Public toilet

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Public toilet in an American recreational area, featuring public art.

A public toilet is a room or small building containing one or more toilets (and possibly also urinals) which is available for use by the general public, or by customers or employees of certain businesses. Public toilets are commonly separated into male and female facilities, although some can be unisex, particularly the smaller or single-occupancy types. Increasingly, public toilets are accessible to people with disabilities.

Public toilets may either be used free of charge or the user may be charged a fee. In the latter case they are also called pay toilets and sometimes have of a coin-operated turnstile.

Public toilets may be provided by the local authority or by a commercial business. They may be unattended or be staffed by a janitor or attendant. In many cultures, it is customary to tip the attendant, especially if they provide a grooming service, such as at upscale nightclubs or restaurants.

Public toilets are typically found in schools, offices, factories, and other places of work; in museums, cinemas, bars, restaurants, and other places of entertainment; in railway stations, filling stations, and on long distance public transport vehicles such as trains, ferries, and planes. Portable toilets are often provided at large outdoor events. In many Asian, African and Muslim countries, public toilets are of the squat type, as this is regarded as more hygienic for a shared facility.

Terminology[edit]

A "washroom" (public toilet) in Canada
Another sort of public "washroom" - a place for wudu, Islamic ritual purification
Public squat toilet in Hong Kong
Public pay toilet in Kenya
Entrance to an underground public toilet in Japan

Public toilets are known by many names in different varieties of English. One of the more formal circumlocutions is "public convenience", as in the Guilford Place public conveniences, an architecturally valuable example.

In American English, "restroom" usually denotes a toilet facility designed for use by the public. However, "bathroom" is also commonly used. "Comfort station" sometimes refers to a visitor welcome center such as those found in national parks.

In Canadian English, public facilities are always called "washrooms". The word "toilet" generally denotes the fixture itself rather than the room. The word "washroom" is never used to mean "utility room" or "mud room" as it is in some parts the United States. "Bathroom" is generally used to refer to the room in the home that contains a bath or shower.

In Britain, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand, the terms in use are "public toilet", "public lavatory" (abbreviated "lav") and more informally, "public loo". A "bathroom" is a room containing a bath, a "washroom" is a room for washing hands, and a "restroom" is a room to rest in when tired; none of which would necessarily contain a toilet. As public toilets were traditionally signed as "Gentlemen" or "Ladies", the colloquial terms "the Gents" and "the Ladies" indicates the facility itself. The British Toilet Association, sponsor of the Loo of the Year Award, refers to public toilets collectively as "away from home" toilets.[1]

In Philippine English, "comfort room", or "C.R.", is the most common term in use.[2]

In continental Europe, both "toilet", a translation of the French les toilettes, and "WC" (abbreviation for "water closet", an older term for the flush toilet) are common.

Mosques, madrassas (schools) and other places Muslims gather, have public sex-segregated "wash rooms" since Islam requires specific procedures for cleansing parts of the body before prayer. These rooms normally adjoin the toilets, which are also subject to Muslim hygienical jurisprudence and Islamic toilet etiquette.

Types[edit]

Sanisette automated public toilet (pay toilet) in Paris, France
Public urinal (Urilift) in Göteborg

Many public toilets are permanent small buildings visible to passersby on the street. Others are underground, including older facilities in Britain and Canada. Contemporary street toilets include automatic, self-cleaning toilets in self-contained pods; an example is the Sanisette, which first became popular in France.[3]

Another traditional type that has been modernized is the screened French street urinal known as a pissoir (vespasienne). An updated cylindrical urinal that lowers beneath street level out of the way and pops up during hours when it's needed is the Urilift Pop Up Urinal.[4] It is typically installed in entertainment districts and made operational only during weekend evenings and nights. This urinal brand invented in the Netherlands, also offers a pop up toilet for women.[4]

Permanent public toilets may be maintained by private firms. The companies are then permitted to use the external surfaces of the enclosures for advertising. The installations are part of a street furniture contract between the out-of-home advertising company and the city government, and allow these public conveniences to be installed and maintained without requiring funds from the municipal budget.

Various portable toilet technologies are used as public toilets. Portables can be moved into place where and when needed and are popular at outdoor festivals and events. A portable toilet can either be connected to the local sewage system or store the waste in a holding tank until it is emptied by a vacuum truck. Portable composting toilets require removal of the container to a composting facility.[6]

The standard wheelchair-accessible public toilet features wider doors, ample space for turning, lowered sinks, and grab bars for safety. Features above and beyond this standard are advocated by the Changing Places campaign.[5] Features include a hoist for an adult, a full-sized changing bench, and space for up to two caregivers.

