LSWR K10 class

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LSWR/SR K10[1]
386 K10.jpg
K10 number 386 at Eastleigh, 1950
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Dugald Drummond
Builder LSWR Nine Elms Works
Build date 1901-1902
Total produced 40
 • Whyte 4-4-0
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading dia. 3 ft 7 in (1.092 m)
Driver dia. 5 ft 7 in (1.702 m)
Length ? ft ? in (? m)
Loco weight 46 long tons 14 cwt (104,600 lb or 47.4 t)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 5 long tons 0 cwt (11,200 lb or 5.1 t)
Water cap 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)
Boiler pressure 175 lbf/in2 (1,210 kPa; 12.3 kgf/cm2)
Cylinders Two, inside
Cylinder size 18 12 in × 26 in (470 mm × 660 mm)
Performance figures
Tractive effort 19,755 lbf (87,870 N)
Operators London and South Western Railway, Southern Railway (Great Britain), Southern Region of British Railways
Power class LSWR/SR: F
Locale Great Britain
Withdrawn 1947–1951

The London and South Western Railway K10 Class was a class of 40 4-4-0 steam locomotives designed for mixed traffic work. They were introduced on the London and South Western Railway in 1901 and 1902 to the design of Dugald Drummond, where they earned the nickname "Small Hoppers".


In order to satisfy a pressing requirement for mixed-traffic locomotives, Drummond adopted the solution of a small-wheeled 4-4-0 he had previously employed on the Caledonian Railway. The resulting K10 had the same 5 ft 7 in (1.702 m) diameter coupled wheels as the M7 and the boiler was interchangeable with the M7, 700 and C8 classes[2]

Construction history[edit]

Forty of the class were subsequently outshopped from the LSWR's Nine Elms Locomotive Works. They were generally paired with a 6-wheel tender because of their intended short journey lengths, which included local stopping trains and medium-level freight haulage, but as with the later L11 class, some could occasionally be seen with a 4,000-imperial-gallon (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal) "watercart" tender for longer trips.

Table of orders and numbers
Year Batch Quantity LSWR numbers Notes
329, 340–343
344–345, 347, 393–394
135–136, 390–392

Livery and numbering[edit]

LSWR and Southern[edit]

No.139 at Feltham 1947

Livery under the LSWR was Drummond's LSWR Passenger Sage Green, with purple-brown edging and black and white lining.[3] Under Southern Railway ownership from grouping in 1923, the locomotives were outshopped in Richard Maunsell's darker version of the LSWR Sage Green with yellow lettering on the tender, with black and white lining. This livery was continued under Oliver Bulleid despite his experimentations with Malachite green, though the 'Southern' lettering on the tender was changed to the 'Sunshine Yellow' style. During the Second World War, members of the class outshopped form overhaul were turned out in wartime black. The class was haphazardly numbered by the LSWR. Numbering under the Southern retained the LSWR allocations.[1]

Post-1948 (nationalisation)[edit]

Twenty-three passed into British Railways ownership on nationalisation in 1948. Livery after nationalisation was initially Southern livery with 'British Railways' on the tender, and an 'S' prefix on the number. The class was subsequently outshopped in BR Mixed Traffic Black with red and white lining, with the BR crest on the tender.[4] Locomotive numbering was per BR standard practice, from 30135 to 30153 and 30329 to 30394. However, thirteen of the locomotives had been withdrawn by the end of 1948, resulting in gaps in the sequence.[4]

Operational details[edit]

The class shared the same inability to sustain their power over long distances as the C8s, leading to the K10s being employed only on occasional main line trips over short distances. The class therefore gained the nickname of "Small Hoppers" from their crews. The aforementioned defect was not a hindrance, with the class leading an admirable career on secondary routes. Due to the LSWR being primarily a passenger railway, there were few heavy goods services that would have proved too much for the design despite its flaws.

Table of withdrawals
Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Locomotive numbers Notes
1947 40 9 136, 138, 149, 342, 344, 347, 381, 387, 388
1948 31 8 139, 143, 145, 146, 150, 340, 343, 392
1949 23 15 30135, 30137, 30141, 30144, 30152, 30153, 30341, 30345, 30380, 30383, 30385, 30386, 30391, 30393, 30394
1950 8 6 30140, 30142, 30151, 30329, 30382, 30390
1951 2 2 30384, 30389

Comparison with L11[edit]

According to Dendy Marshall,[5] the main differences between the K10 "Small Hoppers" and the L11 "Large Hoppers" were:


None have been preserved.


  1. ^ a b Bradley (1986).[page needed]
  2. ^ Casserley (1971) / Burtt [1949]. pp. 125, 126.
  3. ^ Swift (2006)[page needed]
  4. ^ a b Longworth (2005).[page needed]
  5. ^ Dendy Marshall & Kidner (1963), p. 176
  • Bradley, D. L. (1986). LSWR Locomotives: The Drummond Classes. Didcot, Oxon: Wild Swan Publications,. ISBN 0-906867-42-8. 
  • Casserley, H.C. (1971) London and South Western locomotives, incorporating Burtt, F. [1949] LSWR locomotives—a survey. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited.
  • Dendy Marshall, C.F.; Kidner, R.W. (1963) [1937]. History of the Southern Railway (2nd ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0059-X. 
  • Longworth, Hugh (2005). British Railway Steam Locomotives: 1948–1968. Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-593-0. 
  • Swift, Peter (2006). Maunsell 4-6-0 King Arthur Class. Locomotives in Detail, volume 4. Hinckley: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-3086-3. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ian Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, 1949 edition, part 2

External links[edit]