La Salle College

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La Salle College
18 La Salle Road, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Coordinates 22°19′45.11″N 114°10′56.93″E / 22.3291972°N 114.1824806°E / 22.3291972; 114.1824806Coordinates: 22°19′45.11″N 114°10′56.93″E / 22.3291972°N 114.1824806°E / 22.3291972; 114.1824806
Type Grant School (Financially aided school[1])
("Faith and Zeal")[4]
Established 1932
Founder St. John Baptist de La Salle
School district Kowloon
Principal Tong Wun-Sing
Faculty 87 teachers
Grades Form 1 – Form 6
Enrolment about 1680
Number of students 1667[2]
Campus 29,000 m²

Purple, white and red

Newspaper The Lasallian
Yearbook The Lasallite[3]
Affiliation Roman Catholic

La Salle College (Abbr.: LSC; Chinese: 喇沙書院; Jyutping: laa3 sa1 syu1 jyun2) is a leading boys' secondary school in Hong Kong. It was established by the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, a Roman Catholic religious teaching order founded by St. John Baptist de La Salle.

The school curriculum uses English as the medium of instruction in all subjects with the exception of Chinese-related subjects and French.



In 5 September, 1917 the Brothers of the Christian Schools,[5] who had founded St. Joseph's College in 1875, opened a junior school on Chatham Road near the Rosary Church.[6] At this time Kowloon was expanding rapidly. The demand for schools was rising and Brother Aimar Sauron (1873-1945), the Director of St. Joseph's, realized that a new school building was necessary. He acquired a 10 acre hilly plot near Prince Edward Road as a site for the new La Salle College on 23 April, 1928, for a sum of HK$120,000. The site was immediately north of the city boundary, and thus was technically in New Kowloon. That section of Boundary Street was not yet a formal road when the school site was bought, which was only gazetted in 1929.

On 5 November 1930, Sir William Peel, the Governor of Hong Kong, laid the foundation stone of the new building. By 3 December 1931, the work on the building and the playgrounds was sufficiently advanced to allow the opening of eight classes for 303 pupils, under the management of five Brothers from St. Joseph's College and four assistant masters from the Chatham Road Branch School.[7]

The formal inauguration of the College took place on 6 January 1932. Seven Brothers, headed by Reverend Brother Aimar as Director, took over. A few days later 40 boarders occupied the quarters to the west of the building. There were then 540 students in 14 classes. About one-third of the students had a European (mostly Portuguese) connection.

World War II[edit]

Brother Aimar was the principal of the school for its first seven years. The students were offered matriculation examinations, the laboratories were constructed, four tennis courts and a full-sized football pitch were built, and the statue of St. John Baptist de La Salle that now stands in front of the College was erected. The number of students increased to 805 in 1935 and 1,060 in 1939.

In 1939, La Salle College was affected when World War II commenced in Europe. On 3 September 1939, Britain declared war on Germany, and the British War Department in Hong Kong designated the La Salle College campus as an internment camp for German nationals arrested in Hong Kong that same day. Those interned included the German engineer Gerhard Neumann. The internment camp was run for approximately eight months, during which time the Brothers organised classes in morning and afternoon sessions in the College Annex across the road (the building which was to become La Salle Primary School in 1957).

On 8 December 1941, the Japanese attacked Hong Kong, and the school building was again taken over by the British Military, this time as a relief hospital. After the surrender of Hong Kong on Christmas Day 1941, the Japanese took over the school building. In February 1942, the Brothers were expelled from the college, and the school's operations, terminated since December 1941, was suspended until September 1946. During the Japanese occupation, the college was believed used as a Number One Japanese military hospital (out of four in Kowloon) until August 1945.

