Lacticaseibacillus casei

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Lacticaseibacillus casei
Lactobacillus casei 1.jpg
Lactobacillus casei in a Petri dish
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Bacillota
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lacticaseibacillus
Species:
L. casei
Binomial name
Lacticaseibacillus casei
(Orla-Jensen 1916) Zheng et al. 2020
Synonyms
  • "Caseobacterium vulgare" Orla-Jensen 1916
  • Lactobacillus casei (Orla-Jensen 1916) Hansen and Lessel 1971 (Approved Lists 1980)

Lacticaseibacillus casei is an organism that belongs to the largest genus in the family Lactobacillaceae, a lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that was previously classified as Lactobacillus casei-01.[1][2] This bacteria has been identified as facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, acid-tolerant, non-spore-forming bacteria. The taxonomy of this group has been debated for several years because researchers struggled to differentiate between the strains of L. casei and L. paracasei. It has recently been accepted as a single species with five subspecies: L. casei subsp. rhamnosus, L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. casei, L. casei subsp. tolerans, and L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum.[3] The taxonomy of this genus was determined according to the phenotypic, physiological, and biochemical similarities.

This species is a non-sporing, rod-shaped, gram positive microorganism that can be found within the reproductive and digestive tract of the human body.[3] Since L. casei can survive in a variety of environmental habitats, it has and continues to be extensively studied by health scientists. Commercially, L. casei is used in fermenting dairy products and its application as a probiotic.[4]

Shirota, a Lactobacillus casei strain.

Uses[edit]

Dairy[edit]

The most common application of L. casei is industrial, specifically for dairy production.

Lacticaseibacillus casei is typically the dominant species of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (i.e. contaminant bacteria[5]) present in ripening cheddar cheese, and, recently, the complete genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 has become available. L. casei is also the dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives.[6]

Medical[edit]

A commercial beverage containing L. casei strain Shirota has been shown to inhibit the in vivo growth of Helicobacter pylori, but when the same beverage was consumed by humans in a small trial, H. pylori colonization decreased only slightly, and the trend was not statistically significant.[7] Some L. casei strains are considered to be probiotic, and may be effective in alleviation of gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial diseases. According to World Health Organization, those properties have to be demonstrated on each specific strain—including human clinical studies—to be valid.[8] L. casei has been combined with other probiotic strains of bacteria in randomized trials studying its effects in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and patients in the trials who were not given the placebo had significantly lower rates of AAD or CDI (depending on the trial) with no adverse effects reported.[9] Additionally, trials have shown significantly shorter recovery times in children suffering from acute diarrhea (primarily caused by rotavirus) when given different L. casei treatments when compared to placebo.[10] Studies suggest that lactobacilli are a safe and effective treatment for acute and infectious diarrhea.[11]

In the preparation of food, L. casei bacteria can be used in the natural fermentation of beans to lower levels of the compounds causing flatulence upon digestion.[12]

Commercial probiotic[edit]

Among the best-documented, probiotic L.casei, L. casei DN-114001, and L. casei Shirota have been extensively studied[13] and are widely available as functional foods (see Actimel/DanActive, Yakult).

Others[edit]

In the past few years, many studies have been conducted in the decolorization of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria such as L. casei TISTR 1500, L. paracasei, Oenococcus oeni, etc. With the azoreductase activity, mono- and diazo bonds are degraded completely, and generate other aromatic compounds as intermediates.[14]

Characteristics of Lactocaseibacillus casei[edit]

The following table includes the colony, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of L. casei.[15][16][17]

Test type Test Characteristics
Colony characteristics Type Smooth
Color Opaque without pigment
Shape Convex
Morphological characteristics Arrangement Short chains
Size 0.7-1.1 x 2.0-4.0 mm
Shape Rod
Gram stain +
Spores -
Physiological characteristics Motility -
Growth on 4% NaCl +
Growth on 6.5% NaCl -
Biochemical characteristics Oxidase -
Catalase -
Glucose -
Lactose +
Sucrose +
Mannitol +
Starch +
Liquid hydrolysis +
Indole -
Methyl red -
Voges-Proskauer -
Citrate +
Nitrate reduction -
Urease -
Hydrolysis of Galactose +
Casein +
Utilization of Glycerol +
Galactose +
D-Glucose +
D-Fructose +
D-Mannose +
Mannitol +

Transformation[edit]

