Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lady Margaret Hall
University of Oxford
Lady Margaret Hall Talbot.jpg
Lady-Margaret-Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms (Motto).svg
Blazon: Or, on a chevron between in chief two talbots passant and in base a bell azure a portcullis of the field.
Coordinates 51°45′53″N 1°15′15″W / 51.76483°N 1.254036°W / 51.76483; -1.254036Coordinates: 51°45′53″N 1°15′15″W / 51.76483°N 1.254036°W / 51.76483; -1.254036
Motto Souvent me Souviens
("I often remember")
Established 1878
Named for Lady Margaret Beaufort
Sister college Newnham College, Cambridge
Principal Alan Rusbridger
Undergraduates 391[1] (2016/2017)
Postgraduates 201
Boat club
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford is located in Oxford city centre
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
Location in Oxford city centre

Lady Margaret Hall, referred to as LMH by students[2] is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located on the banks of the River Cherwell at Norham Gardens in north Oxford.[2] The college is more formally known under its current royal charter as "The Principal and Fellows of the College of the Lady Margaret in the University of Oxford".[3]

The college was founded in 1878 as the first women's college in Oxford, and began admitting men in 1979.[2] The college has just under 400 undergraduate students, around 200 post graduate students and 24 visiting students.[4] In 2016, the college began offering a Foundation Year for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

In 2017, Lady Margaret Hall ranked 14th out of 30 in Oxford's Norrington Table, a measurement of the performance of students in finals.[5]

The college's colours are blue and yellow (sometimes also with white). The college uses a coat of arms; it did not have to have it granted because of an exemption held by all University Colleges from the authority of the College of Arms.[6] The college's motto is "Souvent me Souviens", an Old French phrase meaning "I often remember" and the motto of Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named.

The current principal of the college is Alan Rusbridger.[7] Notable students at Lady Margaret Hall include Benazir Bhutto, Michael Gove, Nigella Lawson, Josie Long, Ann Widdecombe and Malala Yousafzai.


Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named
Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named

Lady Margaret Hall, the first women's college in Oxford, was founded in 1878 and opened its doors to its first nine students the following year.

It was founded by Edward Stuart Talbot, then Warden of Keble College, and his wife Lavinia.[8] The college was named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, patron of scholarship and learning. The first principal was Elizabeth Wordsworth, the great-niece of the poet William Wordsworth and daughter of Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln.

With a new building opening in 1894 the hall expanded to 25 students, and by 1982, there were 41 students at the college.[9][10]

The land on which the hall is built was formerly part of the manor of Norham which belonged to the St John's College. The hall bought the land on which it sits from St Johns in 1894, the other institution driving a hard bargain and requiring a development price not only on the practical building land but also on the undevelopable water meadows. However, this land purchase marked a change in ambition from occupying residential buildings for teaching purposes to buildings fitting educational institution with buildings worthy of that ambition.

In 1897, members of Lady Margaret Hall founded the Lady Margaret Hall Settlement,[11] a charitable initiative, originally a place for graduates from the college to live in North Lambeth where they would work with and help develop opportunities for the poor.[12][13] It continues to operate to this day.

In 1919 J. R.R. Tolkien started to give private tuition to students at Oxford, including members of students from LMH.[14] Later his daughter, Priscilla Tolkien, attended the college, graduating in 1951.[15] Her portrait hangs in the college.[16]

Before 1920, the university refused to give degrees to women and would not acknowledge them as full members of the university. In 1920 the first women graduated from the college at the Sheldonian Theatre and the principal at the time, Henrietta Jex-Blake, was given an honorary degree.[17]

Albert Einstein, who lectured at Lady Margaret Hall in 1933

In 1933, Albert Einstein lectured in the college at the yearly Deneke Lectures, concluding the address as follows: "The deeper we search, the more we find there is to know, and as long as humanity exists I believe it will always be so."[18][19]

Between 1973 and 1977 the future Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, was a student at the college, reading Philosophy, Politics, and Economics, in addition to courses in International Law and Diplomacy.[20] A room of the Clore Graduate Centre is bears her name and a portrait of her hangs on the wall.

