Florence Dixie

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Florence Dixie
Lady Florence Dixie VF-detail.jpg
Detail from the Vanity Fair portrait of 1884
Born Florence Douglas
(1855-05-25)25 May 1855
Cummertrees, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, UK
Died 7 November 1905(1905-11-07) (aged 50)
Glen Stuart, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
Nationality British
Occupation War Correspondent
Known for Feminist
Spouse(s) Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie

Lady Florence Caroline Dixie (née Douglas; 25 May 1855 – 7 November 1905), was a British traveller, war correspondent, writer and feminist.

Early life[edit]

Born in Scotland at Cummertrees, Dumfries on 25 May 1855, Lady Florence Douglas was the daughter of the 8th Marquess of Queensberry (18 April 1818 – 6 August 1858) and his wife Caroline Margaret Clayton (1821–1904), daughter of General Sir William Clayton, 5th Baronet (1786–1866), Member of Parliament for Great Marlow.[1]

She had a twin brother, Lord James Edward Sholto Douglas (d. 1891), an older sister, Lady Gertrude Douglas (1842–1893), and three older brothers: John, Viscount Drunlanrig (1844–1900), later the 9th Marquess of Queensberry, Lord Francis Douglas (1847–1865), and Reverend Lord Archibald Edward Douglas (1850–1938).[2][3]

Her childhood was marked by a number of dramatic and even tragic events. On 6 August 1858, when she was 3, Lady Florence's father died in what was reported as a shooting accident,[4] but was widely believed to have been suicide.[5][6] In 1862 his widow acted upon a long-formed conviction, and converted herself to Roman Catholicism. She took her youngest children, Archibald (12), Florence and James (7) to France, where she could educate them as she wished. This led the children's guardians to threaten Lady Queensberry with the loss of her children under English law. The three were too young to choose a guardian under Scottish law. They remained in France for two years. Falconer Atlee, British Consul at Nantes, offered them a place of safety when their first location was discovered, and Emperor Napoleon III eventually extended her his protection, ensuring that she could retain custody of the children. Archibald converted and took holy orders, becoming a Roman Catholic priest. Caroline's older daughter, Gertrude, also became Catholic. When her Protestant fiance would not agree to raise their children in the Catholic faith, Gertrude's engagement was broken off. She became a nun and entered a convent in Hammersmith.[7]

Eventually it was agreed that Caroline would retain custody of the children, and they returned to England. Lady Florence was originally educated at home by a governess, but is described as "defiant, rebellious and restless".[7]:76 After returning from France at age 9, the twins were separated. Florence was sent to a convent school and James to a Catholic boarding school. Florence hated the school's repressiveness and the dogmatism of its religious teaching and took to writing poetry. Her childhood verses were published in 1902 as Songs of a Child, under the pseudonym 'Darling'.[8]

Another tragedy struck the family just days before Florence's eldest brother, John Douglas, was to assume his majority as 9th Marquess of Queensberry. As guests gathered for a lavish celebration, word came that on 14 Jul 1865, 18-year-old Lord Francis Douglas had fallen to his death with three others, after achieving the first successful ascent of the Matterhorn.[9][10] Queensberry travelled post-haste to Zermatt with the intention of bringing home his brother's body, but nothing had been found of Lord Francis but some tattered shreds of his clothing. Queensberry, alone, without a guide, and starting by moonlight, attacked the Matterhorn himself and made it as far as "the Hut". It was largely a matter of chance that two guides found and rescued him before he died of cold.[7]:78-88 He wrote apologetically to Florence, "I thought and thought where he was, and called him, and wondered if I should ever see him again. I was half mad with misery, [Florence], and I could not help it."[7]:84 "Exceedingly amiable and talented"[10] Francis' loss was deeply felt by his family.[7]:118-120 In 1876, Florence would accompany Queensbury on his return to Zermatt, and he would show her the slopes where Francis had died.[7]:118-120 Beyond the family, the tragedy was a long-running sensation, reported by newspapers all over the world, often in tones both sensational and denunciatory.[11]

Marriage and children[edit]

Bosworth Hall in Leicestershire

On 3 April 1875, at the age of nineteen, Lady Florence Douglas married Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, 11th Baronet (1851–1924),[12][13][14] known as "Sir A.B.C.D." or "Beau".[15]

