La Crosse, Wisconsin
|City of La Crosse|
Downtown La Crosse
Location of La Crosse in La Crosse County, Wisconsin.
|• Type||Mayor-council government|
|• Mayor||Mitch Reynolds (D)|
|• City||23.79 sq mi (61.61 km2)|
|• Land||21.70 sq mi (56.21 km2)|
|• Water||2.08 sq mi (5.40 km2)|
|Elevation||669 ft (204 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||US: 609th|
|• Density||2,360.36/sq mi (911.34/km2)|
|• Urban||100,868 (US: 298th)|
|• Metro||136,934 (US: 297th)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (Central)|
54601, 54602, 54603
|GNIS feature ID||1567672|
|Airports||La Crosse Regional Airport|
La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County. Positioned alongside the Mississippi River, La Crosse is the largest city on Wisconsin's western border. La Crosse's estimated population in 2019 was 51,227. The city forms the core of and is the principal city in the La Crosse Metropolitan Area, which includes all of La Crosse County and Houston County, Minnesota, for a population of 135,298.
A regional technology, medical, education, manufacturing, and transportation hub, companies based in the La Crosse area include Organic Valley, Logistics Health Incorporated, Kwik Trip, La Crosse Technology, City Brewing Company, and Trane.
The first Europeans to see the region were French fur traders who traveled the Mississippi River in the late 17th century. There is no written record of any visit to the site until 1805, when Lt. Zebulon Pike mounted an expedition up the Mississippi River for the United States. Pike recorded the location's name as "Prairie La Crosse". The name originated from the game with sticks that resembled a bishop's crozier or la crosse in French, which was played by Native Americans there.
The first white settlement at La Crosse occurred in 1841 when Nathan Myrick, a New York native, moved to the village at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin to work in the fur trade. Myrick was disappointed to find that because many fur traders were already well-entrenched there, there were no openings for him in the trade. As a result, he decided to establish a trading post upriver at the then still unsettled site of Prairie La Crosse. In 1841, he built a temporary trading post on Barron Island (now called Pettibone Park), which lies just west of La Crosse's present downtown. The following year, Myrick relocated the post to the mainland prairie, partnering with H. J. B. Miller to run the outfit.
The spot Myrick chose to build his trading post proved ideal for settlement. It was near the junction of the Black, La Crosse, and Mississippi Rivers. In addition, the post was built at one of the few points along the Wisconsin side of the Mississippi River where a broad plain ideal for development existed between the river's bank and the tall bluffs that line the river valley. Because of these advantages, a small village grew around Myrick's trading post in the 1840s.
A small Mormon community settled at La Crosse in 1844, building several dozen cabins a few miles south of Myrick's post. Although these settlers relocated away from the Midwest after just a year, the land they occupied near La Crosse continues to bear the name Mormon Coulee. On June 23, 1850, Father James Lloyd Breck of the Episcopal Church said the first Christian liturgy on top of Grandad Bluff. Today a monument to that event stands atop the bluff, near the parking lot at a scenic overlook.
More permanent development took place closer to Myrick's trading post, where stores, a hotel, and a post office were constructed during the 1840s. Under the direction of Timothy Burns, lieutenant governor of Wisconsin, surveyor William Hood platted the village in 1851. This opened it up for further settlement, which was achieved rapidly as a result of promotion of the city in eastern newspapers. By 1855, La Crosse had grown in population to nearly 2,000 residents, leading to its incorporation in 1856. The city grew even more rapidly after 1858 with the completion of the La Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad, the second railroad connecting Milwaukee to the Mississippi River.
During the second half of the 19th century, La Crosse grew to become one of the largest cities in Wisconsin. It was a center of the lumber industry, for logs cut in the interior of the state could be rafted down the Black River toward sawmills built in the city. La Crosse also became a center for the brewing industry and other manufacturers that saw advantages in the city's location adjacent to major transportation arteries, such as the Mississippi River and the railroad between Milwaukee and St. Paul, Minnesota.
Around the turn of the 20th century, the city became a center for education, with three colleges and universities established in the city between 1890 and 1912. In 2016, Mayors Tim Kabat and John Medinger issued a proclamation apologizing for La Crosse's history as a sundown town that discriminated against African Americans.
La Crosse remains the largest city on Wisconsin's western border, and the educational institutions in the city have recently led it toward becoming a regional technology and medical hub.
