La clemenza di Tito
|La clemenza di Tito|
|Opera by W. A. Mozart|
The composer, drawing by Doris Stock, 1789
|Translation||The Clemency of Titus|
|Based on||libretto by Pietro Metastasio|
6 September 1791|
Estates Theatre, Prague
La clemenza di Tito (English: The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, is an opera seria in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, after Pietro Metastasio. It was started after the bulk of Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), the last opera that Mozart worked on, was already written. The work premiered on 6 September 1791 at the Estates Theatre in Prague.
In July 1791, the last year of his life, Mozart was already well advanced in writing Die Zauberflöte when he was asked to compose an opera seria. The commission came from the impresario Domenico Guardasoni, who lived in Prague and who had been charged by the Estates of Bohemia with providing a new work to celebrate the coronation of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, as King of Bohemia. The coronation had been planned by the Estates in order to ratify a political agreement between Leopold and the nobility of Bohemia (it had rescinded efforts of Leopold's brother Joseph II to initiate a program to free the serfs of Bohemia and increase the tax burden of aristocratic landholders). Leopold desired to pacify the Bohemian nobility in order to forestall revolt and strengthen his empire in the face of political challenges engendered by the French Revolution. The ceremony was to take place on 6 September; Guardasoni had been approached about the opera in June. No opera of Mozart was more clearly pressed into the service of a political agenda than La clemenza di Tito, in this case to promote the reactionary political and social policies of an aristocratic elite. No evidence exists to evaluate Mozart's attitude toward this, or even whether he was aware of the internal political conflicts raging in the kingdom of Bohemia in 1791.
In a contract dated 8 July, Guardasoni promised that he would engage a castrato "of leading quality" (this seems to have mattered more than who wrote the opera); that he would "have the libretto caused to be written...and to be set to music by a distinguished maestro". The time was tight and Guardasoni had a get-out clause: if he failed to secure a new text, he would resort to La clemenza di Tito, a libretto written more than half a century earlier by Pietro Metastasio (1698–1782).
Metastasio's libretto had already been set by nearly 40 composers; the story is based on the life of Roman Emperor Titus, from some brief hints in The Lives of the Caesars by the Roman writer Suetonius, and was elaborated by Metastasio in 1734 for the Italian composer Antonio Caldara. Among later settings were Gluck's in 1752 and Josef Mysliveček's version in 1774; there would be three further settings after 1791. Mozart was not Guardasoni's first choice. Instead, he approached Antonio Salieri, the most distinguished composer of Italian opera in Vienna and head of the music establishment at the imperial court. But Salieri was too busy, and he declined the commission, although he did attend the coronation.
The libretto was edited into a more useful state by the court poet Caterino Mazzolà, Unusually, in Mozart's personal catalogue of compositions, Mazzolà is credited for his revision with the note that the libretto had been "reworked into a true opera". Mazzolà conflated the original three act libretto into two acts, and none of the original Metastasio arias are from the original middle act. Mazzolà replaced a lot of the dialogue with ensembles and wrote a new act 1 finale, cobbled from lines in the original libretto, which actually presents the uprising, whereas Metastasio merely describes it.
Guardasoni's experience of Mozart's work on Don Giovanni convinced him that the younger composer was more than capable of working on the tightest deadline. Mozart readily accepted the commission given his fee would be twice the price of a similar opera commissioned in Vienna. Mozart's earliest biographer Niemetschek alleged that the opera was completed in just 18 days, and in such haste that the secco recitatives were supplied by another composer, probably Franz Xaver Süssmayr, believed to have been Mozart's pupil. Although no other documentation exists to confirm Süssmayr's participation, none of the secco recitatives are in Mozart's autograph, and it is known that Süssmayr traveled with Mozart to Prague a week before the premiere to help with rehearsals, proofreading, and copying. Mozart scholars have suggested in the past that Mozart had been working on the opera much longer, perhaps since 1789, however all such theories have now been thoroughly refuted in the English-language musicological literature. The opera may not have been written in just 18 days, but it certainly ranks with Rossini's L'italiana in Algeri, Il barbiere di Siviglia and La Cenerentola as one of the operas written in the shortest amount of time that is still frequently performed today.
It is not known what Leopold thought of the opera written in his honor. Reports that his wife Maria Luisa of Spain dismissed it as una porcheria tedesca (literally in Italian "German swinishness," but most idiomatically translated "A German mess") do not pre-date 1871, in a collection of literary vignettes by Alfred Meissner about the history of Prague purportedly based on recollections of the author's grandfather, who was present for the coronation ceremonies.
The premiere took place a few hours after Leopold's coronation. The role of Sesto was taken by castrato soprano, Domenico Bedini. The opera was first performed publicly on 6 September 1791 at the Estates Theatre in Prague.