The young couple lived at first at Bosworth Hall, near Market Bosworth, Leicestershire, and had two sons, George Douglas (born 18 January 1876), who later became the 12th baronet, and Albert Edward Wolstan (born 26 September 1878, died 1940), whose godfather was the Prince of Wales.[8][16]

Sir Alexander Beaumont Dixie was High Sheriff of Leicestershire for 1876.[17] In 1877, Lady Florence published her first book, Abel Avenged: a Dramatic Tragedy.[18] Both husband and wife shared a love of adventure and the outdoor life, but a shadow was cast over them by his habit of gambling for high stakes; eventually his ancestral home and estate at Bosworth were sold to pay his debts.[8] After this, in the 1880s, the couple moved to Glen Stewart, one of the houses on Lord Queensberry's Scottish estate of Kinmount, previously the home of Lady Florence's mother, the Dowager Marchioness.[19]

Travels in Patagonia[edit]

Two months after the birth of her second son, Edward, Dixie left her aristocratic life and children behind her in England and travelled to Patagonia. She debated going to elsewhere, but choose Patagonia because few European men, and no European women, had ever set foot there. She was the only female in her traveling party. Her brothers, Lord Queensberry and Lord James Douglas, her husband Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, and Julius Beerbohm were her traveling companions. Beerbohm, a family friend, was hired as the group's guide for his previous experience in Patagonia.

Once in Patagonia, Dixie paints a picture of the landscape being hostile and made only for those who are strong and able to conquer the land. In her narrative she talks of the one English servant that comes on the expedition being unable to cope with the demands of the expedition.[20]

When Dixie returned to England she wrote the book Across Patagonia (1880) to chronicle her time in Patagonia. In it she never mentions her husband by name or title (simply referring to him as "my husband"), and presents herself as the expedition hero rather than the men being the heroes of the story. In her novel she speaks of times where she outsmarts or outlasts the men or remains their equal. This sense of equality would go on to inspire her later work with the women's suffrage movement. While social issues such as European women's suffrage can be seen in her narrative, she speaks little about the natives of Patagonia. When she does speak of the natives she is often patronizing and speaks of their suffering more than anything else.[21]

Lady Dixie shared her observations of Patagonia with Charles Darwin.[22] She took issue with the description of the Tuco-tuco Darwin included in his Journal of Researches (1839). While Darwin had suggested that the Tuco-tuco were nocturnal creatures that lived almost entirely underground, Lady Dixie had seen the Tuco-tuco out during the daytime.[23] She sent Darwin a copy of Across Patagonia; Darwin's copy of this book is part of the Library of Charles Darwin located in the Rare Books Room of Cambridge University Library.[22] A hotel at Puerto Natales in the Chilean part of Patagonia is named the Hotel Lady Florence Dixie in her honour.[24] When she returned from Patagonia, she brought home with her a jaguar, which she called Affums and kept as a pet. Affums killed several deer in Windsor Great Park and had to be sent to a zoo.[25]

South African war correspondent and Zululand[edit]

Lady Florence in the 1880s

In 1881, Dixie was appointed as a field correspondent of the Morning Post of London to cover the First Boer War (1880–1881)[1] and the aftermath of the Anglo-Zulu War. She and her husband traveled to South Africa together. In Cape Town, she stayed with the Governor of the Cape Colony. She visited Zululand, and on her return interviewed the Zulu king Cetshwayo, being held in detention by the British.[14]

Her reports, followed by her A Defence of Zululand and Its King from the Blue Book (1882) and In the Land of Misfortune (1882), were instrumental in Cetshwayo's brief restoration to his throne in 1883.[14][26] In Dixie's In the Land of Misfortune, there is a struggle between her individualism and her identification with the power of the British Empire, but for all of her sympathy with the Zulu cause and with Cetshwayo, she remained at heart an imperialist.[27]

Women's football[edit]

Dixie played a key role is establishing the game of women's association football, organizing exhibition matches for charity, and in 1895 she became President of the British Ladies' Football Club, stipulating that "the girls should enter into the spirit of the game with heart and soul." She arranged for a women's football team from London to tour Scotland.[28]

Writing[edit]

Dixie wrote two books of travel in her lifetime, Across Patagonia (1880) and In the Land of Misfortune (1882). In both books Dixie presents herself as the protagonist of the story. By doing so she defies the male tradition of quoting other travel writers who have visited and written on the area, and creates a unique feminine style of travel writing in the nineteenth century.[29] When discussing the natives in Patagonia she focuses on the women rather than the men or the general society of the natives. Womanly topics such as marriage and household organization are central to her books.