La Crosse is located on the western border of the midsection of Wisconsin, on a broad alluvial plain along the east side of the Mississippi River. The Black River empties into the Mississippi north of the city, and the La Crosse River flows into the Mississippi just north of the downtown area. Just upriver from its mouth, this river broadens into a marshland that splits the city into two distinct sections, north and south.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.54 square miles (58.38 km2), of which, 20.52 square miles (53.15 km2) is land and 2.02 square miles (5.23 km2) is water.
Surrounding the relatively flat prairie valley where La Crosse lies are towering 500-foot bluffs, one of the most prominent of which is Grandad Bluff (mentioned in Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain), which has an overlook of the three states region. This feature typifies the topography of the Driftless Area in which La Crosse sits. This rugged region is composed of high ridges dissected by narrow valleys called coulees, a French term. As a result, the area around La Crosse is frequently referred to as the "Coulee Region".
La Crosse's location in the United States' upper midwest gives the area a temperate, continental climate. The warmest month of the year is July, when the average high temperature is 84.1 °F (28.9 °C), with overnight low temperatures averaging 63.2 °F (17.3 °C). January is the coldest month, with high temperatures averaging 25.9 °F (−3.4 °C), with the overnight low temperatures around 8.9 °F (−12.8 °C).
|Climate data for La Crosse Regional Airport, Wisconsin (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1872–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||57
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||46
|Average high °F (°C)||27.4
|Daily mean °F (°C)||18.9
|Average low °F (°C)||10.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−14
|Record low °F (°C)||−43
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.25
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||11.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.2||8.5||9.9||12.2||13.3||11.8||10.1||9.4||9.6||9.2||8.9||9.8||122.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||8.6||7.2||4.5||2.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||3.2||7.5||33.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72.8||72.2||70.6||64.2||65.0||69.5||72.1||75.2||77.2||71.3||75.4||77.3||71.9|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||7.5
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and dew point 1961–1990)|
Neighborhoods and districts
La Crosse has 13 voting districts (wards). Neighborhoods within the city include:
- Historic Cass & King
- Historic downtown
- Northside (Upper and Lower) and Old Towne North
- Grandview Emerson
- Weigent Hogan
- College Park (UW–La Crosse campus district)
- Springbrook Clayton Johnson
|U.S. Decennial Census|
According to 2013–2018 ACS estimates, the median household income was $43,516 and the median family income was $59,461. Males had a median income of $40,772 versus $33,325 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,282. About 10.1% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
At the 2010 census, there were 51,320 people, 21,428 households and 9,691 families residing in the city. The population has density was 2,501.5 per square mile (965.6/km2). There were 22,628 housing units at an average density of 1,102.7 per square mile (425.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 89.8% White, 2.3% African American, 0.6% Native American, 4.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population.
There were 21,428 households, of which 19.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.8% were non-families. 37.7% of all households were composed of individuals, and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.86.
16.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 26.5% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.
La Crosse is the episcopal see for the Roman Catholic Diocese of La Crosse. The Cathedral of Saint Joseph the Workman serves as the seat of the Diocese. The city is also home to St. Rose of Viterbo Convent, the mother house of the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, and the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. An independent catholic school district in the city, La Crosse Aquinas Catholic Schools, is also overseen by the diocese.
Protestant churches in the city include Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist, Vineyard, Presbyterian, and independent traditions. The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod has five churches in La Crosse: First Lutheran Church, Grace Lutheran Church, Immanuel Lutheran Church, Mt. Calvary Lutheran Church, and St. John's Lutheran Church.
Christ Church of La Crosse, the city's Episcopal church, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. St. Elias Antiochian Orthodox Church, the city's Eastern Orthodox Church, is listed on the city's local register of Historic places.
The city is also home to the Congregation Sons of Abraham, a jewish synagogue; the Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of La Crosse, which has held services since 1951; the Islamic Society Othman Bin Afaan; and the Hmong Faith Alliance Church.
