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Laccaria bicolor.jpg
Laccaria bicolor
Scientific classification

Type species
Laccaria laccata

Laccaria is a genus around 75 species of fungus found in both temperate and tropical regions of the world.[1][2] They are mycorrhizal. The type species is Laccaria laccata, commonly known as the deceiver. Other notable species include L. bicolor, and the amethyst deceiver (L. amethystina), sometimes incorrectly written as L. amethystea. Because some Laccaria species have the ability to grow vegetatively and/or germinate from basidiospores in culture, they are often used as experimental systems for studies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes.[3] They have a "tetrapolar mating system", meaning that there are 4 mating types, any two of which can fertilize each other. Recently, the genome of L. bicolor has been sequenced.[4]


Laccaria typically have thick, widely spaced, purple to flesh-colored gills that are adnate to slightly decurrent in attachment. The spores are white and ornamented in most species.[5]

Species list[edit]

The following is an incomplete list of Laccaria species reported in the literature:



  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 357. ISBN 0-85199-826-7.
  2. ^ Mueller GM. (1985). Numerical taxonomic analyses on Laccaria (Agaricales). Mycologia 77: 121-129.
  3. ^ Podila GK, Zheng J, Balasubramanian S, Sundaram S, Hiremath S, Brand JH, Hymes MJ. (2002). Fungal gene expression in early symbiotic interactions between Laccaria bicolor and red pine. Plant and Soil 244: 117–128.
  4. ^ Martin F, Selosse MA. (2008). The Laccaria genome: a symbiont blueprint decoded. New Phytologist 180(2):296-310.
  5. ^ Orr, Dorothy B.; Orr, Robert Thomas (1980). Mushrooms of Western North America (California Natural History Guides). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03660-3.
  6. ^ a b c Popa F, Rexer K-H, Donges K, Yang ZL, Kost G (2014). "Three new Laccaria species from Southwest China (Yunnan)". Mycological Progress. 13 (4): 1105–1117. doi:10.1007/s11557-014-0998-7.
  7. ^ a b Vincenot L, Popa F, Laso F, et al. (2017). "Out of Asia: Biogeography of fungal populations reveals Asian origin of diversification of the Laccaria amethystina complex, and two new species of violet Laccaria". Fungal Biology. 121 (11): 939–955. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2017.08.001.

External links[edit]