Politics and feminism[edit]

Frontispiece to "Gloriana", published by Henry & Co., 1890

Dixie was an enthusiastic writer of letters to newspapers on liberal and progressive issues, including support for Irish Home Rule.[30] Her article The Case of Ireland was published in Vanity Fair on 27 May 1882.[18] Nevertheless, she was critical of the Irish Land League and the Fenians, who in 1883 made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate her. As a result, Queen Victoria sent her servant John Brown to investigate.

Dixie held strong views on the emancipation of women, proposing that the sexes should be equal in marriage and divorce, that the Crown should be inherited by the monarch's oldest child, regardless of sex, and even that men and women should wear the same clothes.[30] She was a member of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, and her obituary in the Englishwoman's Review emphasized her support for the cause of women's suffrage (i.e. the right to vote): "Lady Florence... threw herself eagerly into the Women's Movement, and spoke on public platforms."[27]

In 1890, Dixie published a utopian novel, Gloriana, or the Revolution of 1900, which has been described as a feminist fantasy. In it, women win the right to vote, as the result of the protagonist, Gloriana, posing as a man, Hector l'Estrange, and being elected to the House of Commons. The character of l'Estrange is clearly based on that of Oscar Wilde.[31] The book ends in the year 1999, with a description of a prosperous and peaceful Britain governed by women. In the preface to the novel, Dixie proposes not only women's suffrage, but that the two sexes should be educated together and that all professions and positions should be open to both. In this preface, she goes farther and says:[32]

During the 1890s, Dixie's views on field sports changed dramatically, and in her book The Horrors of Sport (1891) she condemned blood sports as cruel.[30]

Alleged assassination attempt[edit]

Reports are published of an attempt to assassinate Lady Florence Dixie at her residence, the Fishery, situated near the Thames, and about two and a half miles from Windsor. Lady Florence Dixie gives the following account of the occurrence:

On 19 March 1883, the New York Times reported an attack on Lady Florence Dixie by two men disguised as women, under the heading A DASTARDLY IRISH CRIME AN ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE LADY FLORENCE DIXIE. SHE IS WAYLAID BY TWO MEN DISGUISED IN WOMEN'S CLOTHES – HER LIFE SAVED BY A ST BERNARD DOG.[33]

On 30 March 1883, the New York Times carried a second story headed LADY FLORENCE DIXIE'S OWN STORY.[34]

On 31 March 1883, Vanity Fair reported:

"(A) gardener was at work thirty yards away ... from the scene of the outrage, and says he heard no noise whatever and saw nobody, although Lady Florence says 'she called loudly for help' when first attacked... (A) correspondent of the New York Herald had an interview with her on the following day, within twenty-four hours of the outrage, and found her 'in the road, surrounded by gentlemen ... her dress (cardinal jersey), animated appearance and manner showing no traces of the severe and terrible ordeal through which she had gone."[35]

On 8 April 1883, the New York Times carried a further report titled GRAVE ENGLISH TOPICS LADY FLORENCE DIXIE, THE IRISH AND MR. PARNELL:[36]

LONDON, March 21 – It has been boldly suggested by the St. James's Gazette that Lady Florence Dixie is labouring under a mistake in regard to the dramatic occurrence which has occupied so much attention during the last 48 hours. Possibly when this reaches you its boldness will have been justified. The Tory journal does not believe that her ladyship has been attacked at all. Others share this opinion. In a week's time, the general public may share it.

Kidnap[edit]

When Florence Dixie died in November 1905, the New York Times carried a report headed LADY FLORENCE DIXIE DEAD This stated that the "Author, Champion of Woman's Rights, and War Correspondent" had died on 7 November "at her home, Glen Stuart, Dumfriesshire", and included the following passage:[37]

Lady Florence Dixie was a member of the Queensberry family and inherited the eccentricities as well as the cleverness possessed by so many members of it. Some years ago she startled London by declaring that she had been kidnapped she believed by Irish agitators, and had been held for some days in captivity. Her story was never disproved, but neither was it proved, and there were many people who said that the whole affair was imaginary.