La Crosse is the home and current global headquarters of several corporations and organizations, including:
- Allergy Associates of La Crosse and Allergychoices, Inc., national allergy clinic and allergy services organization
- Altra Federal Credit Union, regional credit union
- City Brewing Company, former Heileman Old Style brewery
- Franciscan Skemp Medical Center, health care network with flagship campus in La Crosse
- Gundersen Health System, health care network with flagship campus in La Crosse
- Kwik Trip, regional gas and convenience stores
- La Crosse Technology, manufacturer of atomic clocks and weather stations
- Marine Credit Union, regional credit union
Corporations founded and formerly headquartered in La Crosse include:
- Cargill, America's now largest privately held corporation founded in La Crosse
- La Croix Sparkling Water, carbonated drink originally created by the G. Heileman Brewing Company
- LaCrosse Footwear, footwear company founded in 1897
- Trane, international air conditioning, acquired by Ingersoll-Rand in 2008
- Gundersen Health System
- Mayo Clinic Health System (Franciscan Skemp Medical Center)
- Kwik Trip
- La Crosse County
- School District of La Crosse
- University of Wisconsin–La Crosse
- Logistics Health Incorporated
- City of La Crosse
- Western Technical College
La Crosse and the surrounding communities form a regional commercial center and shopping hub. In the northeastern region of the city lies the area's largest shopping center, Valley View Mall. The surrounding area includes numerous big-box stores, and many restaurants. Other shopping centers in the La Crosse region include Three Rivers Plaza, Marsh View Center, Shelby Mall, Jackson Plaza, Bridgeview Plaza, and the Village Shopping Center. Downtown La Crosse has experienced significant growth in recent years, providing shopping, farmers' markets, hotels, restaurants, and specialty shops.
Arts and culture
La Crosse has over 30 active arts organizations. The Pump House Regional Arts Center hosts visual arts exhibits throughout the year plus its own series of jazz, folk, and blues performers. The La Crosse Symphony is the city's regional orchestra and the La Crosse Community Theater has won both regional and national acclaim. The city is home to the Blue Stars Drum and Bugle Corps, a member of Drum Corps International. Other arts sites include Viterbo University Fine Arts building, UW–La Crosse Art Gallery and Theater, and the La Crosse Center, which hosts national performers. Local sculptor Elmer Petersen has created sculptures that are exhibited throughout the downtown area, including La Crosse Players and the Eagle in Riverside Park. It also hosts a yearly St Patrick's Day Parade as well as Irishfest La Crosse in August
The La Crosse Center, a convention center and arena located in downtown La Crosse on the Mississippi River, hosts a variety of sporting events, concerts, exhibits, and shows. The city annually hosts Oktoberfest USA, an Oktoberfest celebration first established in 1961 which draws crowds of over 100,000 people.
Parks and recreation
The La Crosse Loggers of the Northwoods League, play baseball at their home field at Copeland Park on the north side of La Crosse in the summer months. In 2017, the La Crosse Showtime began play in the American Basketball Association at La Crosse Center. In the past, the La Crosse Center has been home to the Catbirds and the Bobcats of the CBA, as well as the River Rats of the IFL, the Spartans of the IFL and the Night Train of the NIFL. In the winter season, the Coulee Region Chill is a junior team in the North American 3 Hockey League at the Green Island Ice Arena. Additionally, the area's only ski hill, Mt. La Crosse, opened in 1959 and has 18 slopes and trails. The ski hill is home to Damnation!, Mid-America's steepest trail.
The University of Wisconsin–La Crosse's Eagles compete in NCAA Division III. The university's 10,000 seat Veterans Memorial Field for football (turf field) and outdoor timed track opened in 2009 and hosts the WIAA Wisconsin high school outdoor track and field state championships.
Riverside Park is situated on the riverfront of downtown La Crosse near the Blue Bridges. It hosts events such as Riverfest, Fourth of July fireworks, Oktoberfest, and the Rotary Lights. Several steamboats make stops along the river in the park, including the American Queen, La Crosse Queen, and Julia Belle Swain. The park has walking/running trails. The park was previously home to a controversial Statue of Hiawatha. Long standing public debate about whether the statue was offensive or presented a caricature based on stereotypes of Native Americans eventually led to its removal in 2020, nearly 60 years after it was erected.
Pettibone Park is located on Baron Island, across the river from Riverside Park and the downtown area. The island was originally park of the state of Minnesota. The land was transferred to Wisconsin and eventually the City of La Crosse following a border dispute that was resolved in 1919. Today the park has a variety of recreational facilities, including a beach and disc golf course.
