Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

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A painting of Mary Wortley Montagu by Jonathan Richardson the Younger

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptized 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from travels to the Ottoman Empire, as wife to the British ambassador to Turkey, which have been described by Billie Melman as "the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient".[1] Aside from her writing, Lady Mary is also known for introducing and advocating for smallpox inoculation to Britain after her return from Turkey. Her writings usually address and challenge the hindering contemporary social attitudes towards women and their intellectual and social growth.

Early life and education[edit]

Mary Wortley Montagu with her son Edward, by Jean-Baptiste van Mour

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Mary Pierrepont, was born in May 1689; her baptism took place on 26 May, at a few days old, at St. Paul's Church in Covent Garden.[2] She was the eldest child of Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull, and his first wife, Mary (Fielding) Pierrepont. Her mother had three more children, two girls and a boy, before dying in October 1692.[3] The children were raised by their Pierrepont grandmother until Mary was nine years old. Lady Mary was then passed to the care of her father upon her grandmother's death.[4] She began her education in her father's home. Family holdings were extensive, including Thoresby Hall and Holme Pierrepont Hall in Nottinghamshire, and a house in West Dean in Wiltshire. To supplement the instruction of a despised governess, Lady Mary used the library in her father’s mansion, Thoresby Hall in Nottinghamshire, to "steal" her education, teaching herself Latin, a language reserved for men at the time.[5] By 1705, at the age of fourteen or fifteen, Mary Pierrepont had written two albums filled with poetry, a brief epistolary novel, and a prose-and-verse romance modeled after Aphra Behn's Voyage to the Isle of Love (1684).[6] She also corresponded with two bishops, Thomas Tenison and Gilbert Burnet.[7]

Marriage and embassy to Ottoman Empire[edit]

By 1710 Lady Mary had two possible suitors to choose from: Edward Wortley Montagu and Clotworthy Skeffington.[8] Lady Mary corresponded with Edward Wortley Montagu via letters from 28 March 1710 to 2 May 1711. After May 1711 there was a break in contact between Lady Mary and Edward Wortley Montagu.[9] Mary's father, now Marquess of Dorchester, rejected Wortley Montagu as a prospect because he refused to entail his estate on a possible heir. Her father pressured her to marry Clotworthy Skeffington, heir to an Irish peerage. In order to avoid marriage to Skeffington, she eloped with Wortley. The marriage license is dated 17 August 1712, the marriage probably took place on 23 August 1712.[10]

Mary Wortley Montagu, by Charles Jervas, after 1716

The early years of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's married life were spent in the country. She had a son, Edward Wortley Montagu the younger, on 16 May 1713, in London.[11] A couple of months later, on 1 July 1713 Lady Mary's brother, aged twenty, died of smallpox and left behind two children.[12] On 13 October 1714, her husband accepted post as Junior Commissioner of Treasury. When Lady Mary joined him in London, her wit and beauty soon made her a prominent figure at court. She was among the society of George I and the Prince of Wales, and counted amongst her friends Molly Skerritt, Lady Walpole, John, Lord Hervey, Mary Astell, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, Alexander Pope, John Gay, and Abbé Antonio Conti.[13]

In December 1715, Lady Mary contracted smallpox. She survived, but while she was ill someone circulated the satirical "court eclogues" she had been writing. One of the poems was read as an attack on Caroline, Princess of Wales, in spite of the fact that the "attack" was voiced by a character who was herself heavily satirized.[14]

In 1716, Edward Wortley Montagu was appointed Ambassador at Istanbul. In August 1716, Lady Mary accompanied him to Vienna, and thence to Adrianople and Istanbul. He was recalled in 1717, but they remained at Istanbul until 1718. While away from England, the Wortley Montagu's had a daughter on 19 January 1718, who would grow up to be Mary, Countess of Bute.[15] After an unsuccessful delegation between Austria and Turkey/Ottoman Empire, they set sail for England via the Mediterranean, and reached London on 2 October 1718.[16]

