A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically 5 to 25 mm (0.197 to 0.984 in) in diameter and 1 to 6 mm (0.039 to 0.236 in) high — like a button on a garment, hence the name. A metal can forms the bottom body and positive terminal of the cell. An insulated top cap is the negative terminal.
Button cells are used to power small portable electronics devices such as wrist watches, pocket calculators, artificial cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, automobile keyless entry transmitters, and hearing aids. Wider variants are usually called coin cells. Devices using button cells are usually designed around a cell giving a long service life, typically well over a year in continuous use in a wristwatch. Most button cells have low self-discharge and hold their charge for a long time if not used. Relatively high-power devices such as hearing aids may use zinc-air cells which have much higher capacity for a given size, but dry out over a few weeks even if not used.
Button cells are single cells, usually disposable primary cells. Common anode materials are zinc or lithium. Common cathode materials are manganese dioxide, silver oxide, carbon monofluoride, cupric oxide or oxygen from the air. Mercuric oxide button cells were formerly common, but are no longer available due to the toxicity and environmental effects of mercury.
Cells of different chemical composition made in the same size are mechanically interchangeable. However, the composition can affect service life and voltage stability. Using the wrong cell may lead to short life or improper operation (for example, light metering on a camera requires a stable voltage, and silver cells are usually specified). Sometimes different cells of the same type and size and specified capacity in milliampere-hour (mAh) are optimised for different loads by using different electrolytes, so that one may have longer service life than the other if supplying a relatively high current.
- 1 Properties of cell chemistries
- 2 Type designation
- 3 Common applications
- 4 Rechargeable variants
- 5 Health issues
- 6 Counterfeits
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
Properties of cell chemistries
Alkaline batteries are made in the same button sizes as the other types, but typically provide less capacity and less stable voltage than more costly silver oxide or lithium cells. They are often sold as watch batteries, and bought by people who do not know the difference.
Silver cells may have very stable output voltage until it suddenly drops very rapidly at end of life. This varies for individual types; one manufacturer (Energizer) offers three silver oxide cells of the same size, 357-303, 357-303H and EPX76, with capacities ranging from 150 to 200 mAh, voltage characteristics ranging from gradually reducing to fairly constant, and some stated to be for continuous low drain with high pulse on demand, others for photo use.
Mercury batteries also supply a stable voltage, but are now banned in many countries due to their toxicity and environmental impact.
Zinc-air batteries use air as the depolarizer and have much higher capacity than other types, as they take that air from the atmosphere. Cell have seals against air which must be removed before use; cells will then dry out in a few weeks, regardless of use.
For comparison, the properties of some cells from one manufacturer of different types with diameter 11.6 mm and height 5.4 mm are listed:
- Silver: capacity 200 mAh to an end-point of 0.9 V, internal resistance 5–15 ohms, weight 2.3 g
- Alkaline (manganese dioxide): 150 mAh (0.9), 3–9 ohms, 2.4 g
- Mercury: 200 mAh, 2.6 g
- Zinc-air: 620 mAh, 1.9 g
Examining datasheets for a manufacturer's range may show a high-capacity alkaline cell with a capacity as high as one of the lower-capacity silver types; or a particular silver cell with twice the capacity of some particular alkaline cell. If the powered equipment requires a relatively high voltage (e.g., 1.3 V) to operate correctly, a silver cell with a flat discharge characteristic will give much longer service than an alkaline cell—even if it has the same specified capacity in mAh to an end-point of 0.9 V. If some device seems to "eat up" batteries after the original supplied by the manufacturer is replaced, it may be useful to check the device's requirements and the replacement battery's characteristics. For digital calipers, in particular, some are specified to require at least 1.25 V to operate, others 1.38 V.
While alkaline, silver oxide, and mercury batteries of the same size may be mechanically interchangeable in any given device, use of a cell of the right voltage but unsuitable characteristics can lead to short battery life or failure to operate equipment. Common lithium batteries, with a terminal voltage around 3 volts, are not made in sizes interchangeable with 1.5 volt cells. Use of a battery of significantly higher voltage than equipment is designed for can cause permanent damage.
International standard IEC 60086-3 defines an alphanumeric coding system for "Watch batteries". Manufacturers often have their own naming system; for example, the cell called LR1154 by the IEC standard is named AG13, LR44, 357, A76, and other names by different manufacturers. The IEC standard and some others encode the case size so that the numeric part of the code is uniquely determined by the case size; other codes do not encode size directly.
Examples of batteries conforming to the IEC standard are CR2032, SR516, and LR1154, where the letters and numbers indicate the following characteristics.