Purposes[edit]

As an "away from home" toilet room, a public toilet can provide far more than access to the toilet for urination and defecation. People also wash their hands, use the mirrors for grooming, get drinking water (e.g. refilling water bottles), attend to menstrual hygiene needs, and use the waste bins. Public toilet may also become places where harassment of others or illegal activities occur, particularly if principles of Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are not applied in the design of the facility.

Health aspects[edit]

Public toilets play a role in community health and individual well-being. When toilets are available, people are able to enjoy outings and physical activities in their communities. By making it possible for people get out of their cars and onto their feet, bicycles and mass transit, public toilets can contribute to improved environmental health. Mental well-being is enhanced when people are out with families and friends and know there's a place "to go."

Public toilets serve people who are “restroom challenged.”[9] First, there are those who need to go very frequently. These people may have normal conditions – young age, old age, females who are pregnant or menstruating – or medical conditions. Second, there are those whose need for a toilet comes urgently, suddenly and without warning. These include most people with chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease and colitis as well as those temporarily afflicted with food borne illnesses.[9]

The inability to meet essential physiological needs because there is no available toilet contributes to health issues such as urinary tract infections, kidney infections, and digestive problems which can later develop into severe health problems.[6] Inadequate access to a restroom when required can lead to substantial problems for men with prostate problems, women who are menstruating or going through menopause and anyone with urinary and fecal incontinence.

The difficulty that bus and truck drivers on timed schedules have in accessing toilets puts them risk of bladder and stool health problems. Furthermore, if the concentration of a driver in urgent need is compromised, this becomes a broader public safety concern.

Workers therefore have legal rights to access a toilet during their work day. In the United States, the Department of Labor's Occupational Health and Safety protects workers' rights to toilet breaks because of the documented health risks.[7] This protected right to a toilet is a function of the workplace and is lost when workers leave the workplace and join the members of the general public.[8]

According to the Government of Australia, more than 3.8 million Australians of all ages are estimated to suffer continence issues.[9] This represents 18% of the Australian population. Therefore, the Department of Health and Ageing maintains the National Public Toilet Map to enable the public to find the closest facility.

The public toilet is not an amenity but rather an essential element in a community's physical and social infrastructure, without which people cannot participate in their communities with dignity and confidence.

Design[edit]

Entry[edit]

Doorless entry[edit]

Modern public toilets may be designed with a labyrinth entrance (doorless entry), which prevents the spread of disease that might otherwise occur when coming in contact with a door. Doorless entry provides visual privacy while simultaneously offering a measure of security by allowing the passage of sound. Doorless entry also helps deter vandalism; fewer audible clues to another person entering discourages some vandals. Doorless entry may also be achieved simply by keeping an existing door propped open, closed only when necessary.

Coin operated entry[edit]

Pay toilets usually have some form of turnstile that is coin operated, or they have an attendant who collects the fee.

Service access[edit]

Modern public toilets often have a service entrance, utilities passage, and the like, that run behind all the fixtures. Sensors are installed in a separate room, behind the fixtures. Usually the separate room is just a narrow corridor or passageway.

Sensors[edit]

Sensor-operated fixtures (faucets, soap dispensers, hand dryers, paper towel dispensers) prevent the spread of disease by allowing patrons to circumvent the need to touch common surfaces. Sensor-operated toilets also help conserve water by limiting the amount used per flush, and require less routine maintenance. Each sensor views through a small window into each fixture. Sometimes the metal plates that house the sensor windows are bolted on from behind, to prevent tampering. Additionally, all of the electrical equipment is safely behind the walls, so that there is no danger of electric shock. However, a RCCB must be used for all such electrical equipment.

Lighting[edit]

Service lighting consisting of windows that run all the way around the outside of the toilet using electric lights behind the windows, to create the illusion of extensive natural light, even when the toilets are underground or otherwise do not have access to natural light. The windows are sometimes made of glass brick, permanently cemented in place. Lighting installed in service tunnels that run around the outside of the toilets provides optimum safety from electrical shock (keeping the lights outside the toilet), hygiene (no cracks or openings), security (no way for vandals to access the light bulbs), and aesthetics (clean architectural lines that maintain a continuity of whatever aesthetic design is present, e.g., the raw industrial urban aesthetic that works well with glass brick).