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is widely exploited for its probiotic and fermenting properties, so understanding how its genetic material is exchanged was crucial for researchers. A wide variety of comparative analyses were used to determine that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) influenced the evolution of the Lactobacillus genus.[18] HGT in L. casei includes transformation, conjugation, and transduction. The mobile genetic elements found within the genome, known as mobilomes, play an important role in Lactobacillaceae transfer. This includes insertion sequences, bacteriophages, integrons, plasmids, genomic islands, and transposons.[19] Within LAB, they are responsible for metabolizing different molecules, hydrolyzing proteins, resisting antibiotics, DNA, and phages, and modifying genetic elements.[20]

The first form of gene transfer used by Lactobacillus is transformation. This includes the uptake of naked DNA by a recipient bacterial cell to gain the genetic information of a donor cell.[21] This occurs after a donor bacterium has undergone autolysis and its DNA fragments are left within the free extracellular fluid.[22] The recipient bacterium will then ingest the DNA fragments and will result in either a bacterial cell with a plasmid or recombination of the recipient DNA will transpire within the chromosome.

The next form of transfer is conjugation, a process that involves the transfer of DNA from a Lactobacillus donor to a recipient via cell-to-cell contact or direct cytoplasmic contact.[23] In this process, the recipient cell is known as the transconjugant.[24] Once the cells come together, fragments of DNA are directly transferred from the donor to the transconjugant. This is mediated by pheromone-induced cell aggregation and mobilization proteins since many of the plasmids are unable to transfer on their own.[18] Afterward, the mating cells will separate and a recombinant cell will be produced after homologous recombination.