After the war[edit]

School recommenced in September 1946. By the end of 1949, the Chinese Civil War was coming to an end. Most of China was controlled by the Communist government of Mao Zedong and the People's Liberation Army was rapidly advancing southwards towards the Hong Kong border. Owing to that threat, the British Army reinforced their garrisons in Hong Kong. In need of a hospital, the British Army expropriated the use of the college grounds, originally agreed to be only for 12 to 18 months. Meanwhile, the Hong Kong government erected wood hutments on a plot at Perth Street, Ho Man Tin. The temporary occupation unfortunately dragged on for 10 years, taking the concerted efforts of the local government, some members of the British Parliament, and the Vatican to finally dislodge the Army in August 1959.

A new beginning[edit]

Post-war development[edit]

Main college campus

Brother Felix was appointed Director of the school in 1956 and re-acquired the college buildings from the military authorities on 1 August 1959. Student numbers grew steadily, and this led to a separation of primary and secondary divisions. La Salle Primary School was founded in 1957 and Brother Henry Pang was appointed its founder and first headmaster.[8]

In 1964 the La Salle College Evening School was commenced within the main campus building; in 1969 the Evening School was separated and became Chan Sui Ki (La Salle) College in Ho Man Tin. The decision was taken by the Brothers, headed by the then Brother Director, Brother Raphael Egan, in 1977 to undertake the replacement of the ageing building. While classes were continuing, a portion of the school grounds were used to erect a new superstructure with modern facilities. The project was funded via the sale of approximately one-third of the school grounds to Cheung Kong Holdings, owned by Li Ka Shing. The Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose, officially opened the new school building on 19 February 1982, in its Golden Jubilee year.

The current college building stands seven floors high from the "field level" (five floors are above ground level, two floors are below ground level, and the track and field are at the bottom). It has an enrollment of almost 1,700 students. Its four blocks surround two quadrangles, the lower dotted with benches and greenery and the upper containing a basketball court. The blocks are named the North, East, South and West Wings after their position on the two quadrangles. There is an extensive range of facilities for academic use and for extracurricular activities, including sporting facilities. The campus incorporates a standard-size football field with artificial turf, a 400 metres (1,300 ft) all-weather track with six lanes, a 50 metres (160 ft) outdoor swimming pool with electronic timing, and an air-conditioned gymnasium encompassing 6 badminton courts or a basketball court. There are two outdoor basketball courts, a tennis court, a volleyball court, and a squash court.[9]

Recent years[edit]

Brother Aimar wing
Bird's eye view of the college using 3D rendering with computer graphics.

The Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) was established in January 1995. In September 1996, the track and field were in urgent need of resurfacing. The La Salle Foundation, with the help of the PTA, raised over five million Hong Kong dollars and the Hong Kong Jockey Club contributed the same amount. The project was completed in October 1998 and the facilities were renamed the La Salle College-Jockey Club Track and Field.

In December 1998, La Salle College hosted the third gathering of the Asia-Pacific Lasallian Educators' Congress; where about 130 delegates from the Asia-Pacific region took part. As a direct result, the Hong Kong Lasallian Family Office was established in April 1999, with Brother Thomas Lavin as coordinator. This office aims to draw together the various members of the Lasallian family in Hong Kong.

In December 2004, more than 150 Brothers and young Lasallians joined together in Hong Kong for the seventh Asia-Pacific Lasallian Youth Congress, chaired by Brother Thomas Lavin, under the theme "Together in Faith-Full Service".

During the summer of 2005, construction work of the School Improvement Program (SIP) ended with the completion of two new wings, the Aimar Wing and the Cassian Wing, named after the first two principals of the school. The SIP provides an additional 32 rooms, with new facilities such as computer rooms and a multi-media learning centre, and additional music rooms.[10]

In 2009, the refurbishment of the track and field was completed at a cost of $8 million. A fourth-generation turf, then the first in Hong Kong, was laid as the surface of the football pitch. A new discus throwing circle and safety cage and a javelin practice area were installed. The tennis court was also resurfaced.


75% of La Salle College's total Form 1 intake is from its feeder school, La Salle Primary School, with 25% from other primary schools. Applicants attend interviews in English, which are conducted by the supervisor and the principal. Other criteria include applicants' performance in extracurricular activities, awards and certificates, and academic excellence. La Salle College applicants may apply to study French[11] as an alternative to Chinese.