Cisterns (tanks)[edit]

Older toilets do not often have service ducts and often in old toilets that have been modernized, the toilet cistern might be hidden in a purpose-built 'box' tiled over. Often old toilets might still have high-level cisterns in the service ducts. On the outside, the toilet will be flushed by a handle (just like an ordinary low-level cistern toilet) although behind the wall this handle will activate a chain. Sometimes a long flushing trough will be used to ensure that the cistern can be refilled quickly after dual flushes. This trend of hiding cisterns and fittings behind the walls started in the late 1930s in the United States and in the United Kingdom from the 1950s and by the late 1960s it was unusual for toilet cisterns to be visible in public toilets. In some buildings such as schools, however, a cistern can still be visible, although high-level cisterns had become old-fashioned by the 1970s and a lot of schools now have low-level cisterns.

Fixtures[edit]

Public toilets by their nature have heavy usage, so they may rely on a flushometer with a stronger and louder flush than a home-usage toilet. Some high-vandalism settings, such as beaches or stadiums, will utilize metal toilets. Public toilets generally contain several of the following fixtures.

In the lockable cubicle (stall)[edit]

A dispenser of toilet seat covers

At the point of handwashing[edit]

Hand dryer
  • Faucets (taps), note some are at a lower level for children and wheelchair users
  • Antiseptic handwash dispenser or soap dispensers, pump bottles or auto dispensers
  • Mirror (usually over sinks)
  • Paper towel dispenser (sometimes they have auto-sensors for touchless dispensing)
  • Garbage can (a rubbish bin)
  • Hand dryer (used manually or with auto-sensors)

Elsewhere[edit]

A foldable changing table, open
  • Urinals (almost exclusively in men's rooms; although see female urinal)
  • Vending machines dispensing condoms, diapers (nappies), painkillers, energy drinks, perfume, breath mints, facial tissue, confectionery, undergarments, swimwear, soap, sex toys, or sanitary napkins or tampons
  • Air fresheners or odour control systems
  • Infant changing table, often fold-down (usually in women's rooms, but increasingly in men/s rooms, due to legal changes[10])
  • Sometimes showers are also present, often with soap, shampoo, or similar dispensers (often at truck stops)

Society and culture[edit]

Graffiti and street art[edit]

Graffiti at a toilet in Bat Yam, Israel.
The Hundertwasser Toilets, seen as a tourist attraction in their own right

Public toilets have long been associated with graffiti, often of a transgressive, gossippy, or low-brow humorous nature (cf. toilet humour). The word latrinalia—from latrine (toilet) and -alia (a collection)—was coined to describe this kind of graffiti.[11] A famous example of such artwork was featured on the album cover of the satirical Tony Award Broadway musical Urinetown, using felt-tip pen scribblings.

As graffiti merged into street art, so some public street-level toilets began to make a feature of their visibility. The Hundertwasser toilet block is a colourful example in Kawakawa, New Zealand, designed by an Austrian artist and viewed as a tourist draw in a small town.

Drugs and vandalism[edit]

Some public toilets are known for drug-taking and drug-selling, as well as vandalism. This is associated with all "neglected, unsupervised buildings", not just toilets, and good cleanliness and maintenance, and ideally an attendant on the premises, can act as a protection against these problems.[12]

Anonymous sex[edit]

Before the gay liberation movement, public toilets were amongst the few places where men too young to get into gay bars could meet others who they knew for sure to be gay.[13] Many, if not most, gay and bisexual men at the time were closeted, and there were almost no public gay social groups for those under legal drinking age.[14] The privacy and anonymity provided by public toilets made them a convenient and attractive location to engage in sexual acts then.

Sexual acts in public toilets are outlawed by many jurisdictions (e.g. the Sexual Offences Act 2003 in the UK).[15][16][17] It is likely that the element of risk involved in cottaging makes it an attractive activity to some.[18][19]

Privatization and closures[edit]

Welsh Dragon Bar, Wellington, New Zealand; formerly a public toilet

In some places, the provision of public toilet facilities is under great pressure.[20][21] One response by public authorities is to close the buildings, often citing criminal activity.[22][23] The United Kingdom government austerity programme has led to major council cut-backs to public toilet provision, with knock-on effects on the public realm as a whole.[24] Some of the buildings, particularly the underground ones, are sold and used for other purposes, e.g. as a bar.

