Lactiplantibacillus plantarum

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Lactiplantibacillus plantarum
Scientific classification
Domain:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
L. plantarum
Binomial name
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum
(Orla-Jensen 1919) Zheng et al. 2020
Synonyms
  • "Streptobacterium plantarum" Orla-Jensen 1919
  • Lactobacillus plantarum (Orla-Jensen 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980)
  • Lactobacillus arizonensis Swezey et al. 2000

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (formerly Lactobacillus arabinosus)[1] is a widespread member of the genus Lactiplantibacillus and commonly found in many fermented food products as well as anaerobic plant matter.[2] L. plantarum was first isolated from saliva, based on its ability to temporarily persist in plants, the insect intestine and in the intestinal tract of vertebrate animals, it was designated as nomadic organism.[3][4] L. plantarum is Gram positive, bacilli shaped bacterium. L. plantarum cells are rods with rounded ends, straight, generally 0.9–1.2 μm wide and 3–8 μm long, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains.[5] L. plantarum has one of the largest genomes known among the lactic acid bacteria and is a very flexible and versatile species. It is estimated to grow between pH 3.4 and 8.8.[6] Lactiplantibacillus plantarum can grow in the temperature range 12 °C to 40 °C.[7]

Metabolism[edit]

L. plantarum are homofermentative, aerotolerant Gram-positive bacteria that grow at 15 °C (59 °F), but not at 45 °C (113 °F), and produce both isomers of lactic acid (D and L). Many lactobacilli including L. plantarum are unusual in that they can respire oxygen and express cytochromes if heme and menaquinone are present in the growth medium.[8][9] In the absence of heme and menaquinone, oxygen is consumed by NADH-peroxidase with hydrogen peroxide as intermediate and water as end product.[8][9] The peroxide, it is presumed, acts as a weapon to exclude competing bacteria from the food source. In place of the protective enzyme superoxide dismutase present in almost all other oxygen-tolerant cells, this organism accumulates millimolar quantities of manganese polyphosphate. Manganese is also used by L. plantarum in a pseudo-catalase to lower reactive oxygen levels. Because the chemistry by which manganese complexes protect the cells from oxygen damage is subverted by iron, these cells contain virtually no iron atoms; in contrast, a cell of Escherichia coli of comparable volume contains over one-million iron atoms. Because of this, L. plantarum cannot be used to create active enzymes that require a heme complex, such as true catalases.[10]

L. plantarum, like many lactobacilli, can be cultured using MRS media.[11]

Genomes[edit]

The genome sequencing of the lactic acid bacterium L. plantarum WCFS1 shows more molecular details. The chromosome contains 3,308,274 base pairs.[12] The GC content of L. plantarum is 44.45% with the average protein count 3063. According to the experiment from Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, the rRNA number of L. plantarum WCFS1 is 15, and the number or tRNA is 70.[5]

Products[edit]

Silage[edit]

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is the most common bacterium used in silage inoculants. During the anaerobic conditions of ensilage, these organisms quickly dominate the microbial population, and, within 48 hours, they begin to produce lactic and acetic acids via the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway, further diminishing their competition. Under these conditions, L. plantarum strains producing high levels of heterologous proteins have been found to remain highly competitive. This quality could allow this species to be utilized as an effective biological pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass.[13]

Food products[edit]

L. plantarum is commonly found in milk products, meat and a lot of vegetable fermentations including sauerkraut, pickles, brined olives, Korean kimchi, Nigerian Ogi, sourdough, and other fermented plant material, and also some cheeses, fermented sausages, and stockfish. The high levels of this organism in food also makes it an ideal candidate for the development of probiotics. In a 2008 study by Juana Frias et al., L. plantarum was applied to reduce the allergenicity of soy flour. The result showed that, compared to other microbes, L. plantarum-fermented soy flour showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity (96–99%), depending upon the sensitivity of the plasma used. L. plantarum is also found in dadiah, a traditional fermented buffalo milk of the Minangkabau tribe, Indonesia.[14]

Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 is a gram-positive bacteria isolated from locally fermented vegetables. It has the ability to hydrolyze bile salt when it is provided as a supplement. K21 also reduces the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride, and inhibits the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, it reduces the level of plasma leptin, mitigates liver damage and alleviates glucose intolerance. Finally K21 inhibits body weight gain and fat mass accumulation.[15]

