ultra narrow band
Ultra narrow band (UNB), modulation technology used for LPWAN by various companies including:
- Sigfox, UNB-based technology and French company.
- Nwave, proprietary technology developed in cooperation with MIT. Its first release without error correcting codes also forms the basis of the Weightless-N open protocol
- Weightless, a set of communication standards from the Weightless SIG.
- NB-Fi Protocol, developed by WAVIoT company.
- DASH7 Mode 2 development framework for low power wireless networks, by Haystack Technologies. Runs over many wireless radio standards like LoRa, LTE, 802.15.4g, and others.
- LTE Advanced for Machine Type Communications (LTE-MTC), an evolution of LTE communications for connected things by 3GPP.
- MySensors, DIY Home Automation framework supporting different radios including LoRa.
- NarrowBand IoT (NB-IOT), standardization effort by 3GPP for a LPWAN used in cellular networks, that evolved from Huawei's NB-CIoT effort.
- Random phase multiple access (RPMA), technology from Ingenu, formerly known as On-Ramp Wireless.
- Taggle Byron. A Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technology from Taggle Systems in Australia. "How Taggle is spreading LPWAN across Australia"
- Beser, Nurettin Burcak. "Operating cable modems in a low power mode." U.S. Patent No. 7,389,528. 17 June 2008.
- Schwartzman, Alejandro, and Chrisanto Leano. "Methods and apparatus for enabling and disabling cable modem receiver circuitry." U.S. Patent No. 7,587,746. 8 September 2009.
- Ferran Adelantado, Xavier Vilajosana, Pere Tuset-Peiro, Borja Martinez, Joan Melià-Seguí and Thomas Watteyne. Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN (January 2017).
- Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Maria-Dolores Cano (2016). "State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services". Sensors. 16: 708. doi:10.3390/s16050708.
- "LoRa Integration - Link Labs". Link Labs. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "SIGFOX Technology". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "UNB Wireless - Telensa". Telensa. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "Nwave Network | Nwave". www.nwave.io. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "Weightless-N - Weightless". www.weightless.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "What is NB-Fi Protocol – WAVIoT LPWAN". WAVIoT LPWAN. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
- "Framework Details". haystacktechnologies.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- Flynn, Kevin. "Evolution of LTE in Release 13". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "LTE-M, NB-LTE-M, & NB-IOT: Three 3GPP IoT Technologies To Get Familiar With". Link Labs. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- Huawei. "Huawei and partners Leading NB-IoT Standardization -- PHOENIX, Sept. 21, 20 15 /PR Newswire UK/ --". www.prnewswire.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "Ingenu's RPMA Technology". Ingenu. Retrieved 2016-02-01.