Another response is to privatise the toilets, so that a public good is provided by a contractor,[25] just as private prisons are. The toilets may fall under the category of privately owned public space - anyone can use them, but the land ultimately belongs to the corporation in question. When toilets that have been privatised are improperly run, or closed, there may be calls to take them back into the control of the public authority, as with Westminster Council in central London - one of the wealthiest places in the world, where members of the public are reduced to urinating in the parks and streets for lack of available facilities.[26]

Racial segregation[edit]

In parts of the United States, public toilets were subject to racial segregation, due to the Jim Crow laws prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This imposed significant restrictions on the lives of African-Americans.[27] Those who were able to afford cars could avoid the indignities of segregated trains and buses, but they faced the difficulty of finding a public toilet they were allowed to use. Courtland Milloy of the Washington Post recalled that on cross-country roadtrips in the 1950s his parents were reluctant to stop the car to allow the children to relive themselves – it just wasn't safe.[28] One solution to this was to carry a portable toilet (a sort of bucket-like arrangement) in the trunk of the car.[29]

This treatment led to the creation of The Negro Motorist Green Book, an annually updated guidebook. Coping with discrimination on the road took some planning:

Uncle Otis had made this trip before, and he knew which places along the way offered "colored" bathrooms and which were better just to pass on by. Our map was marked and our route was planned that way, by the distances between service stations where it would be safe for us to stop.[30]

Once the traveler had found the correct "colored restroom", however, it could serve "as a respite from the insults of the white world",[31] akin to what is now called safe space.

Separation by sex and transgender issues[edit]

Entrance to public toilets at Seoul World Cup Stadium

Public toilets are usually segregated by sex, as indicated by written signs or pictograms. In many cultures, separation by sex or gender is so characteristic of public toilets that pictograms of a man or a woman are used to indicate locations of the respective toilets, often without explicit reference to the fixtures themselves. In restaurants and other private locations, the identifications can be designed to match the decoration of the premises.[32] Some toilets also function, in part, as changing rooms (locker rooms), owing to their gender-segregated nature. For example, in beach areas, a portion of the building is equipped with benches so that people can change into or out of their bathing suits.

Amnesty International includes segregated toilets among its list of suggested measures to ensure the safety of females in schools.[33] In many places the queues for the women's toilets are longer than those for the men's; efforts to deal with this are known as potty parity. It is theorized that Pay toilets disproportionately affect women.[34] In jurisdictions using the Uniform Plumbing Code in the U.S., sex separation is a legal mandate via the building code.[35]

In the 21st century, with increased exposure of the transgender community, there have been some initiatives calling for gender-neutral public toilets, instead of only male and female ones, to accommodate genderqueer individuals.[36]

Gender neutrality[edit]

AIGA standard restroom symbols
Men's
Women's
Unisex

Many public toilets have either individual or gender-neutral facilities. These can accommodate people with disabilities, elderly persons who may require assistance from a carer of another gender, or other cases where public gender-segregated facilities might lead to discomfort.[37] There are also gender-neutral toilets in cases where gender-segregated ones are not practical, such as in aircraft lavatories and passenger train toilets. Toilet facilities for disabled people, especially those reliant on a wheelchair, may be either unisex or gender-specific.[38] Anthropologist Roger Lancaster draws the historical links between racial and sexual segregation of public toilets, and proposes future designs that re-think public space in a way "at once unsegregated, child-friendly, and handicapped accessible"[39]

Toilet symbol in unicode[edit]

Unicode provides several symbols for public toilets.[40]

Symbol Code Name Value Image
🚹 U+1F6B9 MENS SYMBOL men's restroom Pictograms-nps-accommodations-mens-restroom-2.svg
🚺 U+1F6BA WOMENS SYMBOL women's restroom Pictograms-nps-accommodations-womens restroom-2.svg
🚻 U+1F6BB RESTROOM restrooms or unisex restroom Pictograms-nps-restrooms-2.svg
🚼 U+1F6BC BABY SYMBOL baby changing station Aiga nursery.png
U+267F WHEELCHAIR SYMBOL disabled accessible facilities Handicapped/disabled access
🚽 U+1F6BD TOILET restroom Noun 3121.svg
🅏 U+1F14F SQUARED WC restroom with flush toilet
🚾 U+1F6BE WATER CLOSET restroom with flush toilet
🚿 U+1F6BF SHOWER shower facilities Shower symbol.svg
🛀 U+1F6C0 BATH bathing facilities
🛁 U+1F6C1 BATHTUB bath facilities
Source: [40][41]

Legislation[edit]

Employees' rights to use the toilet vary between jurisdictions.

