Jump to content

Renaissance (French political party)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from La République En Marche)

General SecretaryStéphane Séjourné
President in the National AssemblySylvain Maillard
President in the SenateFrançois Patriat
Honorary PresidentEmmanuel Macron
FounderEmmanuel Macron
Founded6 April 2016; 8 years ago (2016-04-06)
17 September 2022; 21 months ago (2022-09-17) (as Renaissance)
Headquarters68, Rue du Rocher
75008 Paris
Youth wingLes Jeunes avec Macron
Membership (2023)30,000[1][2]
Political positionCentre
National affiliationTogether
European Parliament groupRenew Europe[3]
  •   Navy[a]
  •   Yellow[b]
National Assembly
157 / 577
23 / 348
European Parliament
7 / 79
Presidency of departmental councils
2 / 95
Presidency of regional councils
1 / 17
parti-renaissance.fr Edit this at Wikidata

Renaissance (RE) is a liberal and centrist political party in France.[4][5][6] The party was originally known as En Marche ![c][7] and later La République En Marche ![d] (transl. The Republic on the Move or transl. Republic Forward),[8][9][10] before adopting its current name in September 2022.[11] RE is the leading force of the centrist Together coalition, coalesced around Emmanuel Macron's original presidential majority.

The party was established on 6 April 2016 by Macron, a former Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs, who was later elected president in the 2017 presidential election with 66.1% of the second-round vote. Subsequently, the party ran candidates in the 2017 legislative election,[12] including dissidents from the Socialist Party (PS) and the Republicans (LR), as well as minor parties, winning an absolute majority in the National Assembly. Macron was re-elected in the 2022 presidential election, but the party lost its absolute majority in the 2022 legislative election.

Macron conceived RE as a progressive movement, uniting both left and right.[13] RE supports pro-Europeanism,[14][13][15] accepts globalization and wants to "modernise and moralise" French politics.[16][17][18] The party has accepted members from other political parties at a higher rate than other parties in France,[14][19][20] and does not impose any fees on members who want to join.[21] The party has been a founding member of Renew Europe, the political group of the European Parliament representing liberals and centrists, since June 2019.[3]



La Gauche Libre, the think tank for the movement, was declared as an organization on 1 March 2015.[22] Afterwards, lesjeunesavecmacron.fr was registered as a domain on 23 June 2015.[23] Eventually, two Facebook pages[24][non-primary source needed][25][non-primary source needed] were created and an extra domain registered.[26] Another organization was eventually created by Macron, declared as L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique[27] and registered as a micro-party in January 2016.[28] This was following en-marche.fr being claimed as a domain.[29] L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique was then registered as EMA EN MARCHE in March 2016.[16]

En Marche! was established on 6 April 2016 in Amiens by Emmanuel Macron, then aged 38,[19] with the help of political advisor Ismaël Emelien.[30] The initials of the name of the party are the same as the initials of Macron's name.[31][21]

The announcement of En Marche! was the first indication by Macron that he was planning to run for President,[32] with Macron using En Marche! to fundraise for the potential presidential run.[33] The launch of the party was widely covered throughout the media[34] and media coverage continued to peak as tensions rose among Macron and other government ministers as his loyalty was questioned.[35] In the weeks following the creation of En Marche!, Macron soared in the opinion polls, coming to be seen as the main competitor on the left.[36][37]

The creation of En Marche! was welcomed by several political figures including Najat Vallaud-Belkacem,[38] Jean-Pierre Raffarin[39] and Pierre Gattaz,[40] although it was also criticised by Jean-Luc Mélenchon[41] and Christian Estrosi.

In an attempt to create the party's first campaign platform, Macron and head of operations Ludovic Chaker[42] recruited 4,000 volunteers[43] to conduct door-to-door surveys of 100,000 people, using the information gained to create a programme closer to the French electorate.[44]

Later that year,[45] Chaker structured the movement and became the first general secretary of Emmanuel Macron's party En Marche! and its first official employee.[45] He was then appointed as deputy general secretary and coordinator of Macron's campaign operations for the 2017 French presidential election.[46]

2017 legislative election[edit]

Emmanuel Macron
Logo of the Presidential Majority coalition of LaREM, MoDem and other liberal and centrist parties.