The story of this voyage and of her observations of Eastern life is told in Letters from Turkey, a series of lively letters full of graphic descriptions; Letters is often credited as being an inspiration for subsequent female travelers/writers, as well as for much Orientalist art. During her visit she was sincerely charmed by the beauty and hospitality of the Ottoman women she encountered, and she recorded her experiences in a Turkish bath. She also recorded a particularly amusing incident in which a group of Turkish women at a bath in Sofia, horrified by the sight of the stays she was wearing, exclaimed that "the husbands in England were much worse than in the East, for [they] tied up their wives in little boxes, the shape of their bodies".[17] Lady Mary wrote about misconceptions previous travelers, specifically male travelers, had recorded about the religion, traditions and the treatment of women in the Ottoman Empire. Her gender and class status provided her with access to female spaces, that were closed off to males. Her personal interactions with Ottoman women enabled her to provide a more accurate account of Turkish women, their dress, habits, traditions, limitations and liberties.[18]

Lady Mary returned to the West with knowledge of the Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation.

Ottoman smallpox inoculation[edit]

Memorial to the Rt. Hon. Lady Mary Wortley Montague erected in Lichfield Cathedral by Henrietta Inge.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu defied convention most memorably by introducing smallpox inoculation to Western medicine after witnessing it during her travels and stay in the Ottoman Empire. In the Ottoman Empire, she visited the women in their segregated zenanas, making friends and learning about Turkish customs.[19] There she witnessed the practice of inoculation against smallpoxvariolation—which she called engrafting, and wrote home about it a number of her letters.[20] Variolation used live smallpox virus in the pus taken from a smallpox blister in a mild case of the disease and introduced it into scratched skin of a previously uninfected person to promote immunity to the disease.[21] Lady Mary's brother had died of smallpox in 1713 and her own famous beauty had been marred by a bout with the disease in 1715.[22]

Lady Mary was eager to spare her children, thus, in March 1718 she had her nearly five-year-old son inoculated with the help of Embassy surgeon Charles Maitland.[23] On her return to London, she enthusiastically promoted the procedure, but encountered a great deal of resistance from the medical establishment, because it was an Oriental folk treatment process.[24]

In April 1721, when a smallpox epidemic struck England, she had her daughter inoculated by Charles Maitland, the same physician who had inoculated her son at the Embassy in Turkey, and publicized the event.[25] This was the first such operation done in Britain.[26] She persuaded Princess Caroline to test the treatment. In August 1721, seven prisoners at Newgate Prison awaiting execution were offered the chance to undergo variolation instead of execution: they all survived and were released.[27] Controversy over smallpox inoculation intensified, however, Caroline, Princess of Wales was convinced. The Princess's two daughters were successfully inoculated in April 1722 by French-born surgeon Claudiius Amyand.[28] In response to the general fear of inoculation, Lady Mary, under a pseudonym, wrote and published an article describing and advocating in favor of inoculation in September 1722.[29]

In later years, Edward Jenner, who was 13 years old when Lady Mary died, developed the much safer technique of vaccination using cowpox instead of smallpox. As vaccination gained acceptance, variolation gradually fell out of favor.[30]

Later years[edit]

Alexander Pope declared his love to Lady Mary, who responded with laughter.

After returning to England, Lady Mary took less interest in court compared to her earlier years. Instead she was more focused on the upbringing of her children, reading, writing and editing her travel letters—which she then chose not to publish.[31]

Before starting for the East Lady Mary Wortley Montagu had met Alexander Pope, and during her Embassy travels with her husband, they wrote each other a series of letters. While Pope may have been fascinated by her wit and elegance, Lady Mary's replies to his letters reveal that she was not equally smitten.[32] Very few letters passed between them after Lady Mary's return to England, and various reasons have been suggested for the subsequent estrangement.[33] In 1728, Pope attacked Lady Mary in his Dunciad inaugurating a decade in which most of his publications made some sort of allegation against her.[34]

Lady Mary went through a series of trials with her children. In 1726 and 1727, Lady Mary's son ran away from Westminster School several times. He was entrusted to a tutor with strict orders to keep young Edward Montagu abroad. In later years her son managed to return to England without permission and continued to have a strained relationship with both his parents.[35] In August 1736, Lady Mary's daughter, married John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, despite her parent's disapproval of the match.[36] The same year Lady Mary met and fell in love with Francesco Algarotti, Count Algarotti, competing with an equally smitten John Hervey for the Count's affections.[37]