United States[edit]

The Restroom Access Act is legislation passed by several U.S. states that requires retail establishments that have toilet facilities for their employees to also allow customers to use the facilities if the customer suffers from an inflammatory bowel disease or other medical condition requiring immediate access to a toilet.

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 requires businesses to provide toilets for their employees,[42] along with washing facilities including soap or other suitable means of cleaning. Guidance on how many toilets to provide and what sort of washing facilities should be provided alongside them is given in the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Approved Code of Practice and Guidance L24, available from Health and Safety Executive Books.[43]

But there is no legal obligation on local authorities to provide public toilets, and although in 2008 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee called for a duty on local authorities to develop a public toilet strategy,[44] this was rejected by the Government.[45]

History[edit]

Public toilet remnants from Ancient Roman times in Ostia Antica
The washbasins of a 19th-century facility, still in use

Public toilets were part of the Sanitation system of ancient Rome, often in the proximity or as part of public baths (thermae).[46] By the Middle Ages public toilets became uncommon, with only few attested in Frankfurt in 1348, in London in 1383, and in Basel in 1455.[47]

In the early 19th century, large cities in Europe started installing public toilets: first in Paris, then in Berlin in 1820 and in London in 1851.[47]

George Jennings, the sanitary engineer, introduced public toilets, which he called "monkey closets", to the Crystal Palace for The Great Exhibition of 1851.[48] He also used the euphemism "halting station",[49] now in use in Indian English for a basic place to stay attached to a railway station. Public toilets were also known as "retiring rooms"[50] (cf "Drawing room", from "to withdraw", and Waiting room.)

Underground public toilets were introduced in the United Kingdom in the Victorian era, in built-up urban areas where there was no space to provide them above ground. The facilities could be accessed by stairs, and were lit by glass brick on the pavement. Underground public toilets were often built to a high standard by local health boards, although there was a much higher provision for men than women. Most have been closed as they did not have disabled access, and were more prone to vandalism and sexual encounters, especially if there was no attendant. A few remain in London, but others have been converted into alternative uses such as cafes, bars and even dwellings.

In the United States, concerns over public health and sanitation spurred the sanitarian movement during the late 1800s.[51] Reforms to standardize plumbing codes and household plumbing were advocated for; the intersection of advancements in technology and desire for cleanliness and disease-free spaces spurred the development of restrooms and toilets.

Facilities for women sometimes had a wider emphasis, providing a safe and comfortable private space in the public sphere. The Ladies Rest Room is one example of the non-euphemistic use of the term: literally, a place to rest.

A notable early example of a public toilet in the United States is the Old School Privy. The American architect Frank Lloyd Wright claimed to have "invented the hung wall for the w.c. (easier to clean under)" when he designed the Larkin Administration Building in Buffalo, New York in 1904.

Toilets with a user fee[edit]

John Nevil Maskelyne, an English stage magician, invented the first modern pay toilet in the late 19th century. His door lock for London toilets required the insertion of a penny coin to operate it, hence the euphemism to "spend a penny".[52]