La République En Marche! ran candidates in most constituencies. At least half its candidates came from civil society,[47] the other half having previously held political office and half were women. Candidates could not be selected for more than one constituency.[48] In addition to those parameters, Macron specified in his initial press conference on 19 January that he would require that candidates demonstrate probity (disqualifying any prospective candidates with a criminal record), political plurality (representing the threads of the movement) and efficacy. Those wishing to seek the endorsement of LREM had to sign up online[49] and the movement received nearly 15,000 applications.

When dealing with nominations sought by those in the political world, the party considered the popularity, establishment and media skills of applicants, with the most difficult cases adjudicated by Macron himself. To present themselves under the label of La République En Marche!, outgoing deputies had to leave the Socialist Party (PS) or the Republicans (LR).[50] Macron previously said the legislative candidates would have to leave the PS before they could join LREM, though on 5 May 2017 Macron waived this requirement.[48][51] However, then-spokesperson of LREM Christophe Castaner later said they could stay in the PS as long as they supported Macron.[51] Moreover, spokesperson Jean-Paul Delevoye said the members of civil society could be mayors or members of regional councils and departmental councils.[51]

After François Bayrou endorsed Macron in February, the Democratic Movement (MoDem), which he leads, reserved 90 constituencies for MoDem candidates (running under the label of La République En Marche!), of which 50 were considered[by whom?] winnable.[52]

On 15 May 2017, the secretary general of the presidency announced the appointment of Édouard Philippe, a member of LR, as Prime Minister.[53]

On 18 June 2017, La République En Marche! won an absolute majority in the National Assembly, securing 308 seats (or 53% of the seats) while collecting only 28.21% of the vote on the first round, and 43.06% on the second round. Additionally, MoDem secured 42 seats. LREM became France's party of power, in support of the President.

2017 Senate election and first party congress[edit]

In the 2017 Senate election, La République En Marche! lost seats, ending up with 21, seven fewer than before.[54] While hoping to double its representatives in the senate,[55] party officials have noted that due to the elections electoral system of indirect universal suffrage, where deputies, senators and regional councilors elect senators, the party had a disadvantage due to being new.[56]

In the same month, the first party congress was announced to be held in Lyon. The first gathering of party adherents and representatives, party spokesman, Christophe Castaner announced his candidacy on 25 October 2017 with the endorsement of President Macron, allowing him to run unopposed.[57] The congress took place on the 19 November 2017 and Castaner was elected the Executive Officer and leader[58] of the party by a council of 800 people, with a quarter being adherents of the party.[59][60] Castaner's term will last three years.[61] The congress generated media attention for criticism surrounding it, including a walk-out done by attendees of the congress where hundred attendants unanimously resigned from the party due to accusations of a lack of internal democracy and corruption.[62]

The first by-election of 15th National Assembly of France in Val-d'Oise's 1st constituency's, which was a La République En Marche! seat, was up for contention after it was ruled that deputy Isabelle Muller-Quoy's replacement Michel Alexeef was ineligible under electoral code.[63] Muller-Quoy won the first round by 18 percentage points in 2017 and won the first round by only 5 percentage points in the by-election, going onto lose the seat to the LR candidate Antoine Savignat.[64] The race was the first loss the party had endured in the National Assembly.[65] Several subsequent by-elections following showed a 10% overall swing against La République En Marche! since the June 2017 legislative elections.

2019 European Parliament election[edit]

Logo of the Renaissance list of LaREM, MoDem and other liberal parties.