An extensive marsh, a natural floodplain created by the La Crosse River, divides the city between north and south. The area is protected as an important wildlife habitat and watershed to the Mississippi River. Several biking and walking paths cross through the marshland, which is also used for canoeing, fishing, and trapping. On the southern end of the marsh lies Myrick Park. The park was named after the city's first European settler: Nathan Myrick. It has many recreational amenities as well as a nature center and environmental education department. Hunting and fishing are very popular all seasons of the year, and the Mississippi and other rivers, sloughs, creeks, lakes, the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife Refuge, and hilltops and valleys with public woodlands are available to sportsmen and families.
The city government employs a weak mayor form of the mayor-council system. The mayor is elected at-large, while the 13 members of the Common Council are elected per aldermanic districts. The mayor is Tim Kabat, a progressive.
Both the city and county of La Crosse have voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1988. In the 2016 Presidential Election, Hillary Clinton won by 52% of the City of La Crosse. In the 2012 presidential election, Barack Obama won 65% of the city of La Crosse and 58% of La Crosse County. In 2014, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ranked La Crosse as one of Wisconsin's top performing Democratic cities.
In the United States Congress, Democrat Ron Kind has represented La Crosse as part of Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district since 1997. The city is almost coterminous with the 95th Wisconsin State Assembly District and is represented by Democrat Jill Billings. Additionally, Democrat Steve Doyle currently represents suburban La Crosse County in the 94th Assembly District. La Crosse is part of the State Senate District 32 and is represented by Democrat Jennifer Shilling.
- Thomas Benton Stoddard (1856)
- Erasmus D. Campbell (1857)
- David Taylor (1858)
- James I. Lyndes (D) (1859)
- John M. Levy (1860)
- Wilson Colwell (1861)
- Albert W. Pettibone (1862–1864)
- William J. Lloyd (1865)
- John M. Levy (1866–1867)
- Theodore Rodolf (1868)
- Charles. L. Colman (1869)
- Theodore Rodolf (1870)
- Alexander McMillan (1871)
- James I. Lyndes (1872)
- Gysbert Van Steenwyk, Sr. (1873)
- Gilbert M. Woodward (1874)
- James J. Hogan (1875–1876)
- George Edwards (1877)
- David Law (1878–1879)
- Joseph Clark (1880)
- Hiram F. Smiley (1881)
- David Law (1882–1883)
- W. A. Roosevelt (1884)
- D. Frank Powell (1885–1886)
- David Austin (1887–1889)
- John Dengler (1889–1891)
- F. A. Copeland (1891–1893)
- D. Frank Powell (1893–1897)
- James McCord (1897–1899)
- W. A. Anderson (1899–1901)
- Joseph Boschert (1901–1903)
- William Torrance (1903–1907)
- Ori J. Sorenson (1909–1911)
- W. A. Anderson (1907–1909)
- Ori J. Sorenson (1909–1911)
- John Denger (1911–1913)
- Ori J. Sorenson (1913–1915)
- Arthur A. Bentley (1915–1923)
- Joseph J. Verchota (1923–1929)
- John E. Langdon (1929–1931)
- Joseph J. Verchota (1931–1935)
- C. August Boerner (1935–1939)
- Joseph J. Verchota (1939–1947)
- Charles A. Beranek (1947–1949)
- Henry J. Ahrens (1949–1955)
- Milo Knutson (1955–1965)
- Warren Loveland (1965–1971)
- W. Peter Gilbertson (1971–1975)
- Patrick Zielke (April 20, 1975–April 15, 1997)
- John Medinger (April 15, 1997–April 19, 2005)
- Mark Johnsrud (April 19, 2005–April 21, 2009)
- Mathias Harter (April 21, 2009–April 16, 2013)
- Tim Kabat (April 16, 2013–April 20, 2021)
- Mitch Reynolds (April 20, 2021–present)
The La Crosse area is served by the School District of La Crosse, with an enrollment of 6,632 students in 2017, making it the 16th largest school district in the state. The district has 19 elementary, middle, high and charter schools. La Crosse Central High School and Logan High School are the two public high schools serving the La Crosse area. The La Crosse School District has 631 teachers.
Catholic private schools in La Crosse include La Crosse Aquinas Catholic Schools, a Roman Catholic school district affiliated with the Diocese of La Crosse, which is centered in the city and includes Aquinas High School and Aquinas Middle School. Another Roman Catholic school, the Providence Academy, is independent from the district and has no affiliation with the Diocese.
