La Grande Illusion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

La Grande Illusion
Directed byJean Renoir
Written by
Produced by
  • Albert Pinkovitch
  • Frank Rollmer
CinematographyChristian Matras
Edited by
Music byJoseph Kosma
Distributed byRéalisation d'Art Cinématographique
Release date
  • 8 June 1937 (1937-06-08)
Running time
114 minutes
  • French
  • German
  • English
Box office$414,620 (US re-release)[1]

La Grande Illusion (French for "The Grand Illusion") is a 1937 French war drama film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who are German prisoners of war during World War I and are plotting an escape.

The title of the film comes from the 1909 book The Great Illusion by British journalist Norman Angell, which argued that war is futile because of the common economic interests of all European nations. The perspective of the film is generously humanistic to its characters of various nationalities.

La Grande Illusion is regarded by critics and film historians as one of the masterpieces of French cinema[2] and among the greatest films ever made. Orson Welles named La Grande Illusion as one of the two movies he would take with him "on the ark".[3] Director and producer Sydney Pollack picked La Grande Illusion as one of his ten favorite films of all time.[4]

In 1958, the film was voted number 5 on the prestigious Brussels 12 list at the 1958 World Expo. In 1995, the Vatican included La Grande Illusion in its list of 45 "great films" under the category of "Art."[5] Empire magazine ranked it #35 in "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[6]


Pierre Fresnay and Erich von Stroheim in Rauffenstein's Wintersborn office

During the First World War, two French aviators of the Service Aéronautique, the aristocratic Captain de Boëldieu and the working-class Lieutenant Maréchal, set out to investigate a blurred spot found on reconnaissance photographs. They are shot down by German flying ace and aristocrat, Rittmeister von Rauffenstein, and both are taken prisoner by the Imperial German Army. Upon returning to the aerodrome, Rauffenstein sends a subordinate to find out if the aviators are officers and, if so, to invite them to lunch. During the meal, Rauffenstein and Boëldieu discover they have mutual acquaintances—a depiction of the familiarity, if not solidarity, within the upper classes that crosses national boundaries.

Boëldieu and Maréchal are then taken to a prisoner-of-war camp, where they meet a colorful group of French prisoners and stage a vaudeville-type performance just after the Germans have taken Fort Douaumont in the epic Battle of Verdun. During the performance, word arrives that the French have recaptured the fort. Maréchal interrupts the show, and the French prisoners spontaneously burst into "La Marseillaise". As a result of the disruption, Maréchal is placed in solitary confinement, where he suffers badly from lack of human contact and hunger; the fort changes hands once more while he is imprisoned. Boëldieu and Maréchal also help their fellow prisoners to finish digging an escape tunnel. However, just before it is completed, everyone is transferred to other camps. Because of the language barrier, Maréchal is unable to pass word of the tunnel to an incoming British prisoner.

Boëldieu and Maréchal are moved from camp to camp, finally arriving in Wintersborn, a mountain fortress prison commanded by Rauffenstein, who has been so badly injured in battle that he has been given a posting away from the front, much to his regret. Rauffenstein tells them that Wintersborn is escape-proof.

At Wintersborn, the pair are reunited with a fellow prisoner, Rosenthal, from the original camp. Rosenthal is a wealthy French Jew who generously shares the food parcels he receives. Boëldieu comes up with an idea, after carefully observing how the German guards respond to an emergency. He volunteers to distract the guards for the few minutes needed for Maréchal and Rosenthal to escape. After a commotion staged by the prisoners, the guards are ordered to assemble them in the fortress courtyard. During the roll call, it is discovered that Boëldieu is missing. He makes his presence known high up in the fortress, drawing the German guards away in pursuit. Maréchal and Rosenthal take the opportunity to lower themselves from a window by a homemade rope and flee.