LREM was expected to sign a cooperation agreement with the ALDE group for the 2019 European Parliament election.[66] However, owing to the Gilets Jaunes protests and the rise of national populism within France, Macron opted to run a campaign focusing more on electing representatives of his party to the European Parliament, than campaigning for ALDE. Macron styled his campaign as "Renaissance", calling for a renaissance across Europe.[67] Following the election, the ALDE parliamentary group reformed into Renew Europe, incorporating Macron's Renaissance, along with others.

2020 municipal elections[edit]

For the 2020 municipal elections, LREM set itself the objective of obtaining 10,000 municipal councilors (out of a total of 500,000 elected).[citation needed] The party invested 592 heads of the list in towns with more than 9,000 inhabitants, including 289 belonging to members.[citation needed]

Between the two rounds, the party formed 76 alliances with the right and 33 with the left in towns with more than 9,000 inhabitants; alliances are notably formed with right-wing lists against Europe Ecology – The Greens or union lists on the left, in large cities such as Bordeaux, Strasbourg and Tours.[citation needed] LREM leaders justify this imbalance by the fact that the outgoing right-wing mayors are more numerous given the success of the right in the 2014 elections; Marie Guévenoux, co-president of the national investiture commission of LREM, affirms to have “even rather want to forge alliances on the left, but that was not possible” because the majority on the left didn't want.[citation needed]

Confident after the electoral results of the legislative and European elections, the party did not conquer any large city at the end of the poll and only had 146 mayors supported or invested in municipalities with more than 9,000 inhabitants and 4 in municipalities with more than 30,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

In many cities, the ruling party was relegated to third or even fourth place.[citation needed] As expected, in Paris as in Lyon, important place for the movement, the LREM candidates suffered serious setbacks.[citation needed] The defeat is all the stronger where the candidates had allied themselves with right-wing mayors, as in Bordeaux.[citation needed] The French ecologists won the majority of the metropolitan cities that the party wanted to win.[68] "It is no longer a green wave, it is a tsunami," said an employee of the party after the election. "The danger for 2022 is the rise of the Europe Ecology – The Greens," said a local official.[69]

A combination of circumstances symbolic of the difficulties encountered by La République en Marche during this campaign, marked in particular by a certain embarrassment to display the LREM logo on posters in the midst of the yellow vests movement, social conflict on pensions, climate strikes, as well as the management of the COVID-19 crisis did not calm the rejection of the party.[70]

2022 legislative election[edit]

Logo of La République En Marche ! until the rebranding in 2022

In May 2022, LREM announced that it would change the name of its parliamentary group to Renaissance.[71][72] In September, the party also switched its name to Renaissance.[11] The change was part of an effort to bring all of the presidential majority into a single party, though only Agir and Territories of Progress merged into Renaissance.[73]

2024 legislative election[edit]

President Macron called for a snap legislative election after the 2024 European Parliament election.[74]


Although Macron was a member of the PS from 2006 to 2009 and an independent politician from 2009 to 2016,[75][76] La République En Marche! seeks to transcend traditional political boundaries to be a transpartisan organisation.[19]

Various sources have described the party as being centrist,[77] centre-right,[78] or big tent.[79] Macron has described it as being a progressive party of both the left and the right.[80] In 2017, observers and political commentators have described the party as being culturally liberal,[81][82] as well as socially liberal[83][84] and economically liberal in ideology.[85] The party has also been described as using anti-establishment, populist strategies and rhetoric, with discourse comparable to the Third Way as adopted by the Labour Party in the UK during its New Labour phase.[86] The party has been described as supporting some policies close to centre-right classical liberalism.[87][88][89]

According to an Ipsos survey conducted in March 2018, some public perception of the party has moved to the right since March 2017,[90][91][92] with 45% of respondents classifying the party as being centre-right (25%) to right-wing (20%). 21% of respondents place it in the centre, compared to 33% in March 2017.[93][94][95]

Associate parties[edit]