Lutheran private schools in La Crosse include First Lutheran School, Immanuel Lutheran School, and Mt. Calvary-Grace Lutheran School, which are part of the La Crosse Area Lutheran Schools organization and affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Luther High School is in Onalaska, Wisconsin.
La Crosse is the home of three regional colleges and universities, the public University of Wisconsin–La Crosse, Western Technical College, and the Roman Catholic Viterbo University. The Health Science Center is a combined effort of all the La Crosse medical centers, universities and government agencies to advance students in the medical fields.
La Crosse's largest newspaper is the daily La Crosse Tribune which serves the Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa regions. Free weekly tabloids include the Foxxy Shopper and the Buyer's Express. The Racquet is the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse's free weekly paper.
Coulee Parenting Connection is a magazine serving families in the La Crosse area. Coulee Region Women is a magazine serving the community.
|10.1||W34FC-D||NBC||KTTC 10||10.3||Heroes & Icons|
|KQEG-TV 23/51/Cable 5|
|30.1||WEAU-DT||NBC||WEAU 13 News||30.2
Heroes & Icons
|AM radio stations|
|1410 AM||WIZM||News talk 1410||News/Talk|
|1490 AM||WLXR||Eagle 1490||Oldies|
|1560 AM||WKBH||Relevant Radio||Catholic|
|FM radio stations|
|88.9 FM||WLSU||Wisconsin Public Radio||Classic|
|90.3 FM||WHLA||Wisconsin Public Radio||NPR|
|91.1 FM||KXLC||Minnesota Public Radio||NPR|
|News talk 1410||News/Talk|
|93.3 FM||WIZM||Z93.3||Top 40 (CHR)|
|94.5 FM||WTMB||Classic Rock 94.5||Classic rock|
|94.7 FM||KCLH||Classic Hits 94.7||Classic Hits|
|95.7 FM||WRQT||95.7 The Rock||Active Rock|
|96.1 FM||WXYM||Mix 96.1||Hot AC|
|97.1 FM||WCOW||Cow 97.1 Country||Country|
|The Prayz Network||Christian|
|98.9 FM||WVCX||VCY America||Christian|
|100.1 FM||WLCW||K-Love||Christian Contemporary|
|101.1 FM||KRIV||Soft Rock 101.1||Soft AC|
|102.7 FM||WKBH-FM||102.7 WKBH||Classic Rock|
|104.9 FM||WGSL||Prayz Network||Christian Contemporary|
|105.5 FM||WFBZ||105.5 ESPN||Sports|
|106.3 FM||WQCC||Kicks 106.3||Country|
|Mix 96.1||Hot AC|
The La Crosse Regional Airport, located on French Island, provides direct scheduled passenger service to Minneapolis, Detroit, and Chicago through Delta Air Lines link Endeavor Air, as well as American Airlines link Envoy Air. Sun Country and Xtra Airways provide charter service to Laughlin, Elko, Nevada, and other destinations. The airport also serves general aviation for the La Crosse region.
The city is served by several major highways and Interstate, including Interstate 90, U.S. Highway 14, U.S. Highway 53, U.S. Highway 61, Wisconsin State Highway 35, Wisconsin State Highway 16, Wisconsin State Highway 33.
The Mississippi River Bridge, also known as the Cass St. bridge and the newer Cameron Street bridge (photo with blue arch) both connect downtown La Crosse with La Crescent, Minnesota. These two bridges cross the Mississippi River, as does the Interstate 90 bridge located just northwest of La Crosse, connecting Wisconsin and Minnesota.
In 2012, the City of La Crosse was the first city in Wisconsin to pass a Green Complete Streets ordinance. This ordinance requires that when roads are reconstructed the needs of stormwater management and the safety of bicycles and pedestrians are taken into account in the new design.
Railroad tracks owned by Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF) pass through La Crosse providing freight service. The former Milwaukee and La Crosse Railroad/Milwaukee Road/Soo Line and now Canadian Pacific Railway runs through the city as well. It provides the track on which the La Crosse Amtrak station is located, served daily by the Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle or Portland.
La Crosse's tap drinking water, which is raised from a deep underground Artesian aquifer, won the best natural tasting water award in September 2007 in a statewide tasting competition hosted by the Wisconsin Water Association. The city competed against groundwater and surface water utilities from Algoma, Appleton, Green Bay, Madison, Milwaukee, Pell Lake, Shawano, Shawano Lake and Watertown at the annual meeting of the association. La Crosse's drinking water is pumped from deep ground wells to a distribution center and is treated with chlorine and fluoride; some wells are also treated with polyphosphate.