Finally, transduction in Lactobacillus cells is a bacteriophage-mediated transfer of plasmid or chromosomal genetic information.[25] To initiate this process, a bacteriophage must first infect the donor cell so that lysis of the cell will occur. At this point, the cell lysate will be filled with phages that carry donated genome fragments and the recipient cell will be injected with abnormal phage. This will result in a recombination cell whether the cell is infected after homologous recombination or after the infection occurs by bacteriophage integrase.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Brandão, Larissa Ramalho; de Oliveira, Matthaws Pereira; da Costa, Whyara Karoline Almeida; Magnani, Marciane (2021-08-01). "Health benefits and technological effects of Lacticaseibacillus casei-01: An overview of the scientific literature". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 114: 722–737. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2021.06.030. ISSN 0924-2244. S2CID 237725610.
  2. ^ Hill, Daragh; Sugrue, Ivan; Tobin, Conor; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul (2018). "The Lactobacillus casei Group: History and Health Related Applications". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 2107. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02107. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6160870. PMID 30298055.
  3. ^ a b Zheng, Jinshui; Wittouck, Stijn; Salvetti, Elisa; Franz, Charles M.A.P.; Harris, Hugh M.B.; Mattarelli, Paola; O’Toole, Paul W.; Pot, Bruno; Vandamme, Peter; Walter, Jens; Watanabe, Koichi (2020). "A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 70 (4): 2782–2858. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. ISSN 1466-5034. PMID 32293557. S2CID 215771564.
  4. ^ Wuyts, Sander; Wittouck, Stijn; Boeck, Ilke; Allonsius, Camille; Pasolli, Edoardo; Segata, Nicola; Lebeer, Sarah (2017-08-29). "Large-Scale Phylogenomics of the Lactobacillus casei Group Highlights Taxonomic Inconsistencies and Reveals Novel Clade-Associated Features". mSystems. 2 (4): e00061–17. doi:10.1128/mSystems.00061-17. PMC 5566788. PMID 28845461.
  5. ^ Banks JM, Williams AG (2004). "The role of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in Cheddar cheese ripening". International Journal of Dairy Technology. 57 (2–3): 145–152. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2004.00150.x.
  6. ^ Randazzo CL, Restuccia C, Romano AD, Caggia C (January 2004). "Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 90 (1): 9–14. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00159-4. PMID 14672826.
  7. ^ Cats A, Kuipers EJ, Bosschaert MA, Pot RG, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Kusters JG (February 2003). "Effect of frequent consumption of a Lactobacillus casei-containing milk drink in Helicobacter pylori-colonized subjects". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 17 (3): 429–35. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01452.x. PMID 12562457. S2CID 11364078.
  8. ^ "Joint FAO/WHO Working Group Report on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food" (PDF). London, Ontario, Canada. April 30 – May 1, 2002.
  9. ^ McFarland, LV (2009). "Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections" (PDF). Anaerobe. 15 (6): 274–80. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2009.09.002. PMID 19825425. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  10. ^ Isolauri, Erika; et al. (1991). "A Human Lactobacillus Strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) Promotes Recovery From Acute Diarrhea in Children". Pediatrics. 88 (1): 90–97. PMID 1905394. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  11. ^ Van Niel, C. W.; Feudtner, C.; Garrison, M. M.; Christakis, D. A. (2002). "Lactobacillus Therapy for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children: A Meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 109 (4): 678–684. doi:10.1542/peds.109.4.678. PMID 11927715. Archived from the original on 2012-09-13.
  12. ^ Marisela Granito; Glenda Álvarez (June 2006). "Lactic acid fermentation of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): Microbiological and chemical characterization". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 86 (8): 1164–1171. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2490.
  13. ^ Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ko Okumura (2007). "Effects of a Fermented Milk Drink Containing Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on the Human NK-Cell Activity". The Journal of Nutrition. 137 (3): 791S–793S. doi:10.1093/jn/137.3.791S. PMID 17311976.
  14. ^ Seesuriyachan P, Takenaka S, Kuntiya A, Klayraung S, Murakami S, Aoki K (March 2007). "Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization" (PDF). Water Res. 41 (5): 985–92. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.12.001. PMID 17254626.
  15. ^ Rahmati, Farzad (2017-10-12). "Characterization of Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Saccharomyces isolated from Iranian traditional dairy products for potential sources of starter cultures". AIMS Microbiology. 3 (4): 815–825. doi:10.3934/microbiol.2017.4.815. ISSN 2471-1888. PMC 6604970. PMID 31294191.
  16. ^ Shukla, Geeta; Devi, Pushpa; Sehgal, Rakesh (October 2008). "Effect of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic on modulation of giardiasis". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 53 (10): 2671–2679. doi:10.1007/s10620-007-0197-3. ISSN 0163-2116. PMID 18306038. S2CID 11968645.
  17. ^ "Academic Journals". journals.tubitak.gov.tr. Retrieved 2022-04-21.
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  19. ^ Siefert, Janet (2009-02-01). "Defining the Mobilome". Horizontal Gene Transfer. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). Vol. 532. pp. 13–27. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-853-9_2. ISBN 978-1-60327-852-2. PMID 19271177.
  20. ^ Ghosh, Samrat; Sarangi, Aditya Narayan; Mukherjee, Mayuri; Bhowmick, Swati; Tripathy, Sucheta (2019-10-25). "Reanalysis of Lactobacillus paracasei Lbs2 Strain and Large-Scale Comparative Genomics Places Many Strains into Their Correct Taxonomic Position". Microorganisms. 7 (11): 487. doi:10.3390/microorganisms7110487. ISSN 2076-2607. PMC 6920896. PMID 31731444.
  21. ^ Hasegawa, Haruka; Suzuki, Erika; Maeda, Sumio (2018). "Horizontal Plasmid Transfer by Transformation in Escherichia coli: Environmental Factors and Possible Mechanisms". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 2365. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02365. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6180151. PMID 30337917.
  22. ^ Wei, Ming-Qian; Rush, Catherine M.; Norman, Julianne M.; Hafner, Louise M.; Epping, Ronald J.; Timms, Peter (1995-01-01). "An improved method for the transformation of Lactobacillus strains using electroporation". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 21 (1): 97–109. doi:10.1016/0167-7012(94)00038-9. ISSN 0167-7012.
  23. ^ Willetts, N; Wilkins, B (March 1984). "Processing of plasmid DNA during bacterial conjugation". Microbiological Reviews. 48 (1): 24–41. doi:10.1128/mr.48.1.24-41.1984. ISSN 0146-0749. PMC 373001. PMID 6201705.
  24. ^ Carranza, Gerardo; Menguiano, Tamara; Valenzuela-Gómez, Fernando; García-Cazorla, Yolanda; Cabezón, Elena; Arechaga, Ignacio (2021). "Monitoring Bacterial Conjugation by Optical Microscopy". Frontiers in Microbiology. 12: 750200. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.750200. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 8521088. PMID 34671336.
  25. ^ Chiang, Yin Ning; Penadés, José R.; Chen, John (2019-08-08). "Genetic transduction by phages and chromosomal islands: The new and noncanonical". PLOS Pathogens. 15 (8): e1007878. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1007878. ISSN 1553-7366. PMC 6687093. PMID 31393945.

External links[edit]