Name Ideology Position Leader Current MPs
Centrist Alliance Liberalism, Pro-Europeanism Centre Philippe Folliot
4 / 577
Ecologist Party Green politics, Green liberalism Centre-left François de Rugy
2 / 577
Guiana Rally Liberalism, Autonomism Centre Rodolphe Alexandre
1 / 577
United Guadeloupe, Solidary and Responsible Centre Guy Losbar
1 / 577



Cédric Villani at a public meeting of La République En Marche in Tokyo

La République En Marche! considers every person who submits identification information (date of birth, email, full address and telephone number) and adheres to the party's charter to be an adherent.[96] Unlike other political parties, it does not require adherents to make a monetary donation.[97] Macron has indicated that it is possible to adhere to La République En Marche! while remaining a member of another republican party.[19][98]

On 10 April 2016, a few days after the movement's launch, Macron claimed 13,000 adherents.[99] Le Canard enchaîné accused him of inflating the figure and claimed that 13,000 was in reality the number of clicks that Macron had received on his website.[100] Ismaël Emelien, Macron's advisor, clarified that "each adherent signs a charter of values and has a voice in the movement's general assembly" and that "that has nothing to do with those who sign up for the newsletter, who are much greater in number".[101] Sylvain Fort, another of Macron's advisors, affirmed that the movement verifies the email addresses of adherents but conceded that "the system relies on the honesty of each adherent".[97]

In October 2016, Macron affirmed that En Marche! was "neck and neck with the Socialist Party" in terms of membership after only seven months of existence.[102] According to Mediapart, this included many independents and executives, but few functionaries, farmers and unemployed people. Many of its members had never been engaged in politics. However, the majority had only shown interest by leaving their information on the party website.[103]

La République En Marche! takes inspiration from the participatory model of Désirs d'avenir, Ségolène Royal's movement and intends to rely on its member files, according to deputy Pascal Terrasse and former leader of Désirs d'avenir.[104][105][106] According to Libération, the movement relies on a pyramidal enrolment system inspired by Barack Obama's campaigns of 2008 and 2012.[107]

By relying on a participatory political model, each La République En Marche! adherent has the opportunity to freely join or create a local committee. Each of these committees is led by one or more adherents who organize the committee by planning local events, meetings and debates centered around the ideas and values promoted by the movement. La République En Marche! counted more than 2,600 of these committees in December 2016.[108]


Christian Dargnat, former general director of BNP Paribas Asset Management, leads the La République En Marche! financial association.[109] Since its creation, the association has raised funds for the party. In 2016, Georges Fenech, a deputy of the Republicans, alerted the National Assembly that the association had continued fund raising even during Macron's trip to London. This led Prime Minister Manuel Valls to issue an official denial even though En Marche! had already done so.[110] Macron declared in May 2016 that 2,000 donors had already contributed financially to the party. In December 2016, he spoke of more than 10,000 donors from 1 euro to 7,500 euros.[111] By the end of December 2016, he had collected between 4 and 5 million euros in donations.[112] At the end of March, this figure exceeded 9 million euros from 35,000 donations, averaging 257 euros per donation. 600 donors made up half of the total amount donated, with donations upwards of 5,000 euros.[113]

In the book Dans l'enfer de Bercy: Enquête sur les secrets du ministère des Finances (JC Lattès, 2017) by journalists Frédéric Says and Marion L'Hour, Macron was accused of using 120,000 euros from the state budget from 1 January to 30 August 2016 in order to fund his presidential campaign.[114]

European representation[edit]

In the European Parliament, La République En Marche sits in the Renew Europe group with five MEPs.[115][116][117][118][119]

In the European Committee of the Regions, La République En Marche sits in the Renew Europe CoR group, with three full members and one alternate member for the 2020–2025 mandate.[120] Anne Rudisuhli is Coordinator in the SEDEC Commission and Magali Altounian is Deputy Coordinator in the ECON Commission.