Gundersen Health System is a nationally ranked health care system located in La Crosse that is also an ACS nationally certified Level II Trauma Center. It is the primary hospital associated with the Gundersen Clinic medical group and the location of the Western campus for the University of Wisconsin Medical School. With its main campus located in La Crosse, the system also manages 23 locations throughout Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa with nearly 6,000 employees. In 2014, Gundersen Health received the Healthgrades America's 50 Best Hospitals™ designation, placing the system among the top 1 percent of hospitals nationwide.
The Franciscan Skemp Medical Center is an affiliate of the Mayo Clinic. Franciscan Skemp, which was the first western Wisconsin hospital to open its doors in 1883 as St. Francis Hospital, was started by the Catholic Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, who still are associated with the medical center. In 1995, Franciscan Skemp merged with Mayo Clinic Health Systems in Rochester, Minnesota, located 60 miles away. A new trauma and emergency department, helicopter pad, and surgery wing recently opened in 2007.
The Health Science Center, located on the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse campus, is a combined effort of both medical centers, UW–La Crosse, Viterbo University, Western College, the School District of La Crosse, and various government educational groups. The purpose was to prepare and train students for advancement in the medical field.
- Bantry, County Cork, Ireland
- Dubna, Moscow Oblast, Russia
- Épinal, Vosges, Grand Est, France
- Friedberg, Bavaria, Germany
- Førde, Norway
- Kumbo, Cameroon
- Luoyang, Henan, China
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "The Best Small Places For Business And Careers: La Crosse, WI". Forbes. October 24, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: La Crosse city, Wisconsin". www.census.gov.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- "La Crosse: Origin of La Crosse, Wisconsin". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Diary of Zebulon Pike, September 12, 1805, in Elliott Coues, The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. 1. New York: Harper, 1895, pp. 49-51.
- La Crosse County History: Brief History of La Crosse County, 1841-1905. La Crosse Public Library. Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Mormons in Wisconsin". Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. January 2011. Archived from the original on 13 Jan 2013.
- Charles Breck, ed. (1883). The Life of the Reverend James Lloyd Breck, D.D. Project Canterbury. New York: E. & J. B. Young.
- "La Crosse". visitbluffcountry.com. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- Vian, Jourdan (December 11, 2016). "La Crosse mayors acknowledge city's inequitable past". Star Tribune. Minneapolis. p. B8 – via Newspapers.com.
The proclamation came a little over a month after Kabat apologized for La Crosse's history as a 'sundown town,' a city or village with either formal or informal codes that pushed black people out of the community after sundown, after a presentation from sociologist James Loewen at La Crosse City Hall. Loewen was invited by the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and the city's Human Rights Commission.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "Wisconsin State Climatology Office". University of Wisconsin. 2006. Retrieved 5 November 2006.
- "Monthly Averages for La Crosse, WI". The Weather Channel. 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Station: La Crosse Muni AP, WI". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "La Crosse/Municipal AP, WI Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- "Voting Districts". City of La Crosse.
- "Powell-Poage-Hamilton Neighborhood - La Crosse, WI". City of La Crosse. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- U.S. Census Bureau. "American FactFinder". Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2015-01-11.
- U.S. Census website. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
- "First Evangelical Lutheran Church in La Crosse, Wisconsin welcomes you!". First Evangelical Lutheran Church. Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- "Growing in Grace". Grace Evangelical Lutheran.
- "Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church of La Crosse - WELS Synod". Immanuel Lutheran Church.
- "Welcome to Mt. Calvary Lutheran Church". Mt. Calvary Evangelical Lutheran Church.
- "St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church Barre Mills". Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- "Our History". Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of La Crosse.
- "Why Altra?". Altra Federal Credit Union. Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- "La Crosse". City Brewing Company.
- "Our System - Gundersen Health System". www.gundersenhealth.org.
- "Our Story". Kwik Trip. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- "Our History - Cargill". www.cargill.com.
- Mike Tighe (August 24, 2012). "LaCrosse Footwear still in former workers' hearts". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "TRANE Our History". www.trane.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- "Largest Employers (La Crosse County)". La Crosse Tribune. September 1, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "Viterbo University: Fine Arts Center History". Viterbo University Fine Arts Center. Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- "Pump House Regional Arts Center". The Pump House.
