|History of Al-Andalus|
Umayyads of Córdoba|
First Taifa period|
Second Taifa period|
Third Taifa period|
Emirate of Granada|
La Convivencia (Spanish: [la kombiˈβenθja], "The Coexistence") is an academic hypothesis regarding the period of Spanish history from the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early eighth century until the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. It claims that in the different Moorish Iberian kingdoms, the Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in relative peace. According to this interpretation of history, this period of religious diversity differs from later Spanish and Portuguese history when - as a result of expulsions and forced conversions - Catholicism became the sole religion in the Iberian Peninsula.
However, some voices have challenged the historicity of the above view of the supposed intercultural harmony as a "myth", with the argument that it depends too strongly on unreliable documentation. "[C]ontemporary ecumenicists appeal to the 'Golden Age' of tolerance" in the 10th and 11th centuries in Córdoba under Muslim rule, but, for the most part, they are not interested in what actually happened among the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Rather, they mention "tolerance", a concept that "would have had little or no meaning" at that time.
La Convivencia often refers to the interplay of cultural ideas between the three religious groups and ideas of religious tolerance. James Carroll invokes this concept and indicates that it played an important role in bringing the classics of Greek philosophy to Europe, with translations from Greek to Arabic to Hebrew and Latin. Jerrilynn Dodds references this concept in the spatial orientation seen in architecture that draws on building styles seen in synagogues and mosques.
An example of La Convivencia was Córdoba, Andalusia in Al-Andalus, in the ninth and tenth centuries. Córdoba was “one of the most important cities in the history of the world.” In it, “Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city.” María Rosa Menocal, Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University, further describes the libraries of Córdoba as "a significant benchmark of overall social (not just scholarly) well being, since they represented a near-perfect crossroads of the material and the intellectual." 
James L. Heft, the Alton Brooks Professor of Religion at USC, describes La Convivencia as one of the “rare periods in history” when the three religions did not either keep “their distance from one another, or were in conflict.” During most of their co-existing history, they have been “ignorant about each other” or “attacked each other.”
End of the Convivencia
While the Reconquista was ongoing, Muslims and Jews who came under Christian control were allowed to practise their religion to some degree. This ended in the late 15th century with the fall of Granada in 1492. Even before this event, the Spanish Inquisition had been established in 1478. In 1492, with the Alhambra decree, those Jews who had not converted to Catholicism were expelled. Many Jews settled in Portugal, where they were expelled in 1497.
Similarly the Muslims of Iberia were forced to convert or face either death or expulsion. This happened even though the Granadan Muslims had been assured of religious freedom at the time of their surrender. Between 1500 and 1502 all remaining Muslims of Granada and Castile were converted. In 1525, Muslims in Aragon were similarly forced to convert. The Muslim communities who converted became known as Moriscos. Still they were suspected by the old Christians of being crypto-Muslims and so between 1609 and 1614 their entire population of 300,000 was forcibly expelled. All these expulsions and conversions resulted in Catholic Christianity becoming the sole sanctioned religion in the Iberian Peninsula.
David Nirenberg challenges the significance of the age of "convivencia", claiming that far from a "peaceful convivencia" his own work "demonstrates that violence was a central and systemic aspect of the coexistence of majority and minority in medieval Spain, and even suggests that coexistence was in part predicated on such violence".
Mark Cohen, professor of Near Eastern studies at Princeton University, in his Under Crescent and Cross, calls the "idealized" interfaith utopia a "myth" that was first promulgated by Jewish historians such as Heinrich Graetz in the 19th century as a rebuke to Christian countries for their treatment of Jews. This myth was met with what Cohen calls the "counter-myth" of the "neo-lachrymose conception of Jewish-Arab history" by Bat Yeor and others, which also "cannot be maintained in the light of historical reality". Cohen aims to present a correction to both these "myths".
The Spanish mediaevalist Eduardo Manzano Moreno wrote that the concept of convivencia has no support in the historical record [“el concepto de convivencia no tiene ninguna apoyatura histórica“]. He further states that there is scarcely any information available on the Jewish and Christian communities during the Caliphate of Cordoba, and that this may come as a shock in view of the huge clout of the convivencia meme [“... quizá pueda resultar chocante teniendo en cuenta el enorme peso del tópico convivencial.”] Dr. Manzano attributes the genesis of the convivencia myth to the Spanish philologist Américo Castro (1885-1972). But Castro’s conception “… was never converted into a specific and well-documented treatment of el-Andalus, perhaps because Castro never succeeded in finding in the Arabist bibliography materials suitable for incorporation into his interpretation …”
- Al-Andalus (Moorish-governed Iberia)
- Moors (Muslims in Al-Andalus)
- Muladi (Christian converts to Islam)
- Mozarab (Christians in Al-Andalus)
- Mudéjar (Muslims in Christendom)
- Sephardim (Jews in Iberia)
- Morisco (Muslim converts to Catholism)
- Pablo Alvaro (a Jewish convert to Catholicism)
- Bishop Bodo (a Catholic convert to Judaism)
- Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain
- Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula
- Muslim conquests
Sources and further reading
- Ariel, Yaakov: “Was there a Golden Age of Christian-Jewish Relations?” Presentation at a Conference at Boston College, April 2010.