Election results[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Presidency of the French Republic
Election year Candidate First round Second round Result
Votes % Rank Votes % Rank
2017 Emmanuel Macron 8,656,346 24.01 Increase 1st 20,743,128 66.10 Increase 1st Won
2022 9,783,058 27.85 Steady 1st 18,768,639 58.55 Steady 1st Won

Legislative elections[edit]

National Assembly
Election year Leader First round Second round Seats +/− Rank
Votes % Votes %
2017 Richard Ferrand 6,391,269 28.21 7,826,245 43.06
308 / 577
Increase 308 1st Presidential majority
2022 Stanislas Guerini 5,857,364 25.71 8,003,240 38.57
133 / 577
Decrease175 1st Presidential minority
2024 Stéphane Séjourné TBD TBD TBD TBD
102 / 577
Decrease 31 TBD TBD

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament
Election year Leader Votes % Rank LREM combined list seats +/- LREM Party seats +/−
2019[e] Nathalie Loiseau 5,079,015 22.42 2nd
23 / 79
11 / 79


See also[edit]


  1. ^ as Renaissance
  2. ^ as La République En Marche !
  3. ^ French: [ɑ̃ maʁʃ] In French, exclamation marks are preceded by a space. English-language media typically omit the space.
  4. ^ Frequently abbreviated LREM, LaREM or REM.
  5. ^ Common list, with 23 seats in total