Lady Mary wrote many letters to Algarotti in English and in French after his departure from England in September 1736.[38] In July 1739 Lady Mary departed England ostensibly for health reasons declaring her intentions to winter in the south of France. In reality, she left to visit and live with Algarotti in Venice.[39] Their relationship ended in 1741 after Lady Mary and Algarotti were both on diplomatic mission in Turin.[40] Lady Mary stayed abroad and traveled extensively. After traveling to Venice, Florence, Rome, Genoa and Geneva, she finally settled in Avignon in 1742.[41] She left Avignon in 1746 for Brescia, where she fell ill and stayed for nearly a decade, leaving for Lovere in 1754. After August 1756, she resided in Venice and Padua and saw Algarotti again in November.[42] Lady Mary exchanged letters with her daughter, Lady Bute, discussing topics such as philosophy, literature, and the education of girls, as well as conveying details of her geographical and social surroundings.[43]

Mary Wortley Montagu in 1739

Lady Mary received news of her husband Edward Wortley Montagu's death in 1761 and left Venice for England.[44] En route to London, she handed her Embassy Letters to the Rev. Benjamin Sowden of Rotterdam, for safe keeping and "to be dispos'd of as he thinks proper".[45] Lady Mary reached London in January 1762, and died in the year of her return, on 21 August 1762.[46]

Important works and literary place[edit]

Lady Montagu in Turkish dress by Jean-Étienne Liotard, ca. 1756, Palace on the Water in Warsaw

Although Lady Mary Wortley Montagu is now best known for her Embassy Letters, she wrote poetry and essays as well.[47] A number of Lady Mary's poems and essays were printed in her lifetime, either without or with her permission, in newspapers, in miscellanies, and independently.[48]

Montagu did not intend to publish her poetry, but it did circulate widely, in manuscript, among members of her own social circle.[49] Lady Mary was highly suspicious of any idealizing literary language.[50] She wrote most often in heroic couplets, a serious poetic form to employ, and, according to Susan Staves,"excelled at "answer poems.".[51] Some of her widely anthologized poems include "Constantinople" and "Epistle from Mrs. Yonge to her Husband." "Constantinople," written January 1718, is a beautiful poem in heroic couplets describing Britain and Turkey through human history, and representing the state of mind "of knaves, coxcombs, the mob, and party zealous—all characteristic of the London of her time.".[52] "Epistle from Mrs. Yonge to her Husband," written 1724, stages a letter from Mrs. Yonge to her libertine husband and exposes the social double standard which led to the shaming and distress of Mrs. Yonge after her divorce.[53]

In 1737 and 1738, Lady Mary published anonymously a political periodical called the Nonsense of Common-Sense, supporting the Robert Walpole government (the title was a reference to a journal of the liberal opposition entitled Common Sense). She wrote six Town Eclogues.[54] She wrote notable letters describing her travels through Europe and the Ottoman Empire; these appeared after her death in three volumes. Lady Mary corresponded with Anne Wortley and wrote courtship letters to her future husband Edward Wortley Montagu, as well as love letters to Francesco Algarotti. She corresponded with notable writers, intellectuals and aristocrats of her day. She wrote gossip letters and letters berating the vagaries of fashionable people to her sister, Lady Mar, and exchanged intellectual letters with her adult daughter, Lady Bute. Although, not published during her lifetime, her letters from Turkey were clearly intended for print. She revised them extensively and gave a transcript to the Rev. Benjamin Sowden in Rotterdam in 1761. During the twentieth century Lady Mary's letters were edited separately from her essays, poems and plays.[55]

A painting by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres that was inspired by Mary Wortley Montagu's detailed descriptions of nude Oriental beauties

Montagu's Turkish letters were to prove an inspiration to later generations of European women travelers and writers. In particular, Montagu staked a claim to the authority of women's writing, due to their ability to access private homes and female-only spaces where men were not permitted. The title of her published letters refers to "Sources that Have Been Inaccessible to Other Travellers". The letters themselves frequently draw attention to the fact that they present a different (and, Montagu asserts, more accurate) description than that provided by previous (male) travelers: "You will perhaps be surpriz'd at an Account so different from what you have been entertaind with by the common Voyage-writers who are very fond of speaking of what they don't know.".[56] Montagu provides an intimate description of the women's bathhouse in Sofia, in which she derides male descriptions of the bathhouse as a site for unnatural sexual practices, instead insisting that it was "the Women’s coffee house, where all the news of the Town is told, Scandal invented, etc".[57] However, Montagu's detailed descriptions of nude Oriental beauties provided inspiration for male artists such as Ingres, who restored the explicitly erotic content that Montagu had denied. In general, Montagu dismisses the quality of European travel literature of the 18th century as nothing more than "trite observations…superficial…[of] boys [who] only remember where they met with the best wine or the prettyest women.".[58]