The first letter in the IEC standard system identifies the chemical composition of the battery, which also implies a nominal voltage:
|Z||Nickel oxyhydroxide||Manganese dioxide, nickel oxyhydroxide||Alkali||Zinc||1.5||?|
|M, N (withdrawn)||Mercury||Mercuric oxide||Alkali||Zinc||1.35/1.40||1.1|
For types with stable voltage falling precipitously at end-of-life (cliff-top voltage-versus-time graph), the end-voltage is the value at the "cliff-edge", after which the voltage drops extremely rapidly. For types which lose voltage gradually (slope graph, no cliff-edge) the end-point is the voltage beyond which further discharge will cause damage to either the battery or the device it is powering, typically 1.0 or 0.9 V.
Common names are conventional rather than uniquely descriptive; for example, a silver (oxide) cell has an alkaline electrolyte.
L, S, and C type cells are today the most commonly used types in quartz watches, calculators, small PDA devices, computer clocks, and blinky lights. Miniature zinc-air batteries – P type – are used in hearing aids and medical instruments. In the IEC system, larger cells may have no prefix for the chemical system, indicating they are zinc-carbon batteries; such types are not available in button cell format.
The second letter, R, indicates a round (cylindrical) form.
The standard only describes primary batteries. Rechargeable types made in the same case size will carry a different prefix not given in the IEC standard, for example some ML and LiR button cells use rechargeable lithium technology.
Package size of button batteries using standard names is indicated by a 2-digit code representing a standard case size, or a 3- or 4-digit code representing the cell diameter and height. The first one or two digits encode the outer diameter of the battery in whole millimeters, rounded down; exact diameters are specified by the standard, and there is no ambiguity; e.g., any cell with an initial 9 is 9.5 mm in diameter, no other value between 9.0 and 9.9 is used. The last two digits are the overall height in tenths of a millimeter.
- CR2032: lithium, 20 mm diameter, 3.2 mm height
- CR2025: lithium, 20 mm diameter, 2.5 mm height
- SR516: silver, 5.8 mm diameter, 1.6 mm height
- LR1154/SR1154: alkaline/silver, 11.6 mm diameter, 5.4 mm height. The two-digit codes LR44/SR44 are often used for this size
Some coin cells, particularly lithium, are made with solder tabs for permanent installation, such as to power memory for configuration information of a device). The complete nomenclature will have prefixes and suffixes to indicate special terminal arrangements. For example, there is a plug-in and a solder-in CR2032, a plug-in and three solder-in BR2330s in addition to CR2330s, and many rechargeables in 2032, 2330, and other sizes.
After the package code, the following additional letters may optionally appear in the type designation to indicate the electrolyte used:
- P: potassium hydroxide electrolyte
- S: sodium hydroxide electrolyte
- No letter: organic electrolyte
- W: the battery complies with all the requirements of the international IEC 60086-3 standard for watch batteries.
Other package markings
Apart from the type code described in the preceding section, watch batteries should also be marked with
- the name or trademark of the manufacturer or supplier;
- the polarity (+);
- the date of manufacturing.
Often a 2-letter code (sometimes on the side of the battery) where the first letter identifies the manufacturer and the second is the year of manufacture. For example:
- YN – the letter N is the 14th letter in the alphabet – indicates the cell was manufactured in 2014.
There is no universal standard.
The manufacturing date can be abbreviated to the last digit of the year, followed by a digit or letter indicating the month, where O, Y, and Z are used for October, November and December, respectively (e.g., 01 = January 1990 or January 2000, 9Y = November 1999 or November 2009).
Common manufacturer code
A code used by some manufacturers is AG (alkaline) or SG (silver) followed by a number, where 1 equates to standard 621, 2 to 726, 3 to 736, 4 to 626, 5 to 754, 6 to 920 or 921, 7 to 926 or 927, 8 to 1120 or 1121, 9 to 936, 10 to 1130 or 1131, 11 to 721, 12 to 1142, and 13 to 1154. To those familiar with the chemical symbol for silver, Ag, this may suggest incorrectly that AG cells are silver.
- Backup power for SRAM
- Pocket computers
- Hearing aids
- Some remote controls, especially for keyless entry
- Various electronic toys (like Tamagotchi, Pokémon Pikachu or a Pokéwalker and other various digital pet devices)
- Battery-operated children's books
- Security tokens
- Heart rate monitors
- Manual cameras with light meters
- LED throwies
- Digital thermometers
- Digital altimeter
- Electronic tuner for musical instruments
In addition to disposable (single use) button cells, rechargeable batteries in many of the same sizes are available, with lower capacity than disposable cells. Disposable and rechargeable batteries are manufactured to fit into a holder or with solder tags for permanent connection. In equipment with a battery holder, disposable or rechargeable batteries may be used, if the voltage is compatible.