  1. ^ "INFO FRANCEINFO. Renaissance : Le parti présidentiel revendique un pic d'adhésions, avec près de 400 nouveaux adhérents hebdomadaires". 5 April 2023.
  2. ^ ""Vous allez de nouveau sillonner le pays": La lettre d'Emmanuel Macron à ses militants et sympathisants".
  3. ^ a b "Despite bruised ego, Macron starts real campaign for Brussels influence". Reuters. 27 May 2019.
  4. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "France". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  5. ^ Mark Kesselman; Joel Krieger; William A. Joseph (2018). Introduction to Comparative Politics: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-337-56044-3.
  6. ^ Pineau, Elizabeth; Dalmasso, Louise (12 June 2024). "Anger among French conservatives as party chief wants election deal with far right". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2024.
  7. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (17 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron: the French outsider who would be president". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  8. ^ Rubin, Alissa J. (7 May 2017). "Macron, Well Ahead of Le Pen, Is Poised to Be President of France". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  9. ^ Williamson, Lucy (7 May 2017). "French election: What next for Macron after win?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  10. ^ Callus, Andrew; Jarry, Emmanuel (16 November 2016). "Macron Launches French Presidential Bid as Polls Show Tight Race". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Renaissance, un nouveau parti pour réactiver le " dépassement " macroniste". Le Monde.fr (in French). 18 September 2022. Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Législatives : En marche ! fera connaître d'ici jeudi à midi ses 577 candidats". Le Figaro. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  13. ^ a b Roger, Patrick (20 August 2016). "Macron précise son projet " progressiste " pour 2017". Le Monde.
  14. ^ a b "Emmanuel Macron a Berlin pour se donner une stature européenne". Le Monde. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  15. ^ "Macron veut voir son 'projet progressiste' défendu en 2017" (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.|work=Europe 1
  16. ^ a b "Site officiel d'En Marche ǃ – Une charte pour avancer ensemble" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Emmanuel Macron and the building of a new liberal-centrist movement". 6 February 2017.
  18. ^ "" Le projet d'Emmanuel Macron est social-libéral "". Le Monde. 24 February 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d "Emmanuel Macron lance un "mouvement politique nouveau" baptisé "En marche !"". Le Monde. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  20. ^ ""En marche !" en campagne sur le marché". La Dépêche du Midi.
  21. ^ a b "'En marche': le bébé du ministre fait ses premiers pas". Libération.fr. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  22. ^ "Consulter les annonces du JO Association<". journal-officiel.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Whois lesjeunesavecmacron.fr". whois.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Security Check Required". facebook.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Security Check Required". facebook.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  26. ^ "Whois vision-macron.fr". whois.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Consulter les annonces du JO Association<". journal-officiel.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Consulter les annonces du JO Association<". journal-officiel.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  29. ^ "Whois en-marche.fr". whois.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  30. ^ Pietralunga, Cédric (19 December 2016). "Ismaël Emelien, le bras droit d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  31. ^ "Emmanuel Macron: son mouvement "En marche" fait bien rire les internautes". Planet. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  32. ^ Wieder, Thomas (7 April 2016). "Le pari libéral d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  33. ^ Mourgue, Marion (18 May 2016). "Les levées de fonds au profit d'Emmanuel Macron se poursuivent". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  34. ^ "La folle séquence médiatique d'Emmanuel Macron". Europe 1 (in French). Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  35. ^ "Finalement, le parti d'Emmanuel Macron est "et de droite, et de gauche" (mais surtout progressiste)". Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  36. ^ "A quoi joue Emmanuel Macron ?". Les Échos. France. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  37. ^ "Macron : l'envol dans les sondages". La Dépêche du Midi (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  38. ^ "Macron lance son mouvement :"J'adhère assez" (Vallaud-Belkacem)". Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  39. ^ "La "marche" de Macron régale Raffarin, et fait rire Mélenchon". Le Parisien. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  40. ^ "Macron et son mouvement 'En Marche' : "c'est rafraîchissant", estime Pierre Gattaz" (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  41. ^ Pérou, Olivier (7 April 2016). "Macron: le Medef séduit, Mélenchon rigole, Philippot dénonce". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  42. ^ "Les bébés Macron font leurs premiers pas avec En Marche – La Lettre A N° 1737". lalettrea.fr (in French). 7 July 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  43. ^ "Comment Emmanuel Macron a fait son "diagnostic"". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  44. ^ "Emmanuel Macron lance sa 'Grande Marche' vers un "plan d'action"". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  45. ^ a b Plowright, Adam (14 September 2017). The French Exception: Emmanuel Macron – The Extraordinary Rise and Risk. Icon Books Limited. ISBN 9781785783128. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  46. ^ Caudel, Manuel (25 April 2017). "Macron fait le plein de soutiens". Midi Libre (in French).