Rauffenstein stops the guards from firing at Boëldieu and pleads with his friend to give himself up. Boëldieu refuses, and Rauffenstein reluctantly shoots him with his pistol, aiming for his legs but misses and accidentally (and fatally) hits him in the stomach. Nursed in his final moments by a grieving Rauffenstein, Boëldieu laments that the whole purpose of the nobility and their usefulness to both French and German culture is being destroyed by the war. He expresses pity for von Rauffenstein, who will have to find a new purpose in the postwar world.

Maréchal and Rosenthal journey across the German countryside, trying to reach neutral Switzerland. Rosenthal injures his foot, slowing Maréchal down. They quarrel and part, but then Maréchal returns to help his comrade. They take refuge in the modest farmhouse of a German woman, Elsa, who lost her husband at Verdun, along with three brothers, at battles which, with quiet irony, she describes as "our greatest victories". She takes them in and does not betray them to a passing army patrol. She and Maréchal fall in love, despite not speaking each other's language, but he and Rosenthal eventually leave from a sense of duty after Rosenthal recovers from his injury. Maréchal declares he will come back to Elsa and her young daughter, Lotte, if he survives the war.

A German patrol sights the two fugitives crossing a snow-covered valley. They fire a few rounds, but their commanding officer, hurrying to the scene, orders them to stop, saying the pair have crossed into Switzerland.

Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg, which appears in the film.


Political and historical themes[edit]

Renoir used the First World War (1914–1918) as a lens through which to examine Europe as it faced the rising spectre of fascism (especially in Nazi Germany) and the impending approach of the Second World War (1939–1945).[10] Renoir's critique of contemporary politics and ideology celebrates the universal humanity that transcends national and racial boundaries and radical nationalism, suggesting that mankind's common experiences should prevail above political division, and its extension: war.[11]

On the message of La Grande Illusion, Renoir himself said, in a film trailer, dating from the re-release of the film in 1958: "[La Grande Illusion is] a story about human relationships. I am confident that such a question is so important today that if we don't solve it, we will just have to say 'goodbye' to our beautiful world." Despite widespread interest in the subject, Renoir found it difficult to find a producer and distributor, having to "shop around" the project for years.[12]


La Grande Illusion examines the relationships between different social classes in Europe. Two of the main characters, Boëldieu and Rauffenstein, are aristocrats. They are represented as cosmopolitan men, educated in many cultures and conversant in several languages. Their level of education and their devotion to social conventions and rituals makes them feel closer to each other than to the lower class of their own nation. They share similar social experiences: dining at Maxim's in Paris, courting dalliances with the same woman, and even know of each other through acquaintances. They converse with each other in heavily formal French and German, and in moments of intimate personal conversation, escape into English as if to hide these comments from their lower class counterparts.[13]

Renoir depicts the rule of the aristocracy in La Grande Illusion as in decline, to be replaced by a new, emerging social order, led by men who were not born to privilege. He emphasizes that their class is no longer an essential component to their respective nation's politics.[11] Both Rauffenstein and Boëldieu view their military service as a duty, and see the war as having a purpose; as such, Renoir depicts them as laudable but tragic figures whose world is disappearing and who are trapped in a code of life that is rapidly becoming meaningless.[14] Both are aware that their time is past, but their reaction to this reality diverges: Boëldieu accepts the fate of the aristocracy as a positive improvement, but Rauffenstein does not, lamenting what he sarcastically calls the "charming legacy of the French Revolution".

In La Grande Illusion, Renoir contrasts the aristocrats with characters such as Maréchal (Gabin), a mechanic from Paris. The lower class characters have little in common with each other; they have different interests and are not worldly in their views or education. Nonetheless, they have a kinship too, through common sentiment and experience.[15]

Renoir's message is made clear when the aristocratic Boëldieu sacrifices himself by distracting the prison guards by dancing around, singing, and playing a flute, to allow Maréchal and Rosenthal, members of the lower class, to escape. Reluctantly and strictly out of duty, Rauffenstein is forced to shoot Boëldieu, an act that Boëldieu admits he would have been compelled to do were the circumstances reversed. However, in accepting his inevitable death, Boëldieu takes comfort in the idea that "For a commoner, dying in a war is a tragedy. But for you and me, it's a good way out", and states that he has pity for Rauffenstein who will struggle to find a purpose in the new social order of the world where his traditions, experiences, and background are obsolete.