In 1979, one hundred years after its foundation, the hall began admitting men as well as women; it was the first of the women's colleges to do so, along with St. Anne's.[21]

In 2017 Malala Yousafzai, the youngest-ever Nobel Prize Peace laureate and Pakistani campaigner for girls' education, became a student of the college;[22] she described the interview as "the hardest interview of [her] life", and received an offer of AAA in her A Levels.[23] In the same year, prospective Chemistry student Brian White faced deportation at the hands of the Home Office,[24] but was able to take up his place at the college.[25] Also in 2017, alumnus Paul McClean, a 24-year-old Financial Times journalist who had reported on the scale of treaty renegotiation necessitated by Brexit, was killed by a crocodile while on holiday in Sri Lanka.[26]

Buildings, grounds and architecture[edit]

The Hall, LMH
The Hall, LMH

The development of the college's buildings is perhaps best thought of as a zigzag beginning in the 1870s at the end of Norham Gardens and making its way down towards the River Cherwell and then running back towards Norham Gardens forming quadrangles on the return journey. The following account of the buildings moves through the college as these spaces emerge for a visitor entering the college at the Porters' Lodge and walking to the river - because of the way the college developed the dates, along with the styles of the buildings enclosing these quadrangles are not all of a piece.

Leatare Quadrangle[edit]

Entrance to Lady Margaret Hall
Entrance to Lady Margaret Hall

The entrance quad was completed in March 2017 and includes both the college's newest and oldest buildings. The main entrance consists of the front gates flanked by classical columns along with the porters lodge (2017). On the North West side the Donald Fothergill Building (2017) contains student accommodation while the Clore graduate centre (2017) extends further out to the South East towards university parks.[27]

The college's oldest buildings are along the South East side of the Leatre Quadrangle. The college's original house, a white brick gothic villa, is now known as Old Old Hall (1879), while the adjoining red brick extension is known as New Old Hall (1884).[10]

Opposite the entrance is the imposing Wolfson West (1964) which was previously the entrance to the college.

Old Old Hall, which had been as a speculation property on land leased from St John's College, was described as an "ugly little white villa" by the college's founder, Bishop Talbot in his 1923 history of the college.[28] On several occasions in the twentieth century consideration was given to demolishing the earliest buildings of the college, but the temptation was resisted.

Wolfson Quadrangle[edit]

The Wolfson Quadrangle outside Talbot Hall

The architect of the main early college buildings was Sir Reginald Blomfield, including Lodge and Talbot and Wordsworth (Blomfield had earlier worked on other educational commissions such as Shrewsbury School, and Exeter College, Oxford) used the French Renaissance style of the 17th century and chose red brick with white stone facings, setting a tone the college was to continue to follow in later work. These buildings describe the south and east of the Wolfson Quadrangle and run out into the gardens to the east.

Blomfield was also involved in establishing and planning the gardens.

The central block, the Talbot Building (1910) on the North East of the main quad houses Talbot Hall and the Old Library (currently a reception and lecture room),[29] while the accommodation for students and tutors is divided between three wings, the Wordsworth Building (1896), the Toynbee Building (1915) and the Lodge Building (1926).[30]

Talbot Hall contains some fine oak panelling donated by former students to honour Elizabeth Wordsworth.

Lady Margaret Hall Library

The portraits in the Hall include the work of notable artists; among the portraits of principals are:

In the old Library is a fine marble statue by Edith Bateson.

On the North West is Lynda Grier (1962) housing the college library;[31] this was official opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1961.[32] The ground floor of Lynda Grier was originally student accommodation but in 2006 it was converted into a law library it was opened that year by Cherie Blair.[33]The library was of great importance when founded given that women were not permitted to use the Bodleian Library and thus is relatively large for an Oxford college. The Briggs room originally contained the entire archive of rare and antiquarian books, donated to the college over the years however, given its size now of around 2000 books, they are now also stored in the Lawrence Lacerte Rare Books Room in the new Law Library extension on the ground floor. The collection includes a Quran created circa 1600 and a Latin translation of Galileo's Dialogo from 1663.[34]

Lynda Griere and Wolfson West were designed by Raymond Erith.

In recent years the Wolfson Quadrangle has, in contrast to many Oxbridge Quadrangles, has had wild flowers instead of the intensively managed, striped quadrangle lawns found elsewhere.

Lannon Quadrangle[edit]

Lannon Quadrangle, Lady Margaret Hall
Lannon Quadrangle Lady Margaret Hall

The back of Lynda Grier forms another quad consisting of an accommodation tower block Sutherland (1971) and the Pipe Partride Building (2010).[35]

Behind this is Sutherland's sister block Katie Lee (1972).

The Pipe Partridge Building includes the 136-seat Simpkins Lee theatre,[36] a dining hall, seminar rooms, JCR common rooms, and 64 new undergraduate study bedrooms.[37]

It won the Georgian Group award for the best new building in the classical tradition[38]

Chapel and Deneke[edit]

To the north-east extends the large Deneke block (1932) along with the hall and the college's Byzantine-style chapel where the choir practises and annual carol services are performed. The chapel has simple decoration with several paintings on the walls, and a statue of Margaret Beaufort which lies in the central section of the chapel.