  47. ^ "Rapidité; efficacité ?… - Gers". Le Petit Journal. 23 May 2017.
  48. ^ a b "Législatives: les candidats de "La République en marche" investis d'ici à jeudi". L'Express. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  49. ^ Nathalie Raulin (19 January 2017). "Macron lance un appel à ses "marcheurs" pour les investitures aux législatives". Libération. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  50. ^ William Galibert (26 April 2017). "Élections législatives: un comité d'investiture déjà à l'oeuvre dans le camp d'En Marche!". Europe 1. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  51. ^ a b c "Emmanuel Macron déjà face à ses incohérences". Valeurs actuelles. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  52. ^ "Législatives: accord MoDem-En marche!". Le Figaro. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  53. ^ "Day 1 for French President Macron: visit to Germany and naming of prime minister". Los Angeles Times. 15 May 2017. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 15 May 2017. [...] the announcement of Philippe's appointment, delivered by the presidency's new secretary general, took just eight seconds.
  54. ^ français, Sénat. "Liste des sénateurs par groupes politiques - Sénat". www.senat.fr. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  55. ^ "Macron en marche arrière et les autres leçons de ces sénatoriales". Le Huffington Post (in French). 24 September 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  56. ^ "Sénatoriales : la droite renforcée, Macron et La République en marche tenus en échec". lindependant.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  57. ^ "Christophe Castaner annonce sa candidature à la délégation générale de REM". RTL.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  58. ^ "Macron's party picks new leader amid internal wrangling - France 24". France 24. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  59. ^ "French government spokesman Castaner takes helm of Macron's party". POLITICO. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  60. ^ "Liste des membres du Conseil de La République En Marche ! | La République En Marche !". La République En Marche ! (in French). 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  61. ^ magazine, Le Point (18 November 2017). "Castaner prend la tête de LREM pour la remettre en mouvement". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  62. ^ "Tribune des "100 démocrates de La République en marche". Scribd. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  63. ^ "Législatives dans la 1re circonscription du Val-d'Oise : les recours enfin examinés". leparisien.fr (in French). 14 November 2017. Event occurs at CET19:35:41+01:00. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  64. ^ "Législative partielle : Antoine Savignat (LR) élu dans le Val-d'Oise". RTL.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  65. ^ "L'élection d'une députée LREM du Val d'Oise invalidée". FIGARO (in French). 16 November 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  66. ^ Baume, Maïa de La (18 January 2019). "Macron's liberal love affair goes cold". POLITICO.
  67. ^ Baume, Maïa de La (6 March 2019). "Renaissance reborn again — as name of Macron's campaign". POLITICO. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  68. ^ "Municipales 2020 : avec EELV, une vague verte historique déferle sur les grandes villes françaises". Le Monde.fr. 29 June 2020 – via Le Monde.
  69. ^ "" Un jour historique pour l'écologie " : une vague verte déferle sur la France". L'Obs. 28 June 2020.
  70. ^ "La déroute de LREM aux municipales oblige Macron à tout changer". Le HuffPost. 29 June 2020.
  71. ^ "France: LREM devient "Renaissance", au sein d'une confédération pour les législatives". RFI (in French). 5 May 2022. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  72. ^ "Législatives 2022 : LREM devient «Renaissance», sur fond d'accord Ferrand, Bayrou et Philippe". Le Figaro (in French). 5 May 2022. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  73. ^ Goar, Matthieu (17 September 2022). "Renaissance, Emmanuel Macron's smaller-than-expected new party". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  74. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (10 June 2024). "What to Know About France's Snap Parliamentary Elections". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 June 2024.
  75. ^ "Macron, militant PS depuis 2006, n'est plus à jour de cotisation depuis 5 ans". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  76. ^ politique, Le Scan (18 February 2015). "Emmanuel Macron n'est plus encarté au Parti socialiste". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  77. ^ Multiple citations:
  78. ^ Multiple citations:
  79. ^ Multiple citations:
  80. ^ "Finalement, le parti d'Emmanuel Macron est "et de droite, et de gauche" (mais surtout progressiste) – Le Lab Europe 1" (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  81. ^ Isabelle Hertner (2018). Centre-left parties and the European Union: Power, accountability and democracy. Manchester University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-5261-2036-6.
  82. ^ Audrey Tonnelier (24 February 2017). "Le projet d'Emmanuel Macron est social-libéral". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  83. ^ Audrey Tonnelier, « Le projet d’Emmanuel Macron est social-libéral », Le Monde, 24 February 2017
  84. ^ David Bensoussan, « Malgré le Covid, l'esprit Macron tente de résister à la crise », Challenges, 17 January 2021
  85. ^ Multiple citations:
  86. ^ Michael Kranert (2019). Discourse and Political Culture: The language of the Third Way in Germany and the UK. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 262. ISBN 978-90-272-6204-2.
