Collins et al. 1989
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own. It is a short Gram-positive heterofermentative facultative anaerobic non-spore-forming rod that often appears in chains. Some strains of L. rhamnosus bacteria are being used as probiotics, and are particularly useful in treating female-related infections, most particularly very difficult to treat cases of bacterial vaginosis (or "BV"). The Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. reuteri species are most commonly found in the healthy female genito-urinary tract and are most helpful to supplement in order to regain control over dysbiotic bacterial overgrowth during an active infection. L. rhamnosus sometimes is used in yogurt and dairy products such as fermented and unpasteurized milk and semi-hard cheese. While frequently considered a beneficial organism, L. rhamnosus may not be as beneficial to certain subsets of the population; in rare circumstances, especially those primarily involving weakened immune system or infants, it may cause endocarditis.
- 1 Genome
- 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)
- 2.1 History
- 2.2 Medical research and use
- 2.2.1 Diarrhea
- 2.2.2 Acute gastroenteritis
- 2.2.3 Respiratory tract infections
- 2.2.4 Irritable bowel syndrome
- 2.2.5 Atopic dermatitis, eczema
- 2.2.6 Urogenital tract
- 2.2.7 Intestinal tract permeability
- 2.2.8 Gastrointestinal carriage of VRE
- 2.2.9 Asperger Syndrome and ADHD
- 2.2.10 Anxiety
- 2.2.11 Weight loss
- 2.2.12 Risks
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Lactobacillus rhamnosus has a wide variety of strains that have been isolated from many different environments including the vagina and gastrointestinal tract. L. rhamnosus strains have the capacity for strain-specific gene functions that are required to adapt to a large range of environments. Its core genome contains 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total (the pan-genome). The accessory genome is overtaken by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides, biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the CRISPR-cas system, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements such as phages, plasmid genes, and transposons.
The genome of the specific strain L. rhamnosus LRB, in this case, taken from a human baby tooth, consists of a circular chromosome of 2,934,954 bp with 46.78% GC content. This genome contains 2,749 total genes with 2,672 that are total protein-coding sequences. This sample did not contain any plasmids. The most extensively studied strain, L. rhamnosus GG, a gut isolate, consists of a genome of 3,010,111 bp. Therefore, the LRB genome is shorter than GG’s genome. LRB lacks the spaCBA gene cluster of GG and is not expected to produce functional pili (6). This difference may help explain why each strain lives in a different habitat.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a strain of L. rhamnosus that was isolated in 1983 from the intestinal tract of a healthy human being; filed for a patent on 17 April 1985, by Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldin, the 'GG' derives from the first letters of their surnames. The patent refers to a strain of "L. acidophilus GG" with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) accession number 53103; later reclassified as a strain of L. rhamnosus. The patent claims the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is acid- and bile-stable, has a great avidity for human intestinal mucosal cells, and produces lactic acid. Since the discovery of the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain, it has been studied extensively on its various health benefits and currently L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is the world's most studied probiotic bacterium with more than 800 scientific studies.
In 1983, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was isolated from the intestinal tract of a healthy human by Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldin.
Medical research and use
While Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is able to survive the acid and bile of the stomach and intestine, is claimed to colonize the digestive tract, and to balance intestinal microflora, evidence suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus is likely a transient inhabitant, and not autochthonous. Regardless, it is considered a probiotic useful for the treatment of various maladies, as it works on many levels. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG binds to the gut mucosa.
L. rhamnosus GG is beneficial in the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea in children. Prevention and treatment of various types of diarrhea have been shown in children and in adults. L. rhamnosus GG can be beneficial in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and nosocomial diarrhea and this has been recently supported by European guidelines. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG may reduce the risk of traveler's diarrhea. L. rhamnosus GG reduces daily stool frequency and total diarrhoea duration compared to oral rehydration solution, Bacillus clausii and Saccharomyces boulardii.
A position paper published by ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics based on a systematic review and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggested that L. rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation) may be considered in the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration therapy.
Respiratory tract infections
Irritable bowel syndrome
L. rhamnosus GG may reduce the symptoms of diarrhoea-predominant (IBS-D) Irritable bowel syndrome.
Atopic dermatitis, eczema
L. rhamnosus GG showed potential in the treatment and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis, but the results of intervention trials have been mixed. A single clinical trial with seven-year follow-up showed L. rhamnosus GG to be useful for preventing atopic dermatitis in high risk children.