The chapel is in the form of a Greek cross was dedicated by the college's founder Edward Stuart Talbot, in January 1933.[39]

These were designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, famous for designing Liverpool Cathedral and the K2 red telephone box.

Gardens and grounds[edit]

Talbot Hall and the Toynbee buildings as seen from the Gardens

Lady Margaret Hall is one of the few Oxford colleges on the River Cherwell. It is set in spacious grounds (about 12 acres (49,000 m2)).The grounds include a set of playing fields, tennis courts, a punt house, topiary, and large herbaceous planting schemes along with vegetable borders. There is a Fellows' Garden - hidden from view by tall hedgerows - and a Fellow's Lawn, on which walking is forbidden. During the Second World War, the Fellow's Garden was dug up and the students grew vegetables to help with the war effort.[40]

Recent developments[edit]

In 2005, the college commissioned John Simpson Architects to prepare a masterplan for the enlargement of LMH.

The first phase, the Pipe Partridge Building, was completed in early 2010 and was opened by the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Lord Patten of Barnes, in April 2010.[41]

A new porters lodge, graduate centre and further accommodation was finished in March 2017[27], modelled after the Porta Maggiore in Rome, in conjunction with the simple façade of the Wolfson West building.

Student life[edit]

The Junior Common Room ('JCR') is a physical room as well as being the association of the undergraduate members of the hall. It represents its members to the college authorities and facilitates activities, budgets as well as clubs and societies.

The 2017 Graduate Centre including MCR
The 2017 Graduate Centre including MCR

Graduate students have similar support from that for the JCR in the Middle Common Room ('MCR').

The Senior Common Room ('SCR') performs similar functions for the dons.


Talbot Hall LMH
Talbot Hall LMH

As well as rooms for accommodation, the buildings of Lady Margret Hall include a chapel, a hall, a library, a bar, a gym and common rooms for groups of membership of the college community as described above. Accommodation is usually provided for undergraduates during every year of their study, and provided for some graduates. Members often dine in hall, in which there are informal and formal meals. In contrast to some other colleges, gowns are not worn to formal hall but are at special occasions such as the Scholars' dinner.


Most undergraduate tutorials are carried out in the college, though for some specialist subjects undergraduates may be sent to tutors in other colleges. The college contains lecture theatres, halls, and seminar and coaching rooms.


The College First VIII racing in Eights Week - rowing is one of the sporting activities of students at Oxford
LMH 1st VIII racing in Eights Week - rowing is one of the sporting activities of students at Oxford

There are various sports clubs including a Rowing Club with a boat house shared with Trinity College on Boat House Island.

In addition to university-wide societies, students at Lady Margaret Hall can also join societies specific to the college[42]

Chalk Arms recording rowing successes at LMH
Chalk Arms recording rowing successes at LMH


Lady Margaret Hall Boat Club Rowing Blazer
Lady Margaret Hall Boat Club Rowing Blazer

LMH's rowing club, Lady Margaret Hall Boat Club ('LMHBC') is the largest sports club within the college. In recent years, the club has won blades in OURCs events multiple times. The Men’s 1st VIII have raced in the Temple Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta on several occasions.[43] On occasion, members of the club have rowed in the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.[44]

The college's boat club has, like other UK Rowing Clubs, distinctive blazers which can be awarded by the club to members who attain membership of certain VIIIs or race with distinction in Summer Eights or Torpids. These blazers have blue and yellow trim and a blue Beaufort portcullis on them, which is the emblem of the boat club and increasingly other sports clubs.

Rowing blades commemorating success in the intercollegiate rowing competitions decorate the walls of the bar - the most recent of which being from 2017 in which the Women's 1st team (W1) bumped on each of the four days of the competition.

Members of LMH JCR in punts on an open day
Members of LMH JCR in punts on an open day


There are three men’s football teams as well as a joint LMH-Trinity women’s team.

The competitive 1st XI that recently reached a Cuppers semi-final.