  87. ^ Christopher J. Bickerton, Carlo Invernizzi Accetti, ed. (2021). Technopopulism: The New Logic of Democratic Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 60.
  88. ^ "Macron Scrambling to Salvage Liberal Reputation Worldwide After Targeting Islam". The Daily Beast. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  89. ^ William Smaldone, ed. (2019). European Socialism: A Concise History with Documents. Rowman & Littlefields.
  90. ^ Wolfreys, James (2018). Republic of Islamophobia The Rise of Respectable Racism in France. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190911645 – via Google Books.
  91. ^ "Macron's party pulls support for local election candidate over hijab". Reuters. 12 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021. General delegate of La Republique En Marche (LREM) centre-right ruling party ...
  92. ^ "LREM: le parti de Macron est "de droite" selon les Français" (in French). The breakdown in 2018 is as follows: 5% of respondents rated the party on the far right, 20% on the right, 25% on the right centre, 21% on the centre, 9% on the left centre, and 5% on the left or on the far left. In 2017, the distribution was: 5% on the far right, 15% on the right, 13% on the right centre, 33% in the centre, 9% on the left centre, and 12% on the left or far left.
  93. ^ "En Marche, un parti de droite aux yeux des Français" (in French). Valeurs actuelles. 12 April 2018..
  94. ^ "La République en marche est désormais perçu comme un parti de droite" (in French). FIGARO. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018..
  95. ^ "Macron peine à convaincre les Français d'être optimistes". Le Monde.fr (in French). 6 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  96. ^ "En marche ! Espace personel". En Marche !. 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  97. ^ a b Mathilde Damgé (7 October 2016). "Emmanuel Macron, La Grande Marche et ses chiffres flous". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  98. ^ "Bastir soutient Macron". La Dépêche du Midi. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  99. ^ "Emmanuel Macron annonce une 'grande marche en France' et 13 000 adhérents". L'Express. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  100. ^ ""En marche" : quand Macron gonfle le nombre de ses adhérents". Metronews. 2016.
  101. ^ "Prévisions de croissance, Macron... Suivez l'actualité politique en direct". Le Monde.fr. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  102. ^ Marie-Pierre Haddad (20 October 2016). "Présidentielle 2017 : pourquoi Macron court-circuite l'agenda de Hollande". rtl.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  103. ^ Mathieu Magnaudeix (23 September 2016). "Macron joue le centre, pour occuper le vide". Mediapart. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  104. ^ Éric Hacquemand; Pauline Théveniaud (7 April 2016). "Le modèle de Macron ? Désirs d'avenir". Le Parisien. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  105. ^ "Les "Désirs d'avenir" de Royal au service du "En marche" de Macron... et de Hollande". HuffPost. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  106. ^ Jean-Laurent Cassely (5 October 2016). "Emmanuel Macron n'est pas candidat, il est consultant à la présidentielle". Slate. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  107. ^ Nathalie Raulin; Guillaume Gendron (3 April 2017). "L'équipe Macron affine la mise en cène". Libération (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  108. ^ Camille Bordenet (10 December 2016). "Ces militants qui marchent avec Macron". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  109. ^ "Macron en marche ? "Nous assumons de lever des fonds"". Le Point. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  110. ^ "Manuel Valls recadre sèchement Emmanuel Macron en direct sur les bancs de l'Assemblée nationale". rtl.fr. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  111. ^ Stéphane Lauer (6 December 2016). "Emmanuel Macron tente de se tailler une stature de présidentiable à New York". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  112. ^ Anne-Laure Dagnet (27 December 2016). "Le brief politique. Emmanuel Macron, 400 parrainages et 4 millions d'euros de dons au compteur". francetvinfo.fr. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  113. ^ JDD, Le (28 March 2017). "Présidentielle : combien de dons par candidat?". lejdd.fr. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  114. ^ "Emmanuel Macron et les 120.000 euros de Bercy". Le Journal du Dimanche. 29 July 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  115. ^ "Home | Stéphane BIJOUX | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 8 October 1970. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  116. ^ "Home | Valérie HAYER | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 6 April 1986. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  117. ^ "Home | Pierre KARLESKIND | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 19 October 1979. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  118. ^ "Home | Stéphane SÉJOURNÉ | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 26 March 1985. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  119. ^ "Home | Chrysoula ZACHAROPOULOU | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 7 May 1976. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  120. ^ "Members Page CoR".

Further reading[edit]

  • Elgie, Robert. "The election of Emmanuel Macron and the new French party system: a return to the éternel marais?." Modern & Contemporary France 26.1 (2018): 15–29.
  • Gil, Cameron Michael. "Spatial analysis of La République En Marche and French Parties, 2002–2017." French Politics (2018): 1-27.
  • Gougou, Florent, and Simon Persico. "A new party system in the making? The 2017 French presidential election." French Politics 15.3 (2017): 303–321.

External links[edit]