Descendants[edit]

Lady Florence Dixie's eldest son, George Douglas Dixie (18 January 1876 – 25 December 1948) served in the Royal Navy as a midshipman and was commissioned into the King's Own Scottish Borderers in 1895.[38] On 26 November 1914, he was promoted a temporary captain in the 5th Battalion the KOSB.[39] He married Margaret Lindsay, daughter of Sir Alexander Jardine, 8th Baronet, and in 1924 succeeded to his father's title and was known as Sir Douglas Dixie, 12th Baronet.[40]

When he died in 1948, Sir Douglas was succeeded by his son, Sir (Alexander Archibald Douglas) Wolstan Dixie, 13th and last Baronet (8 January 1910 – 28 December 1975). The 13th Bt. married Dorothy Penelope King-Kirkman in 1950, as his second wife. They had two daughters; 1) Eleanor Barbara Lindsay; and 2) Caroline Mary Jane. Both daughters have issue.[41]

Likenesses[edit]

Lady Florence Dixie by Théobald Chartran, from Vanity Fair, 5 January 1884

A monochrome lithograph of Dixie by Andrew Maclure was published in 1877, a copy of which is in the National Portrait Gallery.[30]

A more significant lithograph, by Théobald Chartran, printed in colour, appeared in Vanity Fair in 1884 and is one of the long series of caricatures published in the magazine between 1868 and 1914. These were all coloured illustrations featuring notable people of the day, and each was accompanied by a short (usually adulatory) biography. Of more than two thousand people so honoured, only eighteen were women. Featured in the magazine on 5 January 1884, she joined this small band, which included Queen Isabella II of Spain (1869), Sarah Bernhardt (1879), the Princess of Wales (1882) and Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts (1883). Victoria, Princess Royal, and Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, followed later in 1884.[42]

Ancestry[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

The published works of Lady Florence Dixie include:

Books[edit]

  • Abel Avenged: a Dramatic Tragedy (London, Edward Moxon, 1877)[18]
  • Across Patagonia (Edinburgh, Bentley, 1880)[18]
  • Waifs and Strays: The Pilgrimage of a Bohemian Abroad (London: Griffith, Farren Okeden and Welsh, 1880, 60 pp)[43]
  • In the Land of Misfortune (London: Richard Bentley, 1882, 434 pp)[43]
  • A Defense of Zululand and Its King from the Blue Books (London: Chatto and Windus, 1882, 129 pp) [43]
  • Redeemed in Blood (London, Henry & Co., 1889)[18]
  • Gloriana, or the Revolution of 1900 (London, Henry & Co., 1890)[31][32]
  • The Young Castaways, or, The Child Hunters of Patagonia (1890), for children[8]
  • Aniwee, or, The Warrior Queen (1890), for children[8]
  • Isola, or the Disinherited: A Revolt for Woman and all the Disinherited (London, Leadenhall Press, 1902)[18]
  • The Story of Ijain, or the Evolution of a Mind (London, 1903)[18]

Shorter works[edit]

  • "The Case of Ireland" in Vanity Fair, issue dated 27 May 1882[18]
  • "Cetshwayo and Zululand" in Nineteenth Century Volume 12 No. 2 (August 1882) pp. 303–312[18][43]
  • "In the Land of Misfortune" (1882)[27]
  • "On Cetshwayo and his Restoration" in Vanity Fair, 12 July 1884, pp 21–22[18]
  • "Memoirs of a Great Lone Land" in Westminster Review, Volume 139 (March 1893) pp. 247–256[43]
  • "The True Science of Living: The New Gospel of Health" in Westminster Review, Volume 150 (1898) pp. 463–470[18]
  • "The Horrors of Sport" (Humanitarian League publication no. 4, 1891)[30]
  • The Mercilessness of Sport (1901)[8]
  • Introduction to Joseph McCabe's Religion of Woman (1905)

Private letters[edit]

Unpublished works include:

About her[edit]

  • "Woman's Mission" in Vanity Fair, 16 August 1884, pp 114–116[18]
  • "Woman's Mission" in Vanity Fair, 23 August 1884, pp 134–135[18]