School associations[edit]

The La Salle College Old Boys' Association (LSCOBA) is an organisation that unifies old boys around the world, as well as contributes to the college by sponsoring scholarships, organising career talks, and supporting other student and school events. Its membership as of 31 March 2017 was 7,453.

The Student Association (LSCSA)[12] founded in 1975, represents current students. Its Executive Committee (ExCo), composed of 7 Form 5 students, is chosen through democratic elections open to students from Form 2 and above every academic year. It consists of six boards - the Secretariat (SEC), the Clubs Coordinating Board (CCB), the Discipline Board (DB), the Class Representatives' Board (CRB), the Publications Board (PB) and the Financial Committee (FC). The seven Executive Committee members wear white badges. Members of the Clubs Coordinating Board, responsible for overseeing the administration of clubs and their activities and organising the annual Talent Quest, wear the black badge; those who are part of the Class Representatives Board, an organization connecting different classes and organising the Annual Christmas Ball, wear the green badge; the Secretariat, in charge of designing and issuing products, wear the yellow badge; the Publications Board who help in the production of The Lasallian (school newspaper) and other publications wear the blue badge; and the Discipline Board members, who maintains discipline in the school and in different functions, wear the red badge; and the Finance Committee members who monitors all financial matters of the Association, wear the purple/burgundy badge.[13]

The Catholic Society is an organisation that promotes the Catholic faith in La Salle College. Every month they organise a mass in the school hall, and the Mass Choir is responsible for the music ministry in the masses.[14] The Catholic Society also facilitates events such as the "Founders' Week" and the "Caritas Bazaar'.

Other student-based associations include the La Salle College Campus TV (LSCCTV), which helps producing broadcasts and videos of school functions and sports events, and the Editorial Board which produces the year-book "The Lasallite".

Since the majority of the school buildings are above Hong Kong standards, the Government is not responsible for the school's maintenance. Replacements of plant and machinery as well as the up-keeping of existing facilities require substantial sums of money. The Brothers, Principal Brother Francis, and some old boys initiated the idea of a foundation whose sole aim was to provide sufficient funds to do this. In early 1992, the La Salle Foundation[15] was established with Michael Sze as the first chairman.

Layman principals[edit]

As Hong Kong education law requires school principals to retire at 60 years of age, Brother Thomas Lavin relinquished the position in 2004, and flew to Bethlehem for ministerial works in 2005. Dr. Paul Lau (劉煒堅) then became the first secular principal of La Salle College. Lau had completed his primary and secondary education at La Salle Primary School and La Salle College respectively.

Lau resigned in 2006 with effect from 31 August 2006, citing personal reasons, and was succeeded by Wong Yen-Kit (王仁傑) as acting principal. Shortly after, Brother Thomas Lavin, the school supervisor, announced that Wong Yen-Kit would take up the position of principal.[16]

Wong Yen-Kit retired as principal on 31 August 2010. He was succeeded by Brother Steve Hogan, a former principal of De La Salle College, New Zealand. Brother Steve ended his duty as principal on 31 August 2016.[17] The vice-principal Tong Wun-Sing (唐煥星) took over as principal starting on the following day.



As required by Hong Kong law, schools must have two examinations every year: mid-year and final examination. In between the two examinations, students are provided feedback on their performance through continuous assessments,[18] which accounts for 20% of the total subject mark.

The school consistently produces scholars who excel in public examinations. In 1993, the school produced the first student achieving ten distinctions in Arts subjects in the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE). In 2001, four students from the school attained the top score of 10 A's, a feat repeated in 2008. The class of 2003 scored a total of 501 A's, the most distinctions a single school had ever achieved in a single sitting in the history of the HKCEE.