The opera remained popular for many years after Mozart's death. It was the first Mozart opera to reach London, receiving its première there at His Majesty's Theatre on 27 March 1806. The cast included John Braham, whose long-time companion Nancy Storace had been the first Susanna in The Marriage of Figaro in Vienna. However, as it was only played once it does not appear to have attracted much interest. As far as can be gathered it was not staged in London again until at the St Pancras Festival in 1957. The first performance at La Scala in Milan was on 26 December 1818. The North American premiere was staged on 4 August 1952 at the Berkshire Music Center in Tanglewood. For a long time, Mozart scholars regarded Tito as an inferior effort of the composer. Alfred Einstein in 1945 wrote that it was "customary to speak disparagingly of La clemenza di Tito and to dismiss it as the product of haste and fatigue," and he continues the disparagement to some extent by condemning the characters as puppets – e.g., "Tito is nothing but a mere puppet representing magnanimity" – and claiming that the opera seria was already a moribund form. However, in recent years the opera has undergone something of a reappraisal. Stanley Sadie considered it to show Mozart "responding with music of restraint, nobility and warmth to a new kind of stimulus".
The opera continues to be popular.
At the Salzburg festival 2017, Peter Sellars directed his interpretation of the opera, as "a vision of peaceful coexistence", "reaching far beyond the historical context", a coproduction with the Dutch National Opera, Amsterdam, and the Deutsche Oper Berlin. Conducted by Teodor Currentzis, it premiered on 27 July 2017 at the Felsenreitschule in Salzburg.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast 6 September 1791|
(Conductor: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
|Tito Vespasian, Roman Emperor||tenor||Antonio Baglioni|
|Vitellia, daughter of the deposed Emperor Vitellio||soprano||Maria Marchetti-Fantozzi|
|Sesto, a young patrician, friend of Tito, in love with Vitellia||soprano castrato,
in modern performance mezzo-soprano
|Annio, a young patrician, friend of Sesto, in love with Servilia||soprano (en travesti)||Carolina Perini|
|Servilia, sister of Sesto, in love with Annio||soprano||Antonina Campi, née Miklaszewicz (also called Signora Antonini)|
|Publio, Praetorian prefect, commander of the Praetorian Guard||bass||Gaetano Campi|
The opera is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, (1 also basset clarinet and basset horn), 2 bassoons, 2 French horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. Basso continuo in recitativi secchi is made of cembalo and violoncello. Period performance practice often uses a fortepiano.
- Place and time: Rome, in the year 79.
Vitellia, daughter of the late emperor Vitellio (who had been deposed by Tito's father), wants revenge against Tito. She stirs up Tito's vacillating friend Sesto, who is in love with her, to act against him (duet Come ti piace, imponi). But when she hears word that Tito has sent Berenice of Cilicia, of whom she was jealous, back to Jerusalem, Vitellia tells Sesto to delay carrying out her wishes, hoping Tito will choose her (Vitellia) as his empress (aria Deh, se piacer mi vuoi).
Tito, however, decides to choose Sesto's sister Servilia to be his empress, and orders Annio (Sesto's friend) to bear the message to Servilia (aria Del più sublime soglio). Since Annio and Servilia, unbeknownst to Tito, are in love, this news is very unwelcome to both (duet Ah, perdona al primo affetto). Servilia decides to tell Tito the truth but also says that if Tito still insists on marrying her, she will obey. Tito thanks the gods for Servilia's truthfulness, and immediately forswears the idea of coming between her and Annio (aria Ah, se fosse intorno al trono).
In the meantime, however, Vitellia has heard the news about Tito's interest in Servilia and is again boiling with jealousy. She urges Sesto to assassinate Tito. He agrees, singing one of the opera's most famous arias (Parto, parto, ma tu, ben mio with basset clarinet obbligato). Almost as soon as he leaves, Annio and the guard Publio arrive to escort Vitellia to Tito, who has now chosen her as his empress. She is torn with feelings of guilt and worry over what she has sent Sesto to do.
Sesto, meanwhile, is at the Capitol wrestling with his conscience (recitativo Oh Dei, che smania è questa), as he and his accomplices go about to burn it down. The other characters (except Tito) enter severally and react with horror to the burning Capitol. Sesto reenters and announces that he saw Tito slain, but Vitellia stops him from incriminating himself as the assassin. The others lament Tito in a slow, mournful conclusion to act 1.
The act begins with Annio telling Sesto that Emperor Tito is in fact alive and has just been seen; in the smoke and chaos, Sesto mistook another for Tito. Sesto wants to leave Rome, but Annio persuades him not to (aria Torna di Tito a lato). Soon Publio arrives to arrest Sesto, bearing the news that it was one of Sesto's co-conspirators who dressed himself in Tito's robes and was stabbed, though not mortally, by Sesto. The Senate tries Sesto as Tito waits impatiently, sure that his friend will be exonerated; Publio expresses his doubts (aria Tardi s'avvede d'un tradimento) and leaves for the Senate. Annio begs Tito to show clemency towards his friend (aria Tu fosti tradito). Publio returns and announces that Sesto has been found guilty and an anguished Tito must sign Sesto's death sentence.
