La Marque, Texas
City of La Marque
|• Total||14.28 sq mi (36.98 km2)|
|• Land||13.75 sq mi (35.62 km2)|
|• Water||0.52 sq mi (1.36 km2)|
|Elevation||16 ft (5 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,259.20/sq mi (486.16/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1377749|
La Marque (/ / lə MARK) is a city in Galveston County, Texas, south of Houston. The city population in 2010 was 14,509. It is a part of the Houston- The Woodlands- Sugar Land metropolitan area. La Marque experienced considerable growth in the 1950s, during which the city provided a general administrative and trades and crafts workforce helping to support the petrochemical complex in adjoining Texas City. It is the hometown of U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and Norman Bulaich.
La Marque, also once known as Highlands and Buttermilk Junction, is an incorporated residential community on Interstate Highway 45, State Highway 3, and Farm Roads 519, 1765, and 2004, some 12 miles northwest of Galveston in northwestern Galveston County. The community was originally known as Highlands, probably for its location near Highland Creek, and was renamed in the 1890s when residents learned of another mainland community of the same name. Madam St. Ambrose, a French Catholic Ursuline Sister and postmistress, chose the new name, which in French means "the mark".
The community's post office operated from 1887 until the 1930s. During the Civil War, the town was known as Buttermilk Junction after the soldiers' practice of purchasing buttermilk there on the trip between Galveston and Houston. In 1867, the town had six families and its residents raised cattle or rice. The local population rose from 100 in 1890 to 175 in 1896, when the community had a Baptist church and several fruit growers. A school with 14 students existed before 1895, when Amos Stewart gave land for a larger facility. By 1909, two teachers served an enrollment of 55 students, and in 1913, further construction began.
By 1914, the community had been reached by four railroads: the International and Great Northern; the Galveston, Houston and Henderson; the Missouri, Kansas and Texas; and the Interurban. At that time, La Marque had both a railroad station and general store located in a private home. The town's population reached 500 in 1914 and 1,500 by 1952, when it had 90 businesses. As it grew together with nearby Texas City, La Marque served as a residential community for employees at nearby industrial facilities (e.g., chemical plants and refineries) in the La Marque-Texas City area, as well as the Galveston Island Medical Center. The town had a population of 17,000 and 130 businesses in 1977. In 1988, it had 15,697 residents and 158 businesses, and in 1991, some 14,258 residents and 272 businesses.
In the 2000s, rising real estate costs in Galveston forced many families to move to other areas, including La Marque. This meant an influx of children from the Galveston Independent School District into other school districts. In spite of this fact, the number of children enrolled in the La Marque Independent School District has continued to fall.
La Marque is located at (29.366684, -94.973922).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.3 square miles (37 km2), of which, 14.2 square miles (37 km2) of it are land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) of it (0.28%) is covered by water.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, 13,682 people, 5,237 households, and 3,713 families resided in the city. The population density was 962.0 people per square mile (371.5/km2). The 5,732 housing units averaged 403.0 per square mile (155.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 55.84% White, 34.69% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 6.24% from other races, and 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 15.43% of the population.
Of the 5,237 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were not families. About 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the city, the population was distributed as 25.7% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $34,841, and for a family was $39,081. Males had a median income of $32,099 versus $27,292 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,518. About 13.5% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
La Marque Independent School District was mismanaged for so long that it was finally dissolved, when it was assigned by the commissioner of education an accreditation status of "Not Accredited-Revoked". By law, a school district that is closed must be annexed into an adjoining district. Accordingly, Texas City, Hitchcock, Dickinson, and Santa Fe school districts jointly absorbed the responsibility of educating La Marque students.
Before shutting down the school district, Commissioner of Education Michael Williams gave the La Marque schools ample opportunity and time for improvement. In 2011, the school district was judged "academically unacceptable". Similarly, in 2013 and 2014, La Marque schools were given a rating of "improvement required". Finally, an October 2015 review by the TEA found La Marque ISD's rating at "substandard achievement". This ultimately led to the revocation of the accreditation status. Critics of the school district point out that administrators failed to manage the tax funds properly, failed to hire and train competent instructors, and emphasized sports to the exclusion of academics.
Primary and secondary schools
Most of the city is served by the Texas City Independent School District (TCISD). Small portions of La Marque are served by the Dickinson Independent School District, Hitchcock Independent School District, and Santa Fe Independent School District. Previously La Marque Independent School District (LMISD) served what became the TCISD area. On December 2, 2015, Texas Education Agency Commissioner Michael Williams announced that TCISD would absorb the former LMISD effective July 1, 2016.
Colleges and universities
The city owns the La Marque Public Library, which is located at 1101 Bayou Road.
Parks and recreation
The Galveston County Department of Parks and Senior Services operates the Wayne Johnson III Community Center at Carbide Park.
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- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
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- Schladen, Marty. "Forces drive people off island." Archived August 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Galveston County Daily News. July 23, 2006.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Post Office Location - LA MARQUE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Galveston County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-04-17.
- "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Galveston County, TX." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2018.
- Daughtry, Shannon. "TEA: Texas City ISD to annex La Marque ISD ." The Galveston County Daily News. Wednesday December 2, 2015. Retrieved on January 12, 2016. "Texas City ISD will annex La Marque ISD into its school district beginning in the 2016-17 school year."
- "TEA annexes LMISD to TCISD Archived 2016-01-11 at WebCite" (Archive). Texas City Independent School District. Retrieved on January 12, 2016. "With this in mind, students will continue to attend their neighborhood schools for the 2016-2017 school year,” said Dr. Lusignolo."
- Texas Education Code, Section 130.174, "College of the Mainland District Service Area".
- "Library Archived December 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." City of La Marque. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Texas City La Marque, Texas[permanent dead link]." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- Facilities Overview Archived 2005-08-31 at the Wayback Machine." Galveston County Department of Parks and Senior Services.