The first pay toilet in the United States was installed in 1910 in Terre Haute, Indiana.[53]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Away from home toilet charter" (PDF). British Toilet Association. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  2. ^ http://www.philstar.com/sunday-life/2012-11-18/867879/pinoy-english-guide-amalayer-major-major-weather-weather-comfort-room
  3. ^ Mulrooney, Thomas. "Public Toilets Around the World". Plumbworld News. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Urilift pop-up urinals". Urilift. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  5. ^ "What are Changing Places Toilets?". Changing Places. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  6. ^ "Give us a (Loo) break!" (8 March 2010) Trade Union Congress <https://www.tuc.org.uk>
  7. ^ "Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Standard Number: 1910.141(c)(1)(i)". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  8. ^ US Public Health Mandates and the Restroom Problem in America, American Restroom Association, World Toilet Summit, Delhi, November 1, 2007
  9. ^ "About the National Toilet Map". The National Toilet Map. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-14. 
  10. ^ "Should men's restrooms have diaper changing tables? New bill says yes". Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Palazzolo, Rose. "Latrinalia - Learning From the Scrawls in the Bathroom". ABC News. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Greed, Clara (2007). Inclusive Urban Design: Public Toilets. Routledge. p. 255. 
  13. ^ Prejudice and Pride: Discrimination Against Gay People in Modern Britain by Bruce Galloway; Published by Routledge, 1983; ISBN 0-7100-9916-9, ISBN 978-0-7100-9916-7.
  14. ^ David Northmore (11 April 1998). "Finding private passion in a public place; Why is it that some gay men go in search of sexual encounters in lavatories?". The Independent. 
  15. ^ Galop.org.uk, Cottaging and cruising: your safety, your rights and the law.
  16. ^ Kingston Hospital NHS Trust, Sex and the law.
  17. ^ Sexual Offences Act 2003, part 1, paragraph 71,
  18. ^ Public Sex/gay Space by William Leap; Published by Columbia University Press, 1999; ISBN 0-231-10691-2, ISBN 978-0-231-10691-7.
  19. ^ Kirchick, James (1 November 2009). "Cruise Control". The Advocate. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  20. ^ [Public toilets 'wiped out in parts of UK']
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "Council could close 'cottaging' toilets in Lincoln city centre". BBC. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2016. 
  23. ^ "Public toilets face closure amid sordid sex sessions". Loughborough Echo. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2016. 
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ [3]
  26. ^ [4]
  27. ^ Published in The Public Historian, ed. Randolph Bergstrom, Volume 27, Issue 4, Fall 2005, pages 11-44. Weyeneth, R. R. (2005). The architecture of racial segregation: The challenges of preserving the problematic past. The Public Historian, 27(4), 11-44. DOI: 10.1525/tph.2005.27.4.11 [5]
  28. ^ Milloy, Courtland (June 21, 1987). "Black Highways: Thirty Years Ago We Didn't Dare Stop". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 24, 2016. 
  29. ^ Sugrue, Thomas J. "Driving While Black: The Car and Race Relations in Modern America". Automobile in American Life and Society. University of Michigan. Retrieved October 24, 2016. 
  30. ^ Wright, Gavin (2013). Sharing the Prize. Harvard University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9780674076440. 
  31. ^ Molotch, ed. by Harvey; Norén, Laura (2010). Toilet. ; Public Restrooms and the Politics of Sharing. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0814795897. 
  32. ^ Michael, Jane; Michael Stern (1999-09-13). "Operators shouldn't get potty over bathroom symbols". Nation's Restaurant News. Retrieved 2009-02-27. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Six steps to stop violence against schoolgirls, Document ACT 77/008/2007". Amnesty International. November 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  34. ^ Maschke, Karen (1997). Feminist legal theories. p. 131. ISBN 9781138861404. 
  35. ^ 2009 UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE, 412.3 (PDF). Ontario, California: International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. 2009. p. 34. ISSN 0733-2335. 
  36. ^ La Ganga, Maria L (30 March 2016). "From Jim Crow to transgender ban: the bathroom as battleground for civil rights". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2016. 
  37. ^ Devine, Shannon (2004-03-11). "Inclusive toilets". McGill Reporter. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  38. ^ Toilet Signs at Adept Safety Online (informative commercial site)
  39. ^ Lancaster, Roger (21 May 2016). "Imagining the Socialist Bathroom". Jacobin. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  40. ^ a b Unicode.org, Transport and Map Symbols. Range: 1F680–1F6FF. (accessed 6 November 2012)
  41. ^ Unicode.org, Miscellaneous Symbols. Range: 2600–26FF. (accessed 6 November 2012)
  42. ^ Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
  43. ^ Health and Safety Executive Books
  44. ^ "The Provision Of Public Toilets" (PDF). House of Commons. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "Government Response to Public Toilet Provision" (PDF). www.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  46. ^ Heikki S. Vuorinen (2010): "Water, toilets and public health in the Roman era", in Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, pg.211
  47. ^ a b Peter Kasza:"Das große Latrinum: 155 Jahre öffentliche Toilette", in Der Spiegel, 22 June 2007
  48. ^ Hibbert, Christopher (2008). The London Encyclopaedia. p. 668. 
  49. ^ Andrews, Margaret. "Sanitary Conveniences and the Retreat of the Frontier: Vancouver, 1886-1926". British Columbian Quarterly (87). Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  50. ^ Oxford Dictionary https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/retiring_room. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  51. ^ Kogan, Terry S. “Sex-Separation in Public Restrooms: Law, Architecture, and Gender.” Michigan Journal of Gender & Law; Ann Arbor 14.1 (2007): 1–57. Print.
  52. ^ Gruenstein, Peter (4 Sept 1975) Pay toilet movement attacks capitalism, The Beaver County Times, Retrieved October 19, 2010 (with sarcastic subtitle for 1975, "How about charging air for tires?")

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