He decides to send for Sesto first, attempting to obtain further details about the plot. Sesto takes all the guilt on himself and says he deserves death (rondo Deh, per questo istante solo), so Tito tells him he shall have it and sends him away. But after an extended internal struggle, Tito tears up the execution warrant for Sesto. He determines that, if the world wishes to accuse him (Tito) of anything, it should charge him with showing too much mercy, rather than with having a vengeful heart (aria Se all'impero).
Vitellia at this time is torn by guilt, but Servilia warns her that tears alone will not save Sesto (aria S'altro che lagrime). Vitellia finally decides to confess all to Tito, giving up her hopes of empire (rondo Non più di fiori with basset horn obbligato). In the amphitheatre, the condemned (including Sesto) are waiting to be thrown to the wild beasts. Tito is about to show mercy, when Vitellia offers her confession as the instigator of Sesto's plot. Though shocked, the emperor includes her in the general clemency he offers (recitativo accompagnato Ma che giorno è mai questo?). The opera concludes with all the subjects praising the extreme generosity of Tito; he himself asks that the gods cut short his days, should he ever cease to care for the good of Rome.
Many recordings have been made, including among others the following:
- The political and social conditions surrounding the performance of La clemenza di Tito in Prague in 1791 are carefully documented in Freeman 2013, pp. 148–177
- See Freeman 2013, notes on pp. 300–301, for an evaluation of the relevant literature.
- Meissner, A. Rococo-Bilder Prague, 1871. The passage from Meissner's collection of stories that contains the remark is translated in Freeman 2013, pp. 173–174. As further evidence to cast doubt on the authenticity of the remark, Freeman points out that members of the imperial court of Austria always spoke to each other in French, not Italian or German.
- Stivender, D. ed. and trans., La clemenza di Tito (libretto), in The Metropolitan Opera Book of Mozart Operas, NY: HarperCollins, 1991, p. 502
- Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "La clemenza di Tito, 27 March 1806". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian).
- Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "La clemenza di Tito, 26 December 1818". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian).
- Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "La clemenza di Tito, 4 August 1952". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian).
- Einstein, A. Mozart: His Character, His Work, NY: Oxford University Press, 1945, pp. 408–11
- Sadie, S. The New Grove Mozart, New York: Norton, 1983, p. 164. Freeman 2013, pp. 227–237, offers a mixed appraisal of its musical and dramatic worth.
- "Performances La clemenza di Tito 2011/2012". Operabase. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozar – La clemenza di Tito, Programme detail, Salzburg festival
- In Praise of Reconciliation, Salzburg festival blog, 20 January 2017
- "What's On 2017", Glyndebourne website
- According to Julian Rushton and Dizionario dell'opera.
- Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "La clemenza di Tito, 6 September 1791". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian).
- Brauneis, Walther, "Wer war Mozarts 'Sig[no]ra Antonini' in der Prager Uraufführung von 'La Clemenza di Tito' KV 621? Zur Identifizierung der Antonina Miklaszewicz als Interpretin der Servilia in der Krönungsoper am 6. September 1791", in Angermüller, Rudolph and Fornari, Giacomo (editors), Mozart: le arie da concerto, Mozart e la musica massonica dei suoi tempi / Die Konzertarien, Mozart und die Freimaurermusik seiner Zeit. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Rovereto, 26–27 settembre 1998 / Bericht des internationalen Kongresses, Rovereto, 26.–27. September 1998, Bad Honnef: Bock, 2001, pp. 69–79. ISBN 978-3-87066-825-9.
- "La clemenza di Tito discography". www.operadis-opera-discography.org.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Kertesz". MusicWeb International (Robert J. Farr). March 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Kertesz". Gramophone. February 1968. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Davis". Gramophone. November 1977. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Böhm". Gramophone. September 1979. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Muti". Gramophone. October 1995. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Gardiner". Gramophone. December 1991. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Davis DVD". Opera News (William R. Braun). September 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Hogwood". Gramophone. March 1995. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Harnoncourt". Gramophone. May 1994. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Mackerras/Jacobs". Gramophone. June 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Review – Mozart – La clemenza di Tito – Cambreling DVD". MusicWeb International (Robert J. Farr). March 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- Freeman, Daniel (2013). Mozart in Prague. Minneapolis: Bearclaw. ISBN 978-0-9794223-1-7.
- Rice, John A. (1991), W. A. Mozart, "La clemenza di Tito". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ??
- Robins, Brian, "La clemenza di Tito – Mozart's Operatic Failure?" on earlymusicworld.com Retrieved 23 November 2011
- Rushton, Julian, Clemenza di Tito, La, in Sadie, Stanley (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. New York: Grove (Oxford University Press), 1997, I, pp. 881–883. ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2
- Mellace, Raffaele, Clemenza di Tito, La, in Gelli, Piero & Poletti, Filippo (eds.), Dizionario dell'Opera 2008, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2007, pp. 241–244, ISBN 978-88-6073-184-5 (in Italian)
- Tessing Schneider, Magnus & Tatlow, Ruth (2018), Mozart's La clemenza di Tito: A Reappraisal. Stockholm: Stockholm University Press. ISBN 978-91-7635-055-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16993/ban