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Laboulbeniales on Harmonia axyridis (7211939256).jpg
Elytral tips of a Harmonia axyridis ladybird with thalli of Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
(unranked): Sordariomyceta
Class: Laboulbeniomycetes
Engler (1898)


The Laboulbeniomycetes are a unique group of fungi that are obligatorily associated with arthropods, either as external parasites (Herpomycetales and Laboulbeniales) or for dispersal (Pyxidiophorales).[1][2][3]

Herpomycetales and Laboulbeniales fungi are minute; their fruiting bodies, referred to as thalli, commonly measure less than one millimeter. They live on the antennae, the mouthparts or other body regions of their arthropod hosts. Although several species of Laboulbeniomycetes have more or less extensive, root-like hyphal systems (haustoria) inside their hosts, as a group these fungi are relatively harmless to their hosts. These fungi occur usually only on adult hosts; apparently immature arthropods eliminate them during ecdysis (adult arthropods no longer molt). Some thallus-forming species are dioecious, that is, they have separate female and male individuals, like Herpomyces (in the order Herpomycetales).

External links[edit]

  • "Myconet: Outline of Ascomycota - 2007". Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2008-12-07.


  1. ^ Blackwell, Meredith; Haelewaters, Danny; Pfister, Donald H. (2020). "Laboulbeniomycetes: Evolution, natural history, and Thaxter's final word". Mycologia. 112 (6): 1048–1059. doi:10.1080/00275514.2020.1718442. ISSN 0027-5514. PMID 32182189. S2CID 212750948.
  2. ^ Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex (2018). "Molecular phylogeny of the Laboulbeniomycetes (Ascomycota)". Fungal Biology. 122 (2–3): 87–100. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2017.11.004. PMID 29458722.
  3. ^ Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P.; Gorczak, Michał; Pfister, Donald H. (2019). "Birth of an order: Comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study excludes Herpomyces (Fungi, Laboulbeniomycetes) from Laboulbeniales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 133: 286–301. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2019.01.007. hdl:2437/262843. PMID 30625361. S2CID 58645110.