References[edit]

  • Adler, Michelle, Skirting the Edges of Civilisation: British Women Travellers and Travel Writers in South Africa, 1797–1899 (PhD dissertation, University of London, 1996)[43]
  • Adler, Michelle, "Skirting the Edges of Civilsation: Two Victorian Women Travellers and 'Colonial Spaces' in South Africa" (about Lady Florence Dixie and Sarah Heckford) in Darian-Smith, Kate, Gunner, Liz and Nuttall, Sarah (eds.) Text, Theory, Space: Land, Literature and History in South Africa and Australia (London & New York: Routledge, 1996) pp. 83–98 [43]
  • Anderson, Monica, "Role-Play and Florence Dixie's 'In the Land of Misfortune'" in Women and the Politics of Travel, 1870–1914 (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8386-4091-5) pp 119–154[27]
  • Czech, Kenneth P., With Rifle and Petticoat: Women as Big Game Hunter (New York, Derrydale Press, 2002, 189 pp)[43]
  • Frawley, Maria H., A Wider Range: Travel Writing by Women in Victorian England (PhD. dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, 1991, 334 pp)[43]
  • Frawley, Maria H., A Wider Range: Travel Writing by Women in Victorian England (Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press and London: Associated University Presses, 1994, 237 pp) [43]
  • Qingyun Wu, "The Discourse of Impersonation: The Destiny of the Next Life and Gloriana; or, The Revolution of 1900", paper presented to the Pennsylvania Foreign Language Conference, Duquesne University, 16–18 September 1988
  • Roberts, Brian, Ladies in the Veld, especially chapter entitled "The Lady and the King: Lady Florence Dixie" (London: John Murray, 1965) pp. 75–181 [43]
  • Stevenson, Catherine B., "The Depiction of the Zulu in the Travel Writing of Florence Dixie", paper presented at the 1980 African Studies Association Conference, 15–18 October 1980, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (New Brunswick, New Jersey: ASA, Rutgers University, 198[43]
  • Stevenson, Catherine B., Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa (Boston: Twayne, 1982, 184 pp.) [43]
  • Stevenson, Catherine B., "Female Anger and African Politics: The Case of Two Victorian Lady Travellers" in Turn of the Century Women Volume 2, 1985, pp 7–17[43]
  • Tinling, Marion, "Lady Florence Dixie, 1855–1905" in Women Into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1989)[43]
  •  Howarth, Osbert John Radcliffe (1912). "Dixie, Florence Caroline". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  • Middleton, Dorothy (2009). "Dixie, Lady Florence Caroline (1855–1905)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b DIXIE, Lady Florence, poet, novelist, writer; explorer and a keen champion of Woman's Rights in Who Was Who online at 7345683 at xreferplus.com (subscription required), accessed 11 March 2008
  2. ^ G.E. Cokayne et al., eds., The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new edition, 13 volumes in 14 (1910–1959; new edition, 2000), volume X, page 694
  3. ^ Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1895). Armorial families : a complete peerage, baronetage, and knightage, and a directory of some gentlemen of coat-armour, and being the first attempt to show which arms in use at the moment are borne by legal authority. Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works. pp. 307–308. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry". The Peerage. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  5. ^ Crawford, Bryan (2011). Letters my grandfather wrote me : family origins. [S.l.]: Authorhouse. p. 273. ISBN 978-1456788520. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  6. ^ Ewan, Elizabeth (2006). The biographical dictionary of Scottish women : from the earliest times to 2004. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0748617135. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Stratmann, Linda (2013). The Marquess of Queensberry : Wilde's nemesis. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. pp. 69–77. ISBN 978-0300173802. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Middleton, Dorothy, "Dixie [née Douglas], Florence Caroline, Lady Dixie (1855–1905)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