The critique of the romantic idealization of duty in La Grande Illusion is comparable to that in the earlier film All Quiet on the Western Front (1930), based on the novel by Erich Maria Remarque.


In La Grande Illusion, Renoir briefly touches on the question of antisemitism through the character of Rosenthal, a son from a nouveau riche Jewish banking family (a parallel to the Rothschild banking family of France). His biographers believed that Renoir created this character to counter the rising anti-Jewish campaign enacted by Adolf Hitler's government in Nazi Germany.[15] Further, Rosenthal is shown as a symbol of humanity across class lines: though he may be financially wealthy, he shares his food parcels with everyone so that he and his fellow prisoners are well fed — when compared with their German captors. Through the character of Rosenthal, Renoir rebuffs Jewish stereotypes.

There is also a black French officer among the prisoners at Wintersborn who appears to be ignored by the other prisoners, and not accepted as an equal by them. When he speaks to them he is not responded to. For instance, when he shows his artwork, he is shrugged off.[16]


In La Grande Illusion Renoir seeks to refute the notion that war accomplishes anything, or that it can be used as a political tool to solve problems and create a better world. "That's all an illusion", says Rosenthal, speaking of the belief that this is the war that will end war forever.

La Grande Illusion is a war film without any depiction of battle. Instead, the prisoner of war camp setting is used as a space in which soldiers of many nations have a common experience. Renoir portrays war as a futile exercise. For instance, Elsa, the German widow, shows photos to Maréchal and Rosenthal of her husband and her brothers who were killed, respectively, at the battles of Verdun, Liège, Charleroi, and Tannenberg. The last three of these battles were amongst Germany's most celebrated victories in World War I. Through this device, Renoir refutes the notion that one common man's bravery, honor, or duty can make an impact on a great event. This undermines the idealistic intention of Maréchal and Rosenthal to return to the front, so that by returning to the fight they can help end this war.


Elements of La Grande Illusion are semi-autobiographical in nature. Jean Renoir was a reconnaissance pilot during World War I, and received a change of post after being wounded in action. Renoir's life was saved by a French pilot, Armand Pinsard, when he was under attack by a German Fokker in 1915, during the First World War.[17] In 1935, during the production of Toni, Pinsard recounted his WWI history, shot down seven times, captured seven times, and escaping seven times from German POW camps, inspiring Grand Illusion, and Pinsard became the model for Lt. Maréchal.[17] Renoir used his own uniform as Jean Gabin's costume in the film.[18] Several other cast members had also fought in the war, Marcel Dalio won the Croix de Guerre for his actions with the French artillery during the Action at Villers-Cotterêts (1914),[19] and Pierre Fresnay was in the army between 1916 and 1919. Renoir developed the screenplay with Charles Spaak,[20] and spent several years trying to finance it.[17] Through Albert Pinkévitch,[21] an assistant to the financier, Frank Rollmer,[22] and the attachment of Jean Gabin, private producers finally supported a small production budget.[17][23]

The casting of Erich von Stroheim came as Renoir was a great admirer of the director's films, and had inspired him to pursue filmmaking. According to Renoir's memoirs, Stroheim, despite having been born in Vienna, Austria (then the Austro-Hungarian Empire) did not speak much German as he had been living in the United States since 1909, and struggled with learning the language along with his lines in between filming scenes. Renoir eventually resorted to hiring a dialect coach to help Stroheim with his lines.

La Grande Illusion was filmed in the winter of 1936-37.[24][17] The exteriors of "Burg Wintersborn" were filmed at the Upper Koenigsbourg Castle in Alsace.[25] Other exteriors were filmed at the artillery barracks at Colmar (built by Wilhelm II) and at Neuf-Brisach on the Upper Rhine. The interiors were shot at Epinay and Billancourt Studios.