- "Staff: La Crosse Community Theatre". La Crosse Community Theatre.
- Parlin, Geri (September 6, 2008). "Elmer at 80: Hand Petersen the welding torch — there's more art to create". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- "Welcome to Irishfest LaCrosse". April 2020..
- "La Crosse Loggers - Makin' Memories... One Game at a Time!". La Crosse Loggers.
- "Coulee Region Chill sold and relocated to Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin". North American Hockey League. April 30, 2018.
- "About Mt. La Crosse". Mt. La Crosse Skiing and Snowboarding. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
- "Investing in our Facilities: UW-L Veterans Memorial Field Sports Complex". University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
- "LaCrosse Fairgrounds Speedway FAQ". La Crosse Speedway. Archived from the original on January 25, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Riverside Park". City of La Crosse. Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Tribune, Olivia Herken La Crosse (2020-07-17). "The history behind the Hiawatha statue: What's behind the name, intent and controversy?". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
- Tribune, Olivia Herken La Crosse (2020-07-22). "Petition and Ho-Chunk leaders continue discussion over Hiawatha statue in La Crosse". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
- "Hometown Icon: Pettibone Park". La Crosse Tribune. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- "La Crosse River Marsh: History of an Urban Wetland". La Crosse Public Library Archives. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
- "Myrick Park Center & Myrick Marsh". TravelWisconsin. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
- "Elected Officials". City of La Crosse. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- "Council's New Gang of 5 Seek Mood of Cooperation at City Hall". WXOW. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- "Wisconsin presidential election results, 1964 to 2008". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. November 4, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2009.
- "Official Canvas 2012 November General La Crosse Wisconsin November 6, 2012". Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Politico Online. "Politico Wisconsin 2012 Election Results". Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- Craig Gilbert (December 3, 2014). "The reddest and bluest places in Wisconsin". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Benjamin F. Bryant (ed.). Memoirs of La Crosse County from Earliest Historical Times Down to the Present. Madison, Wis.: Western Historical Association, 1907, pp. 200-201.
- The Political Graveyard. Mayors of La Crosse, Wisconsin.
- Usher, Ellis Baker (1914). Wisconsin: Its Story and Biography, 1848–1913, Vol. 6. Chicago: Lewis publishing Company. p. 1418.
- "Photographers of Fargo - Exhibition - A. A. Bentley". Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University. 2001.
- "Milo Knutson, former senator dies". The Milwaukee Journal, March 22, 1981, p. 14.
- "Voters Oust Mayor at La Crosse". The Milwaukee Journal, April 7, 1971, p. 13.
- "A North-Sider is elected mayor: It only took 128 years". www.tmcnet.com.
- 'Swantz elected Common Council President,' La Crosse Tribune. April 16, 2013.
- Herken, Olivia (20 April 2021). "Mayor Reynolds, new city council with female majority officially take office". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
- "District Report Card" (PDF). Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
- School District of La Crosse Profile of Excellence[permanent dead link]
- "Welcome to Aquinas Catholic Schools". Aquinas Catholic Schools. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- "Providence Academy". Providence Academy.
- "La Crosse Area Lutheran Schools - Elementary Schools". www.lalschools.org.
- "Healthcare, Education, and Employment". La Crosse Area Development Corporation. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
- "Airport". City of La Crosse. Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Samantha Marcus (March 2, 2008). "MTU buses cruise to 1 million served". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "Gundersen Health System". www.gundluth.org.
- "Gundersen Health System". www.gundluth.org.
- "Gundersen Health System Newsroom - Gundersen Health System". www.gundersenhealth.org.
- "Home - Mayo Clinic Health System". www.mayohealthsystem.org.
- "Health Science Center". La Crosse Medical Health Science Consortium.
- "La Crosse: Sister Cities". City of La Crosse, Wisconsin. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
- "US to copy waterfall". Aftenposten Newspaper. 10 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007.
- Crocker, Leslie F. Places and Spaces: A Century of Public Buildings, Bridges and Parks in La Crosse, Wisconsin. La Crosse, Wis. 2012.
- Marcou, David J. (ed.) Spirit of La Crosse: A Grassroots History. La Crosse, Wis.: Western Wisconsin Technical College, 2000.
- Morser, Eric J. Hinterland Dreams: The Political Economy of a Midwestern City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.