Other sports[edit]

The other sports the hall has teams for, which represent the institution in internal Oxford University competitons, often called 'Cuppers' are:

Simpkins Lee Theatre LMH
Simpkins Lee Theatre LMH
  • Badminton
  • Cricket
  • Tennis
  • Croquet
  • Rugby
  • Football
  • Hockey
  • Pool
  • Netball
  • Squash

Foundation year[edit]

Lady Margaret Hall is the only Oxford college to offer a foundation year; the scheme recruits students from minority backgrounds with A level grades lower than Oxford entry requirements. Students choose a subject to specialise in, and also take courses in study skills and other general subject areas,[45][46] with the aim that they progress to an undergraduate degree at the college after a year of study.[47] Pupils live on campus and have access to the same university facilities, both academic and social, as other students.[46]

Modelled after a programme at Trinity College, Dublin,[48] the four-year pilot scheme began in 2016 with ten students,[45][49] seven of whom went on to study at Oxford, with the other three receiving offers from different Russell Group universities.[45] It was praised by David Lammy, a Labour MP who said the foundation year is "exactly the sort of thing that needs to be done", and by Les Ebdon, director of Office for Fair Access, who described the programme as "innovative and important".[47]

Art collection[edit]

In light of its history, the hall has a collection of portraits of early/distinguished women academics. Early Principals Lynda Grier, Dame Lucy Sutherland and Sally Chilver, along with other members of the college, were keen collectors of contemporary art and bequeathed many of these works to the College.

A Fellow in Fine Art, Elizabeth Price, was shortlisted for the Turner Prize in 2012.[50]

The college's art collection includes works by:

Coat of arms[edit]

The college's coat of arms features devices that recall those associated with its foundation:

The original coat of arms consisted of three daisies and bore the motto - "Ex solo ad solem" meaning "From the earth to the sun" and can be seen to adorn Talbot hall, and the Wordsworth and Toynbee buildings.


Culture and traditions[edit]

The grounds, along with those of Trinity College, Oxford, were the basis for Fleet College in the American author Charles Finch's novel set in Oxford University, The Last Enchantments.[51] A thinly disguised version of the college appeared as "Lady Matilda's College" in an episode of Lewis. Portions of the episode were filmed within the hall. There is a circular wooden bench dedicated to Iris Murdoch in the college gardens where she used to go walking.[52]


Students may not walk on the quadrangle, however there is a custom of permitting them to do so on completion of their final examinations.


LMH is one of nine Oxford colleges to use the 'two-word' Latin grace, this grace is also used by five colleges at the University of Cambridge. The person presiding at High Table says the grace in two parts at formal meals. The first half of the grace, the ante cibum, is said before the meal starts and the second, the post cibum, once the meal's conclusion. It is as follows:

Benedictus benedicat - "May the Blessed One give a blessing"

Benedicto benedicatur - "Let praise be given to the Blessed One" or "Let a blessing be given by the Blessed One"

Steam Locomotive[edit]

A Great Western Railway 6959 Class locomotive named "Lady Margaret Hall", number 7911, was built in 1950.

It was one of the 'Modified Hall' class and it was in service in the South East until December 1963.[53]

Royal Visits[edit]

HM the Queen visited the hall in 1961.[54] HRH Prince Charles visited the college in 2006.[55] HRH The Princess Royal visited the college in 2014.[56]

Notable people[edit]

Notable fellows and academics[edit]

Baroness Manningham-Buller former Director General of MI5, the British internal Security Service is a fellow of the college
Baroness Manningham-Buller former Director General of MI5, the British internal Security Service is a fellow of the college

Notable fellows of the college include:

Visiting fellows[edit]

Emma Watson, one of the visiting fellows of the college
Emma Watson, one of the visiting fellows of the college

The college has a number of Visiting Fellows. Holders of this non-salaried role are drawn from a variety of backgrounds, callings and professions. These fellowships are for three years and have included:

The fellowships are intended to form a bridge between the academic community and the worlds they inhabit.[57]


Notable members[edit]

Benazir Bhutto served as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Alumni of the college (which are termed Senior Members) include:

Gertrude Bell, along with T. E. Lawrence, helped support the Hashemite dynasties in what is today Jordan as well as in Iraq.
Eglantyne Jebb, founder of the charity, Save the Children
Current student Malala Yousafzai won the Nobel Peace Prize aged 17 for activism in women's education.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Student numbers". Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "About Lady Margaret Hall". Oxford Royale Academy. Oxford Programs Limited. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford Charter" (PDF). Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Student numbers | University of Oxford". Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  5. ^ "Undergraduate Degree Classifications | University of Oxford". Retrieved 2017-08-11. 
  6. ^ "Oxford Colleges". The Heraldry Society. The Heraldry Society. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  7. ^ "Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger to become principal of Oxford college". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Press Association. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  8. ^ Alden's Oxford Guide. Oxford: Alden & Co., 1958; pp. 120–21
  9. ^ "Lady Margaret Hall". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  10. ^ a b "LMH, Oxford - New Old Hall". Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  11. ^ "Lady Margaret Hall Settlement :: About". Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  12. ^ "The Lady Margaret Hall Settlement". The Lady Margaret Hall Settlement (LMHS). LHMS. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Records of Lady Margaret Hall Settlement". The National Archives. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  14. ^ Zettersten, A. (2011-04-25). J.R.R. Tolkien's Double Worlds and Creative Process: Language and Life. Springer. ISBN 9780230118409. 
  15. ^ Drout, Michael D. C. (2006-11-06). J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge. ISBN 1135880344. 
  16. ^ rusbridger, alan (2015-12-17). "Fine new painting unveiled of Priscilla Tolkien, @lmhoxford alumna and daughter of JRR and". @arusbridger. Retrieved 2017-08-24. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ Clark, Ronald (2011-09-28). Einstein: The Life and Times. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4482-0270-6. 
  19. ^ "An Einstein Lecture". Lady Margaret Hall. 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-09. 
  20. ^ "BBC - Oxford University's famous south Asian graduates". Retrieved 2017-08-30. 
  21. ^ "Principal led switch to mixed-sex college". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  22. ^ Team, News (2017-08-17). "Malala Yousafzai accepted to read PPE at LMH". The Oxford Student. Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  23. ^ McIntyre, Niamh (12 March 2017). "Malala Yousafzai hopes to study at Oxford University if she achieves AAA offer". The Independent. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  24. ^ Khomami, Nadia (2017-08-30). "Student with Oxford place 'does not know what to do if deported'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-30. 
  25. ^ Scott, John. "Brian White: Oxford-bound Wolverhampton student WINS battle to stay in the UK". Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  26. ^ Stewart, Kirsty (15 September 2017). "Tributes flood in for Brit journalist killed by a crocodile". Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  27. ^ a b "New buildings 2007-2017". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 2017-04-02. 
  28. ^ Stamers-Smith, Eileen (3 August 1996). "Sir Reginald Blomfield's Designs for the Garden of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford". Garden History. 24 (1): 114–121. doi:10.2307/1587104. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  29. ^ "LMH, Oxford - Talbot". Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  30. ^ "LMH, Oxford - Eleanor Lodge". Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  31. ^ "LMH, Oxford - Library". Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  32. ^ "LMH Library". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  33. ^ "LMH Library". Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  34. ^
  35. ^ "LMH, Oxford - Pipe Partridge". Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  36. ^ "Simpkins Lee Theatre". Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  37. ^ "Lady Margaret Hall Phase I and II". Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  38. ^ "Pipe Partridge wins an award". Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  39. ^ Alden (1958)
  40. ^
  41. ^ "opening of the Pipe Partridge Building". Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  42. ^ "Societies and clubs | Lady Margaret Hall". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 2017-08-02. 
  43. ^ "Events". 16 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  44. ^ Quarrell, Rachel (4 March 2013). "University Boat Race: men and women weigh in at same event ahead of Oxford and Cambridge race". Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c Foley, Holly (4 October 2017). "Trinity's Access Programme is Teaching Oxford Lessons". The University Times. Retrieved 4 December 2017. 
  46. ^ a b "Studying on the Foundation Year". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 4 December 2017. 
  47. ^ a b editor, Richard Adams Education (2016-04-20). "Oxford college launches pilot scheme to recruit disadvantaged students". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-08. 
  48. ^ "Oxford University tries a new approach to recruiting poor students". The Economist. 10 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2017. 
  49. ^ Thomson, Alice; Sylvester, Rachel (19 October 2017). "Varaidzo Kativhu: 'I just assumed Oxford university would be for the posh'". The Times. Retrieved 4 December 2017. 
  50. ^ "Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford | Art UK". Retrieved 2017-08-08. 
  51. ^ "The Last Enchantments". Tumblr. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  52. ^ Sheridan, Benn. "Iris Murdoch's Oxford Life". Cherwell. OSPL. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 
  53. ^ "Great Western Railway Hall class details". Retrieved 2017-08-08. 
  54. ^ "LMH Library". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  55. ^ "BBC NEWS | UK | Charles tribute for Prayer Book". Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  56. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - 18 February 2014: HRH The Princess Royal, Princess Anne at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford University, to present The Ockenden International Prizes. HRH Princess Anne presents Lynn". Alamy. Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  57. ^ "Visiting Fellows | Lady Margaret Hall". Lady Margaret Hall. Retrieved 2017-08-01. 
  58. ^ Baker, Malcolm. "Esdaile [née McDowall], Katharine Ada". ODNB. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 

External links[edit]