The score was written by the Hungarian composer Joseph Kosma, who also wrote the famous song "Autumn Leaves." The soundtrack also includes many well-known songs of the day from French, English, and German cultures. The uncredited musical director was the film and music critic Émile Vuillermoz, who had been a composer in his early career.


  • "Frou-Frou" (1897) lyrics written by Montréal and Blondeau, music by Henri Chatau, performed by Lucile Panis.[26]
  • "Il était un petit navire" ("There Once was a Little Ship"), played by Boëldieu with his penny whistle to distract the German guards from Rosenthal and Maréchal's escape, a traditional French song[27] about a shipwrecked sailor who must cannibalize another sailor to survive. Later in the film, the fugitives Rosenthal and Maréchal shout the song sarcastically at one another as they have a near falling out. The lyrics speak to their own condition of running out of food. As Maréchal realizes this, his singing trails off.
  • "Frère Jacques", a French nursery rhyme
  • "It's a Long Way to Tipperary"
  • "Si tu veux Marguerite" (1913) by Harry Fragson[28]
  • "La Marseillaise", the French national anthem



After the film won a prize at the Venice Film Festival for "Best Artistic Ensemble" in 1937, and was nominated for the International Jury Cup, the Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels declared La Grande Illusion "Cinematic Public Enemy No. 1"[2][29][30] and ordered the prints to be confiscated and destroyed. Fearing a decline in fighting morale, French authorities banned the film in 1940 pour la durée des hostilités (for the duration of hostilities).[31] This ban was renewed by the German Propaganda-Abteilung in October of the same year. When the German Army marched into France in 1940 during World War II, the Nazis seized the prints and negative of the film, chiefly because of its anti-war message, and what were perceived as ideological criticisms pointed towards Germany on the eve of the Second World War.[2]

La Grande Illusion was a massive hit in France, with an estimated 12 million admissions.[32]

United States and elsewhere[edit]

La Grande Illusion, released by World Pictures Corporation[33] in the U.S. premiered on 12 September 1938 in New York City; Frank S. Nugent in his review for The New York Times called La Grande Illusion a "strange and interesting film" that "owes much to his cast",[34]

Erich von Stroheim's appearance as von Rauffenstein reminds us again of Hollywood's folly in permitting so fine an actor to remain idle and unwanted. Pierre Fresnay's de Boeldieu is a model of gentlemanly decadence. Jean Gabin and Dalio as the fugitives, Dita Parlo as the German girl, and all the others are thoroughly right.

La Grande Illusion won the awards for Best Foreign Film at the 1938 New York Film Critics Circle Awards and at the 1938 National Board of Review Awards it was named the Best Foreign Language Film for that year.[35] At the 11th Academy Awards held on 23 February 1939, La Grande Illusion became the first foreign language film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.

At the time of its release, John Ford, impressed with the film, opted to remake it in English but was urged by studio chief Darryl F. Zanuck not to. "You'll never top it," he told Ford.[36]

Orson Welles, in an interview with Dick Cavett on 27 July 1970, expressed that if he only could save a handful of films that were not his own for future posterity, this would be one of those films.[37]

Martin Scorsese included it on a list of "39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker."[38]

Sixty years after its release, Janet Maslin called it "one of the most haunting of all war films" and an "oasis of subtlety, moral intelligence and deep emotion on the cinematic landscape"; according to Maslin:[39]

It seems especially disarming now in its genius for keeping its story indirect yet its meaning perfectly clear. Its greatest dramatic heights seem to occur almost effortlessly, as a tale of escape derived from the experience of one of Renoir's wartime comrades evolves into a series of unforgettable crises and stirring sacrifices.

