Collins et al. 1989
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own. It is a short Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rod that often appears in chains. Some strains of L. rhamnosus bacteria are being used as probiotics, and are particularly useful in treating female-related infections, most particularly very difficult to treat cases of Bacterial Vaginosis (or "BV"). The Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and L. Reuteri species are most commonly found in the healthy female genito-urinary tract and are most helpful to supplement in order to regain control over dysbiotic bacterial overgrowth during an active infection. L. rhamnosus sometimes is used in yogurt and dairy products such as fermented and un-pasteurized milk and semi-hard cheese. While frequently considered a beneficial organism, L. rhamnosus may not be as beneficial to certain subsets of the population; in rare circumstances, especially those primarily involving weakened immune system or infants, there may be no advantage.
- 1 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)
- 2 References
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a strain of L. rhamnosus that was isolated in 1983 from the intestinal tract of a healthy human being; filed for patent on 17 April 1985, by Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldin, and the 'GG' derives from the first letters of their surnames. The patent refers to a strain of "L. acidophilus GG" with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Accession No. 53103; later reclassified as a strain of L. rhamnosus. The patent claims the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is acid- and bile-stable, has a great avidity for human intestinal mucosal cells, and produces lactic acid. Since the discovery of the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain, it has been studied extensively on its various health benefits and currently L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is the world's most studied probiotic bacterium with more than 800 scientific studies.
Medical research and use
While Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is able to survive the acid and bile of the stomach and intestine, is claimed to colonize the digestive tract, and to balance intestinal microflora, evidence suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus is likely a transient inhabitant, and not autochthonous. Regardless, it is considered a probiotic useful for treatment of various maladies, as it works on many levels. Most of the molecular mechanisms are not known, however.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been shown beneficial in the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea in children. The prevention and treatment of various types of diarrhea has been shown both in children and in adults.
Respiratory tract infections
Atopic dermatitis, eczema
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG also has shown potential in treatment and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis, but the results of intervention trials have been mixed. A clinical trial with seven-year follow-up shows L. rhamnosus GG is useful in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in children at high risk of allergy.
The clinical health effects of L. rhamnosus GG have been widely studied. Both L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus GR-1 appear to protect the urogenital tract by excreting biosurfactants to inhibit the adhesion of vaginal and urinary pathogens. 
Intestinal tract permeability
L. rhamnosus has been found to reduce intestinal permeability in children who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome, and it also has been found to counter alcohol-related intestinal permeability.
Gastrointestinal carriage of VRE
Research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2011 reported this bacterium may have an effect on GABA neurotransmitter receptors. Mice who were fed L. rhamnosus JB-1 had less anxiety and had different levels of a brain-chemical sensor and stress hormones.
Research published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2013 suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724 may increase weight loss in women who are dieting. The research was initiated after several studies showed that the gut bacteria in obese individuals differs significantly from those in thin people. Women in the study lost nearly twice the weight that the placebo group lost. No difference was observed in men, however. 
The use of L. rhamnosus GG for probiotic therapy has been linked with very rare cases of sepsis in certain risk groups, primarily those with a weakened immune system and infants. Ingestion of L. rhamnosus GG is, nevertheless, considered to be safe, and data from Finland show a significant growth in the consumption of L. rhamnosus GG at the population level has not led to an increase in the number of Lactobacillus bacteraemia cases.
- Avlami A, Kordossis T, Vrizidis N, Sipsas NV (2001). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis complicating colonoscopy". J. Infect. 42 (4): 283–5. doi:10.1053/jinf.2001.0793. PMID 11545575.
- US 4839281
- Silva M, Jacobus NV, Deneke C, Gorbach SL (1987). "Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31 (8): 1231–3. doi:10.1128/aac.31.8.1231. PMC 174909. PMID 3307619.
- Kankainen M; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; von Ossowski, I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, R.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A. P. A.; Lebeer, S.; De Keersmaecker, S. C. J.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hamalainen, T.; Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.; Ritari, J.; Alatalo, E.; Korpela, R.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Lassig, A.; Hatakka, K.; Kinnunen, K. T.; Karjalainen, H.; Saxelin, M.; Laakso, K.; Surakka, A.; Palva, A.; Salusjarvi, T.; Auvinen, P.; De Vos, W. M.; et al. (2009). "Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human-mucus binding protein". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106 (40): 17193–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908876106. PMC 2746127. PMID 19805152.
- Morita H, Toh H, Oshima K, Murakami M, Taylor TD, Igimi S, Hattori M (2009). "Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103". J. Bacteriol. 191 (24): 7630–1. doi:10.1128/JB.01287-09. PMC 2786603. PMID 19820099.