Therapeutics[edit]

Because it is abundant, of human origin, and easy to grow, L. plantarum has been tested for health effects. It has been identified as a probiotic, which suggests its value for further research and application.[16] L. plantarum has significant antioxidant activities and also helps to maintain intestinal permeability.[17] It is able to suppress the growth of gas-producing bacteria in the intestines and may benefit some patients who suffer from IBS.[18] It helps to create microbe balance and stabilize digestive enzyme patterns.[12] Lactiplantibacillus plantarum has been found in experiments to increase hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor, which means L. plantarum may have a beneficial role in the treatment of depression.[19] The ability of L. plantarum to survive in the human gastro-intestinal tract makes it a possible in vivo delivery vehicle for therapeutic compounds or proteins.

L. plantarum is a constituent in VSL#3. This proprietary, standardized formulation of live bacteria may be used in combination with conventional therapies to treat ulcerative colitis and requires a prescription.[20]

Antimicrobial property[edit]

The ability of L. plantarum to produce antimicrobial substances helps them survive in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. The antimicrobial substances produced have shown significant effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Activity against AIDS-defining illnesses[edit]

As a result of initial HIV infection, the gut has been found to be a prime center of immune activity.[21] The immune systems' Paneth cells of the gut attack HIV by producing Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), which results in extensive collateral damage — sloughing of tight intestinal lining, witnessed as severe diarrhea. This destruction of the gut lining allows fungal pathogens to invade, e.g., Cryptococcus species, resulting in an AIDS-defining illness such as cryptococcosis, representing 60% to 70% of all AIDS-defining cases,[22] but not necessarily only the gut. In rhesus macaques, L. plantarum is able to reduce (destroy) IL-1β, resolving inflammation, and accelerating gut repair within hours.[21]

Biochemistry[edit]