LSC counts five winners of the Hong Kong Outstanding Students Awards,[19] ranking 16th (tied with Wah Yan College, Hong Kong, Madam Lau Kam Lung Secondary School of MFBM, and Queen Elizabeth School) among all secondary schools in Hong Kong.

Post-secondary school placement: graduates are consistently accepted by world-renowned universities, including but not limited to the University of HK, the HKUST, the Chinese University of HK, Caltech, MIT, Harvard, UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UCLA, USC, Stanford, and Oxbridge universities.


La Salle athletes

La Salle College has over 50 clubs and societies. Clubs are divided into academic, cultural, sports, interest and service. Joining clubs is mandatory.[20]

The College's students are active in academic, cultural, and sports competitions. They have a champion record of the Joint School Chinese Debating Competition and the Hong Kong Mathematics Olympiad, and a School Grand Prize Winner record of the Hong Kong Olympiad in Informatics.


In sports, La Salle College has won badminton championships in all grades in 1993–1994, 2003–2004, and 2004–2005 in the Kowloon area. La Salle has won championships in archery, athletics, badminton, basketball, cross country, fencing (Grand slam in 2010–2011), football, hockey, softball, squash (18 consecutive years,1994–2012), swimming, table tennis, tennis, tenpin bowling and volleyball. The table tennis team was named the overall champions 7 years in a row, from 2000 to 2007.

The Omega Rose Bowl, and its successor the Bauhinia Bowl,[21] is awarded to the secondary school with the best all-round sporting performance in the Hong Kong Island and Kowloon region. La Salle College has been the Boys School Champions 26 times, tied as the most-awarded secondary school in the Boys' Schools section. La Salle College holds the record of receiving the Rose Bowl, predecessor of the Bauhinia Bowl, for the longest period—17 years—between 1974 and 1991.

Every year, during the Interschool Athletics Meet, Form 1 students and members of the Student Association will be excused from lessons to go cheer for the schools Athletes for the whole day. Students of other Forms are also dismissed early to be allowed to go and cheer. Doing so is voluntary but almost all students will participate.[citation needed] Many Old Boys will also participate.[citation needed] La Salle College is often considered as the one of the most united schools in Hong Kong.[citation needed]


La Salle College has achieved tremendous results in terms of music as well. In the Hong Kong Youth Music Interflows, organized by the Music Office, the Wind Orchestra achieved four gold prizes (2010, 2012, 2013, 2014) in the "Symphonic Band Contest - Secondary School Senior Class", and were awarded Overall Champion for all four of the Winner's Finals. The Chinese Orchestra achieved a tremendous eight consecutive gold prizes (2008-2015) in the "Chinese Orchestra Contest - Secondary School Class C (46-90 members)". The String Orchestra has won four gold prizes (2010, 2013, 2014, 2015). The Symphony Orchestra has won five gold prizes (2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015) in "Secondary School - Class A or B" as well. Moreover, La Salle College has thrice achieved "grand slam" achievement (Symphony Orchestra, Chinese Orchestra, Wind Orchestra, String Orchestra won the gold prizes + Wind Orchestra awarded winner in the Symphonic Band Winner's Finals) in the Hong Kong Youth Music Interflows (2010, 2013, 2014).

In the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival, La Salle College has one of the strongest music teams in Hong Kong. The Wind Orchestra was awarded champion in the "Concert Band - Secondary School - Senior Class" on four occasions (2010, 2012, 2013, 2014). The Chinese Orchestra was awarded champion in the "Chinese Orchestra - Secondary School - Senior Class" four times as well (2009, 2013, 2015, 2016). The Symphony Orchestra achieved 2nd runners-up in 2011 and 2015, and a 1st runner-up in 2014 in the "Symphony Orchestra - Secondary School - Senior Class". The choirs of the school, the Treble Choir and the Senior choir had achieved excellent results these years. The Treble Choir had captured the first place in the competition group 'Secondary School Choir - Foreign Language - Boys - First Division - Junior Age 14 or under, treble voice only' in 2013 and 2016. The String Orchestra achieved 2nd place and Champion in 67th Music Festival and 68th Music Festival respectively in 'String Orchestra-Intermediate' category.