  9. ^ Nelsson, Richard (14 July 2015). "The first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Fleming, Fergus (3 November 2000). "Cliffhanger at the top of the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  11. ^ Mark, Jenkins (July 14, 2015). "How the Matterhorn Created Modern Mountaineering 150 Years Ago". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  12. ^ Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage. London: Dean & Son. 1878. p. 140. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  13. ^ "Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, 11th Bt.". The Peerage. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c Theakstone, John, Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works by Women Travellers, 1837–1910 (dated Summer 2003) online at victorianresearch.org (accessed 8 March 2008)
  15. ^ "Bosworth Hall". Weddington Castle. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  16. ^ Profile, staleyandco.com; accessed 11 March 2008.
  17. ^ The Office of High Sheriff online at leics.gov.uk (accessed 8 March 2008)
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Anderson, Monica, Women and the Politics of Travel, 1870–1914 page 266 online at books.google.co.uk] (accessed 8 March 2008)
  19. ^ "Lady Florence Douglas". The Douglas Archives. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  20. ^ Martin, Claire Emilie (2012). ""Shall I Ever Cross the Moors Again?": Lady Florence Dixie's Across Patagonia (1880)". Review: Literature and Art of the Americas. 
  21. ^ Anderson, Monica (2006). Women and the Politics of Travel, 1870-1914. Rosemont Printing and Publishing Corp. 
  22. ^ a b Darwin Correspondence Project; accessed 8 March 2013.
  23. ^ Darwin Correspondence Database, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-12781 accessed on Fri 8 March 2013
  24. ^ Hotel Lady Florence Dixie, chileanpatagonia.comhttp://www.hotelflorencedixie.cl/; accessed 3 April 2016.
  25. ^ Hardman, Philippa. "Lady Florence Dixie: a woman who had it all?". Darwin and Gender: The Blog. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  26. ^ Lady Florence Caroline Douglas Dixie in the Columbia Encyclopedia (sixth edition) online (accessed 8 March 2008)
  27. ^ a b c d Anderson, Monica, Women and the Politics of Travel, 1870–1914, p. 119 et seq.
  28. ^ Richard William Cox, Dave Russell, Wray Vamplew, Encyclopedia of British Football (London, Routledge, 2002) page 325 online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 9 March 2008)
  29. ^ Szurmuk, Monica (2001). Women in Argentina. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. pp. 67–77. ISBN 0813018897. 
  30. ^ a b c d e [1] online at the web site of the National Portrait Gallery npg.org.uk (accessed 8 March 2008)
  31. ^ a b Heilmann, Ann, Wilde's New Women: the New Woman on Wilde in Uwe Böker, Richard Corballis, Julie A. Hibbard, The Importance of Reinventing Oscar: Versions of Wilde During the Last 100 Years (Rodopi, 2002) pp. 135–147, in particular p. 139
  32. ^ a b Gates, Barbara T. (ed.), In Nature's Name: An Anthology of Women's Writing and Illustration, 1780–1930 (University of Chicago Press, 2002) pages 61–66 online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 9 March 2008)
  33. ^ A DASTARDLY IRISH CRIME AN ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE LADY FLORENCE DIXIE. SHE IS WAYLAID BY TWO MEN DISGUISED IN WOMEN'S CLOTHES – HER LIFE SAVED BY A ST BERNARD DOG, New York Times, 19 March 1883, page 1
  34. ^ LADY FLORENCE DIXIE'S OWN STORY. From the Pall Mall Gazette of 19 March in New York Times, dated 30 March 1883
  35. ^ J.H. Richards (1883). "The Week: New York, Thursday, April 3, 1883". The Nation 36: 287. 
  36. ^ GRAVE ENGLISH TOPICS LADY FLORENCE DIXIE, THE IRISH AND MR. PARNELL From the Pall Mall Gazette of 19 March in New York Times dated 30 March 1883
  37. ^ "LADY FLORENCE DIXIE DEAD. Author, Champion of Woman's Rights, and War Correspondent", New York Times, Wednesday, 8 November 1905, pg. 9
  38. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26671. p. 5642. 15 October 1895. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  39. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29111. p. 2953. 23 March 1915. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  40. ^ Dixie, Sir (George) Douglas, 12th Bt., in Who Was Who 1941–1950(London, A. & C. Black, 1980 reprint; ISBN 0-7136-2131-1)
  41. ^ Dixie, Sir (Alexander Archibald Douglas) Wolstan, in Who Was Who 1971–1980 (London, A. & C. Black, 1989 reprint, ISBN 0-7136-3227-5)
  42. ^ Vanity Fair Ladies, vanity-fair-prints-company.com; accessed 30 March 2008.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o AfricaBib (accessed 21 May 2013)

External links[edit]