- Conway PL, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR (1987). "Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells". J. Dairy Sci. 70 (1): 1–12. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)79974-3. PMID 3106442.
- Walter, J. (2008). "The ecological role of lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract: Implications for fundamental and biomedical research". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Ahead of Print 6 June 2008.
- Scott, Sophie. "Peanut allergies: Australian study into probiotics offers hope for possible cure". abc.net.au. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Canaani, RB; Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, De Vincenzo A, Albano F, Passariello A, De Marco G, Manguso F, Guarino A (2007). "Probiotics for treatment of accute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations". BMJ 335 (7615): 340. doi:10.1136/bmj.39272.581736.55. PMC 1949444. PMID 17690340. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Österlund, P; Ruotsalainen T; Korpela R; Saxelin M; Ollus A; Valta P; Kouri M; Elomaa I; Joensuu H (2007). "Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study". Br. J. Cancer 97 (8): 1028–34. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603990. PMC 2360429. PMID 17895895.
- Guandalini, S; Pensabene L, Zikri MA, Dias JA, Casali LG, Hoekstra H, Kolacek S, Massar K, Micetic-Turk D, Papadopoulou A, de Sousa JS, Sandhu B, Szajewska H, Weizman Z (2000). "Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial". J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1097/00005176-200001000-00018. PMID 10630440. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Vanderhoof,Jon A.; et al. (1999). "LactobacillusGG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children". The Journal of Pediatrics 135 (5): 564–568. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70053-3. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Hojsak, I; Snovak N; Abdović S; Szajewska H; Mišak Z; Kolaček S (2009). "Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Clin. Nutr. 29 (3): 312–6. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.09.008. PMID 19896252.
- Hatakka, K; Savilahti E; Pönkä A; Meurman JH; Poussa T; Näse L; Saxelin M; Korpela R (2001). "Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial". BMJ 322 (7238): 1327. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327. PMC 32161. PMID 11387176.
- Boyle RJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Leonardi-Bee J, Murrell DF, Tang ML (2009). "Probiotics for the treatment of eczema: a systematic review.". Clin Exp Allergy 39 (8): 1117–27. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03305.x. PMID 19573037.
- Kalliomäki, M; Salminen S; Poussa T; Isolauri E (2007). "Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 119 (4): 1019–21. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.608. PMID 17289135.
- Kalliomäki, M; Salminen S; Arvilommi H; Kero P; Koskinen P; Isolauri E (2001). "Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet 357 (9262): 1076–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04259-8. PMID 11297958.
- Oxford Journal: Selection of Lactobacillus Strains for Urogenital Probiotic Applications|http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/183/Supplement_1/S77.full.pdf
- Francavilla, R.; Miniello, V.; Magistà, AM.; De Canio, A.; Bucci, N.; Gagliardi, F.; Lionetti, E.; Castellaneta, S.; et al. (Dec 2010). "A randomized controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in children with functional abdominal pain". Pediatrics 126 (6): e1445–52. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0467. PMID 21078735.
- Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sidhu, A.; Ma, Z.; McClain, C.; Feng, W. (Jul 2012). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303 (1): G32–41. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00024.2012. PMC 3404581. PMID 22538402.
- Forsyth, CB.; Farhadi, A.; Jakate, SM.; Tang, Y.; Shaikh, M.; Keshavarzian, A. (Mar 2009). "Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis". Alcohol 43 (2): 163–72. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.12.009. PMC 2675276. PMID 19251117.
- Manley KJ, Fraenkel MB, Mayall BC, Power DA (2007). "Probiotic treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a randomised controlled trial". Med J Aust 186 (9): 454–7. PMID 17484706.
- Science News, Belly bacteria boss the brain, August 29th, 2011
- British Journal of Nutrition, 
- Gupta, V; Garg, R (2009). "Probiotics". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 27 (3): 202–9. doi:10.4103/0255-0857.53201. PMID 19584499.
- Salminen, MK; Tynkkynen S; Rautelin H; Saxelin M; Vaara M; Ruutu P; Sarna S; Valtonen V; Järvinen A (2002). "Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland". Clin. Infect. Dis. 35 (10): 1155–60. doi:10.1086/342912. PMID 12410474.
Salminen MK, Rautelin H, Tynkkynen S, et al. (2004). "Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. rhamnosus GG". Clin. Infect. Dis. 38 (1): 62–9. doi:10.1086/380455. PMID 14679449.