Intestinal tract permeability
Gastrointestinal carriage of VRE
Asperger Syndrome and ADHD
A 2015 study concluded that early probiotic supplementation may reduce the risk of neuropsychiatric disorder development later in childhood. Infants in the longitudinal study were randomised to receive either L. rhamnosus or placebo during their first six months and were then followed for 13 years. At age 13, 17.1% of the children in the placebo group were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome or ADHD while none of the children that received L. rhamnosus were diagnosed.
A 2011 study reported that L. rhamnosus may have an effect on GABA neurotransmitter receptors. Mice fed L. rhamnosus JB-1 had less anxiety and different levels of a brain-chemical sensor and stress hormones.
A 2013 study suggested that L. rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724 may increase weight loss in dieting women. The research was initiated after several studies showed that gut bacteria in obese individuals differs significantly from those in thin people. Women in the study lost nearly twice the weight that the placebo group lost. No difference was observed in men.
The use of L. rhamnosus GG for probiotic therapy has been linked with rare cases of sepsis in certain risk groups, primarily those with a weakened immune system and infants. Ingestion of GG is considered to be safe and data show a significant growth in the consumption of L. rhamnosus GG at the population level did not lead to an increase in Lactobacillus bacteraemia cases.
- Avlami A, Kordossis T, Vrizidis N, Sipsas NV (May 2001). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis complicating colonoscopy". The Journal of Infection. 42 (4): 283–5. doi:10.1053/jinf.2001.0793. PMID 11545575.
- Ceapa C, Davids M, Ritari J, Lambert J, Wels M, Douillard FP, et al. (July 2016). "The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires". Genome Biology and Evolution. 8 (6): 1889–905. doi:10.1093/gbe/evw123. PMC . PMID 27358423.
- Biswas S, Biswas I (November 2016). "Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain LRB". Genome Announcements. 4 (6). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01208-16. PMC . PMID 27811096.
- US 4839281
- Silva M, Jacobus NV, Deneke C, Gorbach SL (August 1987). "Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 31 (8): 1231–3. doi:10.1128/aac.31.8.1231. PMC . PMID 3307619.
- Kankainen M, Paulin L, Tynkkynen S, von Ossowski I, Reunanen J, Partanen P, et al. (October 2009). "Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (40): 17193–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908876106. PMC . PMID 19805152.
- Morita H, Toh H, Oshima K, Murakami M, Taylor TD, Igimi S, Hattori M (December 2009). "Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103". Journal of Bacteriology. 191 (24): 7630–1. doi:10.1128/JB.01287-09. PMC . PMID 19820099.
- Conway PL, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR (January 1987). "Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells". Journal of Dairy Science. 70 (1): 1–12. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)79974-3. PMID 3106442.
- Walter J (2008). "Ecological role of lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract: implications for fundamental and biomedical research". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (16): 4985–96. doi:10.1128/AEM.00753-08. PMC . PMID 18539818.
- Ardita CS, Mercante JW, Kwon YM, Luo L, Crawford ME, Powell DN, Jones RM, Neish AS (August 2014). "Epithelial adhesion mediated by pilin SpaC is required for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-induced cellular responses". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (16): 5068–77. doi:10.1128/AEM.01039-14. PMC . PMID 24928883.
- Canani RB, Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, De Vincenzo A, Albano F, Passariello A, De Marco G, Manguso F, Guarino A (August 2007). "Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations". BMJ. 335 (7615): 340. doi:10.1136/bmj.39272.581736.55. PMC . PMID 17690340.
- Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, Saxelin M, Ollus A, Valta P, Kouri M, Elomaa I, Joensuu H (October 2007). "Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study". British Journal of Cancer. 97 (8): 1028–34. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603990. PMC . PMID 17895895.
- Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, Dias JA, Casali LG, Hoekstra H, et al. (2000). "Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 30 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1097/00005176-200001000-00018. PMID 10630440.
- Hojsak I, Fabiano V, Pop TL, Goulet O, Zuccotti GV, Çokuğraş FC, Pettoello-Mantovani M, Kolaček S (February 2018). "European guidance on paediatric use of probiotics states that benefits are limited to several conditions and urges caution with specific vulnerable groups". Acta Paediatrica: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/apa.14270. PMID 29446865.
- Cameron D, Hock QS, Kadim M, Mohan N, Ryoo E, Sandhu B, Yamashiro Y, Jie C, Hoekstra H, Guarino A (December 2017). "Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 23 (45): 7952–7964. doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i45.7952. PMC . PMID 29259371.
- Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R (October 2017). "Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Antibiotics. 6 (4). doi:10.3390/antibiotics6040021. PMC . PMID 29023420.
- Islam SU (February 2016). "Clinical Uses of Probiotics". Medicine. 95 (5): e2658. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002658. PMC . PMID 26844491.
- Canani, Roberto Berni; Cirillo, Pia; Terrin, Gianluca; Cesarano, Luisa; Spagnuolo, Maria Immacolata; Vincenzo, Anna De; Albano, Fabio; Passariello, Annalisa; Marco, Giulio De (2007-08-16). "Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations". BMJ. 335 (7615): 340. doi:10.1136/bmj.39272.581736.55. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 17690340.
- Szajewska H, Guarino A, Hojsak I, Indrio F, Kolacek S, Shamir R, Vandenplas Y, Weizman Z (April 2014). "Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 58 (4): 531–9. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000320. PMID 24614141.
- Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdović S, Szajewska H, Misak Z, Kolacek S (June 2010). "Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Clinical Nutrition. 29 (3): 312–6. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.09.008. PMID 19896252.
- Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Pönkä A, Meurman JH, Poussa T, Näse L, Saxelin M, Korpela R (June 2001). "Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial". BMJ. 322 (7298): 1327. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327. PMC . PMID 11387176.
- Pedersen N, Andersen NN, Végh Z, Jensen L, Ankersen DV, Felding M, Simonsen MH, Burisch J, Munkholm P (November 2014). "Ehealth: low FODMAP diet vs Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in irritable bowel syndrome". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 20 (43): 16215–26. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i43.16215. PMC . PMID 25473176.
- Boyle RJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Leonardi-Bee J, Murrell DF, Tang ML (August 2009). "Probiotics for the treatment of eczema: a systematic review". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 39 (8): 1117–27. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03305.x. PMID 19573037.
- Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Isolauri E (April 2007). "Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 119 (4): 1019–21. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.608. PMID 17289135.
- Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E (April 2001). "Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet. 357 (9262): 1076–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04259-8. PMID 11297958.
- Reid G, Bruce AW (2001). "Selection of lactobacillus strains for urogenital probiotic applications". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 183 Suppl 1: S77–80. doi:10.1086/318841. PMID 11171021.
- Francavilla R, Miniello V, Magistà AM, De Canio A, Bucci N, Gagliardi F, Lionetti E, Castellaneta S, Polimeno L, Peccarisi L, Indrio F, Cavallo L (December 2010). "A randomized controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in children with functional abdominal pain". Pediatrics. 126 (6): e1445–52. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0467. PMID 21078735.
- Wang Y, Liu Y, Sidhu A, Ma Z, McClain C, Feng W (July 2012). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury". American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 303 (1): G32–41. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00024.2012. PMC . PMID 22538402.
- Forsyth CB, Farhadi A, Jakate SM, Tang Y, Shaikh M, Keshavarzian A (March 2009). "Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis". Alcohol. 43 (2): 163–72. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.12.009. PMC . PMID 19251117.
- Manley KJ, Fraenkel MB, Mayall BC, Power DA (May 2007). "Probiotic treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a randomised controlled trial". The Medical Journal of Australia. 186 (9): 454–7. PMID 17484706.
- Pärtty A, Kalliomäki M, Wacklin P, Salminen S, Isolauri E (June 2015). "A possible link between early probiotic intervention and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in childhood: a randomized trial". Pediatric Research. 77 (6): 823–8. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.51. PMID 25760553.
- Science News, Belly bacteria boss the brain, August 29th, 2011
- Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, et al. (April 2014). "Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women". The British Journal of Nutrition. 111 (8): 1507–19. doi:10.1017/S0007114513003875. PMID 24299712.
- Gupta V, Garg R (2009). "Probiotics". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 27 (3): 202–9. doi:10.4103/0255-0857.53201. PMID 19584499.
- Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, Saxelin M, Vaara M, Ruutu P, Sarna S, Valtonen V, Järvinen A (November 2002). "Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 35 (10): 1155–60. doi:10.1086/342912. PMID 12410474.
Salminen MK, Rautelin H, Tynkkynen S, Poussa T, Saxelin M, Valtonen V, Järvinen A (January 2004). "Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. rhamnosus GG". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 38 (1): 62–9. doi:10.1086/380455. PMID 14679449.