- Catlos, Brian. The Victors and the Vanquished • Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300, 2004. ISBN 0-521-82234-3.
- Esperanza Alfonso, Islamic culture through Jewish eyes : al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century ; 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5.
- Fernández-Morera, Darío : "The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise" ; in: the Intercollegiate Review, Fall 2006, pp. 23–31.
- Mann, Vivian B., Glick, Thomas F., Dodds, & Jerrilynn Denise, Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain. G. Braziller, 1992. ISBN 0-8076-1286-3.
- O'Shea, Stephen. Sea of Faith: Islam and Christianity in the Medieval Mediterranean World. Walker & Company, 2006. ISBN 0-8027-1517-6.
- Pick, Lucy. Conflict and Coexistence: Archbishop Rodrigo and the Muslims and Jews of Medieval Spain. Oxbow Books, 2004. ISBN 0-472-11387-9.
- María Rosa Menocal, "Ornament of the World • How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain", 2003. ISBN 0-316-56688-8.
- Dass, Nirmal (20 April 2016). "Review of The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise: Muslims, Christians, and Jews Under Islamic Rule in Medieval Spain". Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- , Qurtuba: Algunas reflexiones críticas sobre el califato de Córdoba y el mito de la convivencia [Qurtuba: Some Critical Reflections on the Caliphate of Cordova and the Convivencia Myth], by Eduardo Manzano Moreno, Awraq n.° 7. 2013, pp 226-246
Hughes, Aaron W. (2012). Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780199934645. Retrieved 6 Jan 2019.
[...] when contemporary ecumenicists appeal to the 'Golden Age' of tolerance witnessed in a place such as tenth- and eleventh-century Cordoba in Muslim Spain, they are rarely interested in the particulars of the interactions among these three religions 'on the ground.' On the contrary,they make appeals to categories that carry much valence in the modern world (such as 'tolerance'), but that clearly would have had little or no meaning in the time in question.
- Carroll, James (2001), Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews, Chapter 33. Houghton Mifflin, Co., Boston.
- Denise., Dodds, Jerrilynn (2008). The arts of intimacy : Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the making of Castilian culture. Menocal, Maria Rosa., Balbale, Abigail Krasner. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300142143. OCLC 213407379.
- Amir Hussain, “Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue,” in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 257 (Oneworld Publications, 2003).
- Menocal, María Rosa (2002), "The Ornament of the World: how Muslims, Jews, and Christians created a culture of tolerance in medieval Spain", Little, Brown, Boston.
- James L. Heft, “The Necessity of Inter-Faith Diplomacy: The Catholic/Muslim Dialogue” The First Sheridan-Campbell Lecture Given at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, Malta, May 20, 2011.
- Lowenstein, Steven (2001). The Jewish Cultural Tapestry: International Jewish Folk Traditions. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780195313604.
- Kidner, Frank; Bucur, Maria; Mathisen, Ralph; McKee, Sally; Weeks, Theodore (2013). Making Europe: The Story of the West (2 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 376. ISBN 9781285415185.
- Nirenberg, David, Communities of violence • Persecution of Minorities in the Middle ages. Princeton University Press, 1996. P. 9.
- Cohen, Mark R. (October 1995). Under Crescent and Cross. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X.
- Lasker, Daniel J.; Cohen, Mark R. (July 1997). "Under Crescent and Cross. The Jews in the Middle Ages". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 88 (1/2): 76. doi:10.2307/1455066.
- Sarah-Mae Thomas. The Convivencia in Islamic Spain July - August 2013
- Rageh Omaar An Islamic History of Europe. Video documentary of 90 minutes for BBC Four, 2005.
- Catherine Bott. Convivencia. Music CD of Spanish and Moorish songs from the period.
- Convivencia. International research project.
- Cities of Light is a 6 min video about collaboration between Spanish Jewish, Muslim and Christian scientists in 12th century Spain. It features the works of Maimonides (Jewish philosopher) and Averroes (Muslim philosopher).