Results of La Salle College in 68th Music Festival:

  • Champion in Piano Ensemble
  • Champion in String Orchestra—Intermediate
  • Champion in Junior Boys' Choir (Foreign) (Division 1)
  • Champion in Senior Boys' Choir (Chinese) (Division 2)
  • Champion in Chinese Orchestra

Second place in Concert Band (Senior)[edit]

  • Second place in Woodwind ensemble (Senior)
  • Third place in Brass ensemble (Senior)


Classes maintain the tradition of praying after the assembly. The prayers are usually led by students on duty, Catholic boys, or sometimes the teacher, and commonly include a Hail Mary, Glory Be to the Father or The Lord's Prayer, and the prayer is closed with the unique Lasallian lines: "St. John Baptist de La Salle – pray for us; live Jesus in our hearts – forever!".


School Badge[edit]

Star of Faith[edit]

This five-pointed, radiant star is the worldwide logo of the La Salle Brothers. It is the SIGNUM FIDEI, the sign of Faith, the spirit of their Institute. This spirit of faith provides us with a spiritual vision for our daily lives.


These form part of the coat of arms of the La Salle family of Rheims, France. There are three bent bars of inverted V shapes. Chevrons are symbols of firmness and constancy indicating that we should have ZEAL in carrying out our tasks and the courage never to give up.

The Lamp and the Open Book[edit]

The lamp and the book often appear on badges of Lasallian establishments. Together they symbolize study, or the continuous process of learning.

The Chinese phrase 克己復禮 is unique to La Salle College. It is a Confucian motto which means "To subdue one's self and return to propriety."

School motto[edit]

FIDES ET OPERA at the bottom means literally Faith and Works. This moves us to think of the need to prove our religious beliefs by our good works and reminds us of the saying of St. James: "Faith without good works is dead."

The Olive and Holly Branches[edit]

The Olive and Holly Branches The branch on the sinister (left) side of the shield (the right side by the viewer's eyes) is a holly branch. Holly maintains its vibrant green leaves and bright red berries during winter, a reminder of Jesus' birth at Christmas. The holly plant also possesses sharp thorns, and is also regarded as an emblem of Christ's crown of thorns, a symbol of Christ's suffering before his death and resurrection. The branch on the dexter (right) side is an olive branch, a Christian symbol of peace, restoration and healing.

School Colours of Red and Purple[edit]

The sinister side of the shield red, symbolizing courage and sacrifice. The dexter side of the shield is purple, symbolizing royalty and nobility, and is also a colour distinctive of divinity.

School Song[edit]

The lyrics of the School Song of La Salle College was written by Brother Marcian James Cullen, who also wrote the school rally of St. Joseph's College. The melody is set to the tune of an unknown piece of French martial air. It was supplied by Brother Cassian Brigant, who was the first principal of La Salle College after World War II.[23]



Boys of courage, boys of daring,

Full of manliness and will;

Spirits nought for danger caring,

Hearts to conquer every ill.


We are sons of La Salle everyone,

And no matter where we go,

High aloft her flag we will hold,

And strive that her fame may grow.


There are famous schools in plenty,

With their heroes by the score,

And they flourish high and mighty,

But La Salle is something more.



From her lofty station pointing,

To the sky's majestic dome,

She would have us ever minding,

That above is our true home.



Come whatever kind of weather,

Come the stormy days along,

When the Old Boys get together,

They will always sing this song.