The entire genome has recently been sequenced, and promoter libraries have been developed for both conditional and constitutive gene expression, adding to the utility of L. plantarum. It is also commonly employed as the indicative organism in niacin bioassay experiments, in particular, AOAC International Official Method 944.13, as it is a niacin auxotroph.[23][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal; Bernard, Elvis; Rolain, Thomas; Zhou, Miaomiao; Siezen, Roland J.; Bron, Peter A. (March 2010). "The extracellular biology of the lactobacilli". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 34 (2): 199–230. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2009.00208.x. ISSN 1574-6976. PMID 20088967.
  2. ^ Zheng, Jinshui; Wittouck, Stijn; Salvetti, Elisa; Franz, Charles M.A.P.; Harris, Hugh M.B.; Mattarelli, Paola; O’Toole, Paul W.; Pot, Bruno; Vandamme, Peter; Walter, Jens; Watanabe, Koichi (2020). "A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 70 (4): 2782–2858. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. ISSN 1466-5026. PMID 32293557.
  3. ^ Duar, Rebbeca M.; Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Zheng, Jinshui; Martino, Maria Elena; Grenier, Théodore; Pérez-Muñoz, María Elisa; Leulier, François; Gänzle, Michael; Walter, Jens (2017). "Lifestyles in transition: evolution and natural history of the genus Lactobacillus". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 41 (Supp_1): S27–S48. doi:10.1093/femsre/fux030. ISSN 0168-6445. PMID 28673043.
  4. ^ Martino, Maria Elena; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Caffrey, Brian E.; Wels, Michiel; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Leulier, François (2016). "Nomadic lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum revealed by comparative genomics of 54 strains isolated from different habitats". Environmental Microbiology. 18 (12): 4974–4989. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13455. ISSN 1462-2920. PMID 27422487.
  5. ^ a b Landete, José María; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; De Las Rivas, Blanca; De Felipe, Félix López; Muñoz, Rosario (2010). "Degradation of Phenolic Compounds Found in Olive Products by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains". Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention. pp. 387–396. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374420-3.00043-7. ISBN 9780123744203.
  6. ^ E Giraud, B Lelong and M Raimbault. 1991. Influence of pH and initial lactate concentration on the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 36(1):96–99.
  7. ^ Z Matejčeková et al. 2016. Characterization of the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in milk in dependence on temperature. Acta Chimica Slovaca. 9(2)104—108.
  8. ^ a b Gänzle, M.G. (2015). "Lactic metabolism revisited: metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and food spoilage". Current Opinion in Food Science. 2: 106–117. doi:10.1016/j.cofs.2015.03.001. ISSN 2214-7993.
  9. ^ a b Pedersen, Martin B.; Gaudu, Philippe; Lechardeur, Delphine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Gruss, Alexandra (2012-04-10). "Aerobic Respiration Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Uses in Biotechnology". Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 3 (1): 37–58. doi:10.1146/annurev-food-022811-101255. ISSN 1941-1413. PMID 22385163.
  10. ^ Kono, Y.; Fridovich, I. (1983). "Functional significance of manganese catalase in Lactobacillus plantarum". Journal of Bacteriology. 155 (2): 742–6. doi:10.1128/jb.155.2.742-746.1983. PMC 217745. PMID 6874643.
  11. ^ Wegkamp, A.; Teusink, B.; De Vos, W.M; Smid, E.J. (2010). "Development of a minimal growth medium for Lactobacillus plantarum". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 50 (1): 57–64. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02752.x. PMID 19874488. S2CID 9353126.
  12. ^ a b "Lactobacillus plantarum - microbewiki". microbewiki.kenyon.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-12.
  13. ^ Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Mills, David A. (2010). "Simultaneous consumption of pentose and hexose sugars: An optimal microbial phenotype for efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 88 (5): 1077–1085. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2839-1. PMC 2956055. PMID 20838789.
  14. ^ Nybom, Sonja M. K.; Collado, M. Carmen; Surono, Ingrid S.; Salminen, Seppo J.; Meriluoto, Jussi A. O. (2008). "Effect of Glucose in Removal of Microcystin-LR by Viable Commercial Probiotic Strains and Strains Isolated from Dadih Fermented Milk". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (10): 3714–3720. doi:10.1021/jf071835x. PMID 18459790.
  15. ^ WU, CC.; Weng, wl.; Lai, WL.; Tsai, HP.; Liu, WH.; Lee, MH.; Tsai, WC (February 2015). "Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice".2015;2015:391767
  16. ^ "Lactobacillus plantarum | Viticulture & Enology". wineserver.ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2018-05-12.
  17. ^ Bested, Alison C.; Logan, Alan C.; Selhub, Eva M. (2013). "Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II – contemporary contextual research". Gut Pathogens. 5 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-3. PMC 3601973. PMID 23497633.
  18. ^ Bixquert Jiménez, M. (2009). "Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with probiotics: An etiopathogenic approach at last?". Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas. 101 (8): 553–64. doi:10.4321/s1130-01082009000800006. PMID 19785495.
  19. ^ Bested, Alison C.; Logan, Alan C.; Selhub, Eva M. (2013). "Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: From Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part III – convergence toward clinical trials". Gut Pathogens. 5 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-4. PMC 3605358. PMID 23497650.
  20. ^ Dupont, Andrew; Richards, David M.; Jelinek, Katherine A.; Krill, Joseph; Rahimi, Erik; Ghouri, Yezaz (2014). "Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in inflammatory bowel disease". Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology. 7: 473–87. doi:10.2147/CEG.S27530. PMC 4266241. PMID 25525379.
  21. ^ a b Silvestri, G.; et al. (2014). "Early Mucosal Sensing of SIV Infection by Paneth Cells Induces IL-1β Production and Initiates Gut Epithelial Disruption". PLOS Pathogens. 10 (8): e1004311. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004311. PMC 4148401. PMID 25166758. Lay summaryMedical Xpress (August 30, 2014).
  22. ^ CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV at eMedicine
  23. ^ Tsuda, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Ishimi, Y. (2011). "Biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid assay using lyophilized Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 57 (6): 437–40. doi:10.3177/jnsv.57.437. PMID 22472287.
  24. ^ Leblanc, J.G.; et al. (2011). "B-Group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria - current knowledge and potential applications". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 111 (6): 1297–1309. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05157.x. PMID 21933312. S2CID 22065043.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]