Film critic Roger Ebert also reviewed the film after its 1999 re-release, and added it to his list of The Great Movies:[29]

Apart from its other achievements, Jean Renoir's Grand Illusion influenced two famous later movie sequences. The digging of the escape tunnel in The Great Escape and the singing of the "Marseillaise" to enrage the Germans in Casablanca can first be observed in Renoir's 1937 masterpiece. Even the details of the tunnel dig are the same—the way the prisoners hide the excavated dirt in their pants and shake it out on the parade ground during exercise. But if Grand Illusion had been merely a source of later inspiration, it wouldn't be on so many lists of great films. It's not a movie about a prison escape, nor is it jingoistic in its politics; it's a meditation on the collapse of the old order of European civilization. Perhaps that was always a sentimental upper-class illusion, the notion that gentlemen on both sides of the lines subscribed to the same code of behaviour. Whatever it was, it died in the trenches of World War I.

Filmmakers such as Akira Kurosawa and Billy Wilder cited La Grande Illusion as one of their favorite films.[40][41]

Prints and home media[edit]

For many years, the original nitrate film negative of La Grande Illusion was thought to have been lost in an Allied air raid in 1942 that destroyed a leading laboratory outside Paris. Prints of the film were rediscovered in 1958 and restored and re-released during the early 1960s. Then, it was revealed that the original negative had been shipped back to Berlin (probably due to the efforts of Frank Hensel) to be stored in the Reichsfilmarchiv vaults. In the Allied occupation of Berlin in 1945, the Reichsfilmarchiv by chance was in the Russian zone and consequently shipped along with many other films back to be the basis of the Soviet Gosfilmofond film archive in Moscow. The negative was returned to France in the 1960s, but sat unidentified in storage in Toulouse Cinémathèque for over 30 years, as no one suspected it had survived. It was rediscovered in the early 1990s as the Cinémathèque's nitrate collection was slowly being transferred to the French Film Archives at Bois d'Arcy.[2][42]

In August 1999, Rialto Pictures re-released the film in the United States, based on the Cinémathèque negative found in Toulouse;[29] after watching the new print at Lincoln Plaza Cinemas, Janet Maslin called it "beautifully refurbished" and "especially lucid".[39] A transfer of this restored print was released on DVD by the Criterion Collection in 1999, but has been out of print since 2005.[43] Grand Illusion was intended to be Criterion's first release on the DVD format in 1998, but the discovery of the new negative delayed its release.[44]