A typical use for a small rechargeable battery (in coin or other format) is to back up the settings of equipment which is normally permanently mains-powered, in the case of power failure. For example, many central heating controllers store operation times and similar information in volatile memory, lost in the case of power failure. It is usual for such systems to include a backup battery, either a disposable in a holder (current drain is extremely low and life is long) or a soldered-in rechargeable.
Rechargeable NiCd button cells were often components of the backup battery of older computers; non-rechargeable lithium button cells with a lifetime of several years are used in later equipment.
Rechargeable batteries typically have the same dimension-based numeric code with different letters; thus CR2032 is a disposable battery while ML2032, VL2032 and LIR2032 are rechargeables that fit in the same holder if not fitted with solder tags. It is mechanically possible, though hazardous, to fit a disposable battery in a holder intended for a rechargeable; holders are fitted in parts of equipment only accessible by service personnel in such cases.
In large metropolitan regions small children are directly impacted by the improper disposal of button cell type batteries, with Auckland in NZ getting about 20 cases per year requiring hospitalization.
Small children are likely to swallow button cells, which are somewhat visually similar to sweets, often causing fatalities. In Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 2,700,000, has had two children between 12 months and six years old that have died and five suffered life-changing injuries in the 18 months leading up to October 2014. In the United States, on average over 3,000 pediatric button batteries ingestions are reported each year with a trend toward major and fatal outcomes increasing. Coin cells of diameter 20 mm or greater cause the most serious injuries, even if dead or not crushed.
Mercury or cadmium
Some button cells contain mercury or cadmium, which are toxic. In early 2013 the European Parliament Environment Committee voted for a ban on the export and import of a range of mercury-containing products such as button cells and other batteries to be imposed from 2020.
Lithium cells, if ingested, are highly dangerous. In the pediatric population, of particular concern is the potential for one of these batteries to get stuck in the oesophagus. Such impactions can rapidly devolve and cause severe tissue injury in as little as 2 hours. The damage is caused, not by the contents of the battery, but by the electric current that is created when the anode (negative) face of the battery comes in contact with the electrolyte-rich esophageal tissue. The surrounding water undergoes a hydrolysis reaction that produces a sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) build up near the battery's anode face. This results in the liquefactive necrosis of the tissue, a process whereby the tissue effectively is melted away by the alkaline solution. Severe complications can occur, such as erosion into nearby structures like the trachea or major blood vessels, the latter of which can cause fatal bleeds. While the only cure for an esophageal impaction is endoscopic removal, a recent study out of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia by Rachel R. Anfang and colleagues found that early and frequent ingestion of honey or sucralfate suspension prior to removal can reduce the injury severity to a significant degree. As a result of these findings, US-based National Capital Poison Center (Poison Control) updated its triage and treatment guideline for button battery ingestions to include the administration of honey and/or sucralfate as soon as possible after a known or suspected ingestion. Prevention efforts in the US by the National Button Battery Task force in cooperation with industry leaders have led to changes in packaging and battery compartment design in electronic devices to reduce a child's access to these batteries. However, there still is a lack of awareness across the general population and medical community to its dangers. Central Manchester University Hospital Trust warns that "a lot of doctors are unaware that this can cause harm".
There are many counterfeit batteries of all types, including button cells, branded and packaged as the product of a reliable manufacturer. They are often sold at a small fraction of the wholesale price of the genuine battery, although a higher price is not a guarantee of legitimacy. Many are poorly packaged, for example in simple blisters fixed on a cardboard backing where genuine ones are better-packaged. Reputable manufacturer Maxell says, without going into detail, that they are aware of fakes. They warn that they can cause injury and damage, and ask that they be contacted about fakes. In a great many forums on Amazon and similar e-commerce sites there are insistent and repeated reports of batteries that fail after a very short time; the consumer reviews usually show a very high proportion of favourable reviews ("arrived very promptly ... work OK ... very cheap"), but a significant number of longer-term reviews give the lowest rating. Reviews of this nature are not considered reliable sources, but these reports are very widespread.
One company has investigated Sony-branded watch and coin batteries in particular, and report that the most counterfeited include CR2032, CR2025, CR2016, SR626SW (377), and SR621SW (364). They show comparison photographs of card-packed real and counterfeit batteries on their Web site; they are very similar.
Analysis of counterfeit or inferior quality CR2032 cells shows that "DOA" units are often caused by inadequate liquid electrolyte. This can lead to a very low or absent voltage but can be detected by weight difference as can the use of CuO versus MnO2, inferior alloys such as LiMg which when used without compensating for the lower lithium volume yields a much lower 20% working capacity but higher cell voltage (3.26-3.37V) or even a thin plated layer of Li metal over a buffer metal rather than the thicker 1-2mm pure metal layer found in a genuine cell. Another problem is that genuine but outdated or expired cells removed from equipment such as old desktop PCs are often cleaned and re-packaged as new 
- List of battery sizes
- List of battery types
- Battery recycling
- Artificial cardiac pacemaker
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- BBC News:'Button battery' warning over child deaths in Manchester, 14 October 2014 Archived 15 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- "See what a button battery can do to a child's throat". BBC News Online. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016.