Notable alumni[edit]

By tradition, alumni of La Salle College are called La Salle Old Boys, and the alumni association is called the La Salle College Old Boys' Association, which was founded in 1939.[24]


Arts and culture[edit]


  • Peter Wong, 王冬勝, executive director of HSBC
  • Jack Chak-kwong So, 蘇澤光, chairman of the Hong Kong Film Development Council
  • John Chen, 程守忠, 程守宗, former CEO of Sybase and interim CEO of Blackberry Ltd, CEO, Siemens Nixdorf Information System, Chairman of the US Committee of 100
  • Dr. William Man-wai Mong, 蒙民偉, founder of Shun Hing Group[31]
  • David Mong Tak-yeung, 蒙德揚, Chairman & Group CEO of Shun Hing Group
  • Paul Man-yiu Chow, 周文耀, former Chief Executive of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEx),[32] Honorary Fellow of the Hong Kong Securities and Investment Institute (HKSI)
  • John Shek-yau Lau, Executive Chairman, Ecargo Holdings Limited; Group Managing Director and Founder, CS Holdings Limited and Cargo Services Group[33]
  • Hon. Mr. Samuel Mok, Former Chief Financial Officer, U.S. Department of Treasury. He was one of the highest-ranking Asian Americans in George W. Bush's administration, and is the former president of the American Association of Government accountants. He is currently[when?] regarded[by whom?] as a leader of the Chinese-American community.[34]

Science and engineering[edit]



  • Dr. Shih Tai Cho Louis, 史泰祖, 2004–2008 Vice-President of The Hong Kong Medical Association
  • Dr Derrick Au (1972), Hospital Chief Executive, Kowloon Hospital. Head of human resources, Hospital Authority. Graduated MD from Brown University.[37]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chargeable Fees (per annum)". HKedCity. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  2. ^ "La Salle College – School Information". HKedCity. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  3. ^ "The Lasallite". La Salle College Old Boys' Association. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  4. ^ "School Badge". La Salle College. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007. 
  5. ^ "St. John Baptist de La Salle". La Salle College. Retrieved 19 November 2007. [dead link]
  6. ^ Lasallian Family Hong Kong- The Birth of Lasallian Schools in Hong Kong Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  9. ^ "School Facilities". HKedCity. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  10. ^ "School Improvement Programme". La Salle College. Retrieved 19 November 2007. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Subject Offered". HKedCity. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  12. ^ "Student Association". La Salle College. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  13. ^ "Student Association". 
  14. ^ "iMassChoir". Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  15. ^ "Information on The La Salle Foundation". La Salle College. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  16. ^ "Announcement from the Supervisor – Appointment of the New Principal". La Salle College. 15 March 2007. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 
  17. ^ "Appointment of the New Principal". La Salle College. 4 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Examinations & Tests". La Salle College. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-01. 
  20. ^ School Diary 2006–2007 edition, La Salle College.
  21. ^ "BOCHK Bauhinia Bowls Awards 2006–2007中銀香港紫荊盃獎項". La Salle College. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008. 
  22. ^ "Badge". 
  23. ^ "School Song | La Salle College Old Boys' Association". Retrieved 2018-04-08. 
  24. ^ "La Salle College Old Boys' Association". Retrieved 2016-11-12. 
  25. ^ "About the Financial Secretary". HKSAR Government. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  26. ^ "童軍總會". Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. 
  27. ^ "Class of 1993 Distinguished Alumni Forum" (PDF). The Obsession: La Salle College Old Boys' Association Newsletter. June 2014. p. 10. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  28. ^ Thomas, Bruce (1994). Bruce Lee: fighting spirit : a biography. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books – Frog, Ltd. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-883319-25-0. 
  29. ^ "黃霑". Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  30. ^ "School Song". La Salle College. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  31. ^ "Community Relations". Shung Hin Group. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  32. ^ "ROUND TABLE DINNER 2009". LSCOBA. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  33. ^ "Stocks - Bloomberg". Retrieved 2016-11-12. 
  34. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-03. 
  35. ^ "World-Renowned Physicist Talk on String Theory". HKUST. 12 June 2006. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  36. ^ "ACM Honors Inventors of Landmark Software Concept". Association for Computing Machinery 15 March 2005 press release on 2004 Software System Award. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
  37. ^ [1][dead link]

External links[edit]