In 2012, StudioCanal and Lionsgate released a 1080p Blu-ray version based on a new high-definition scan of the original negative.[45] According to Lee Kline, Technical Director of the Criterion Collection, this release was "night and day of what we did—because they had better film."[46]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "La Grande Illusion (1937) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 31 December 2020..
  2. ^ a b c d "DVD: 'La Grande Illusion'." The Criterion Collection, 1999. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  3. ^ Welles cites La Grande Illusion but doesn't name the second film - he just says "something else" (4m 35s)." YouTube, 15 September 2007. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Vatican Best Films List". Official website of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  6. ^ "The 100 best films of world cinema: 35, 'La Grande Illusion'." Empire. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Film Forum · JACQUES BECKER". Film Forum. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  8. ^ Sepsey, James (19 May 2008). "Becker, Jacques – Senses of Cinema". Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Jacques Becker". BFI. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  10. ^ Nixon, Rob and Felicia Feaster. "Why 'Grand Illusion' is essential. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  11. ^ a b Pendo 1985, p. 107.
  12. ^ Feaster, Felicia. "Review: 'Grand Illusion' (1937)." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  13. ^ Triggs, Jeffery Alan (1988). "The Legacy of Babel: Language in Jean Renoir's Grand Illusion". New Orleans Review. 15 (2): 70–74. doi:10.7282/T3CV4G3S.
  14. ^ Paris 1995, p. 50.
  15. ^ a b Nixon, Rob. "Pop culture 101: 'Grand Illusion' (1937)." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  16. ^ Bird, Morgan (2006). "Insurmountable in their wake: Paradox and ideology in Cavell's title reading of La Grande Illusion". Film International. 4 (4): 43–45. doi:10.1386/fiin.4.4.43.
  17. ^ a b c d e McDunnah, Michael G. (15 December 2020). "Grand Illusion". The Unaffiliated Critic. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  18. ^ Durgnat 1974, pp. 27–28.
  19. ^ "Visionneuse - Archives de Paris". Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  20. ^ "Renoir, Jean, French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author (1894-1979). 2 typed letters signed. Paris, 1936 and 1937". Antiquariat INLIBRIS Gilhofer Nfg. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2023. One letter with printed letterhead, the other with punched holes (not touching text). Accompanied by an ALS from Belgian screenwriter Charles Spaak to Renoir in which Spaak accuses the addressee of having cheated him out of the rights of "La Grande illusion", for which Spaak had been a coauthor: "Vieux traitre! ......
  21. ^ Bergan, Ronald (5 January 2016). Jean Renoir: Projections of Paradise. Skyhorse. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-62872-625-1. It came about through Albert Pinkevitch, the general factotum of a financier named Frank Rollmer who was thinking of getting into the film business.
  22. ^ Jackson, Julian (25 July 2019). La Grande Illusion. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-83871-669-1. One resulted from the intervention of Albert Pinkévitch, an assistant to the financier Frank Rollmer, who provided the funds for RAC.
  23. ^ Leahy, James (13 June 2001). "Renoir, Jean". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  24. ^ Vincendeau, Ginette (13 November 2019). "The great escape: what makes La Grande Illusion great". BFI Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  25. ^ "La+Grande+Illusion+-+Films+inspired+by+the+castle". 6 January 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  26. ^ "Song: 'Frou-Frou'." Webarchive, 9 August 2011. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  27. ^ "Il était un petit navire (fr)." Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  28. ^ "Song: 'Si tu veux Marguerite'." webarchive, 9 August 2011. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  29. ^ a b c Ebert, Roger. "Review: 'Grand Illusion' (1937)." Archived 19 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine Chicago Sun-Times, 3 October 1999. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  30. ^ Faulkner 1979, p. 18.
  31. ^ Cordelier, Jean-Eudes. "La censure cinématographique en France et aux Etats- Unis" (fr). Archived 20 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine L'association 'Il était une fois le cinéma'. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  32. ^ "Film: 'The Grand Illusion'." Box Office Story. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  33. ^ "Academy Awards Database | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences." Archived 2014-03-28 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  34. ^ Nugent, Frank S. "NYT Critics' Pick: 'Grand Illusion' (1937)." The New York Times, 13 September 1938. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  35. ^ "Awards: 'La Grande Illusion'." webarchive26, May 2013.
  36. ^ "The Essentials with Peter". Lily Li. 4 August 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  37. ^ Welles cites La Grande Illusion but doesn't name the second film - he just says "something else" (4m 35s)." YouTube, 15 September 2007. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  38. ^ "Martin Scorsese Creates a List of 39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker". Open Culture. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  39. ^ a b Maslin, Janet. "A Renoir masterpiece, refurbished and timely." The New York Times, 6 August 1999. Retrieved: 20 March 2017.
  40. ^ Lee Thomas-Mason (12 January 2021). "From Stanley Kubrick to Martin Scorsese: Akira Kurosawa once named his top 100 favourite films of all time". Far Out. Far Out Magazine. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  41. ^ "Akira Kurosawa's Top 100 Movies!". Archived from the original on 27 March 2010.
  42. ^ "" La Grande illusion ", ou la redécouverte d'un film disparu". CNC (in French). Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  43. ^ Turell, Jonathan. "Back to #1: Grand Illusion". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  44. ^ "Restoration Demonstration" featurette on Criterion Collection DVD.
  45. ^ Christley, Jaime N. (14 August 2012). "Blu-ray Review: Jean Renoir's La Grande Illusion on Lionsgate Home Entertainment". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  46. ^ "Team Deakins: LEE KLINE - Restoration of Films". Retrieved 28 December 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]