- Alkaline button cell. amazon.co.uk. A card marked with the name Hyundai with 30 button cells in 5 sizes made in China, stating that they are alkaline but with pictures of watches, calculators, etc. is sold for prices ranging from about £1 to £4 in the UK
- Energizer website Archived 2009-08-28 at the Wayback Machine., with datasheets for many batteries of several chemistries
- Buying Button Cells for Digital Calipers Archived 2010-07-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Truetex.com. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- Caliper Battery Life Archived 2010-06-21 at the Wayback Machine.. Davehylands.com. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- Panasonic CR battery data page Archived 2013-07-02 at the Wayback Machine., showing many batteries in plug-in and horizontal and vertical solder versions. The same site lists rechargeable cells with various chemistries, in the same sizes and options as disposable batteries of the same size code and hence mechanically interchangeable, though carrying risks of malfunctioning and damage.
- IEC 60086-3 Standard for Watch Batteries (withdrawn) Archived 2013-06-27 at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF) . Just scope/preview. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- Torres, Gabriel (24 November 2004). "Introduction and Lithium Battery". Replacing the Motherboard Battery. hardwaresecrets.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Datasheet of a mains-powered smoke alarm, with models backed up by disposable battery or by rechargeable UL2330 button battery Archived 2013-08-05 at the Wayback Machine.. Kiddefirex.co.uk (2015-10-01). Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- "Risk of swallowing deadly button batteries prompts new industry safety policy". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
- "Button Battery Statistics". www.poison.org. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
- Litovitz, Toby; Whitaker, Nicole; Clark, Lynn; White, Nicole C.; Marsolek, Melinda (2010-06-01). "Emerging Battery-Ingestion Hazard: Clinical Implications". Pediatrics. 125 (6): 1168–1177. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3037. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 20498173.
- "EUBatteryDirective (2006/66/EC) Summary" (PDF). 8 December 2009. Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013.148 Kb
- "Directive 2013/56/EU amending Directive 2006/66/EC" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., European Parliament & Council, 20 November 2013, Retrieved 7 April 2015
- Jatana, Kris R.; Rhoades, Keith; Milkovich, Scott; Jacobs, Ian N. (2016-11-09). "Basic mechanism of button battery ingestion injuries and novel mitigation strategies after diagnosis and removal". The Laryngoscope. 127 (6): 1276–1282. doi:10.1002/lary.26362. ISSN 0023-852X.
- Anfang, Rachel R.; Jatana, Kris R.; Linn, Rebecca L.; Rhoades, Keith; Fry, Jared; Jacobs, Ian N. (2018-06-11). "pH-neutralizing esophageal irrigations as a novel mitigation strategy for button battery injury". The Laryngoscope. doi:10.1002/lary.27312. ISSN 0023-852X.
- "Guideline". www.poison.org. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
- Litovitz, Toby; Whitaker, Nicole; Clark, Lynn (2010-06-01). "Preventing Battery Ingestions: An Analysis of 8648 Cases". Pediatrics. 125 (6): 1178–1183. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3038. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 20498172.
- Jatana, Kris R.; Litovitz, Toby; Reilly, James S.; Koltai, Peter J.; Rider, Gene; Jacobs, Ian N. (2013-09-01). "Pediatric button battery injuries: 2013 task force update". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 77 (9): 1392–1399. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.06.006. ISSN 0165-5876.
- Maxell: Micro watch batteries Archived 2014-10-17 at the Wayback Machine.. Maxellshop.com.au. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- A typical Amazon customer review thread on CR2032 batteries sold as Panasonic Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., with 74 out of 1122 reviews giving 1 or 2 stars
- Stay Away From Counterfeit Sony Watch & Coin Batteries Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.. Microbattery.com. Retrieved on 2015-11-08.
- IEC 60086-3: Primary batteries – Part 3: Watch batteries. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 1995. (also: BS EN 60086-3:1996)
- Sample of data sheets available from Energizer : "CR2032 Technical Details" (PDF). (56.2 KiB)
- "An Investigation of Alternatives to Miniature Batteries Containing Mercury" (PDF). (440 KiB)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Button cells.|
- Coin cell reference table
- Watch battery cross reference table
- "IEC 60086-2 Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications" (PDF). (includes discharge characteristics)
- "DIRECTIVE 2006/66/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". (407 Kb) 6 September 2006 (re recycling and disposal of batteries)