Mary Wortley Montagu in Turkish dress
The title page of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, published in 1837

Montagu's Turkish letters were frequently cited by imperial women travelers, more than a century after her journey. Such writers cited Montagu's assertion that women travelers could gain an intimate view of Turkish life that was not available to their male counterparts. However, they also added corrections or elaborations to her observations.

In 1739 a book was printed by an unknown author under the pseudonym "Sophia, a person of quality", titled Woman not Inferior to Man. This book is often attributed to Lady Mary.[59]

Her Letters and Works were published in 1837. Montagu's octogenarian granddaughter Lady Louisa Stuart contributed to this, anonymously, an introductory essay called Biographical Anecdotes of Lady M. W. Montagu, from which it was clear that Stuart was troubled by her grandmother's focus on sexual intrigues and did not see Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Account of the Court of George I at his Accession as history. However, Montagu's historical observations, both in the "Anecdotes" and the "Turkish Embassy Letters," prove quite accurate when put in context.[60] Despite the availability of her work in print and the revival efforts of Feminist scholars, the complexity and brilliance of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's extensive body of work has not yet been recognized to the fullest.[61]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Melman, Billie. Women's Orients: English Women and the Middle East, 1718-1918. University of Michigan Press. 1992. Print.
  2. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montague, p. 5. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  3. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  4. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  5. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  6. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  7. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  8. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  9. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  10. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  11. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999.
  12. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  13. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  14. ^ Isobel Grundy, Lady Mary Wortley Montague. Oxford University Press, 1999. p.103. Print.
  15. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  16. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  17. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  18. ^ Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  19. ^ Rosenhek, Jackie.Safe Smallpox InoculationsDoctor's Review: Medicine on the Move, Feb 2005. Web. 10 Nov 2015. Safe Smallpox Inoculations.
  20. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  21. ^ Rosenhek, Jackie.Safe Smallpox InoculationsDoctor's Review: Medicine on the Move, Feb 2005. Web. 10 Nov 2015. Safe Smallpox Inoculations
  22. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  23. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  24. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  25. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  26. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  27. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  28. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  29. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997.Print.
  30. ^ Rosenhek, Jackie.Safe Smallpox InoculationsDoctor's Review: Medicine on the Move, Feb 2005. Web. 10 Nov 2015. Safe Smallpox Inoculations.
  31. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  32. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  33. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  34. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  35. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  36. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  37. ^ Rictor Norton, "John, Lord Hervey: The Third Sex", The Great Queers of History. 8 August 2009. Web. 10 November 2015.[1].
  38. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  39. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  40. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  41. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  42. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  43. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  44. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  45. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  46. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  47. ^ Backscheider, Paula R., and Catherine E. Ingrassia, eds. British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. 880. Print.
  48. ^ Grundy, Isobel.Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  49. ^ Bowles, Emliy. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. The Encyclopedia of British Literature 1660-1789. Eds. Gary Day and Jack Lynch. Blackwell Publishing, 2015.
  50. ^ Staves, Susan. Battle Joined, 1715-1737. A Literary History of Women's Writing in Britain, 1660-1789. Cambridge University Press, 2006. 177. Print.
  51. ^ Staves, Susan. Battle Joined, 1715-1737. A Literary History of Women's Writing in Britain, 1660-1789. Cambridge University Press, 2006. 177. Print.
  52. ^ Backscheider, Paula R., and Catherine E. Ingrassia, eds. British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. 172. Print.
  53. ^ Backscheider, Paula R., and Catherine E. Ingrassia, eds. British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. 171. Print.
  54. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  55. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  56. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  57. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. 149. Print.
  58. ^ Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , Selected Letters, Penguin Books, 1997. 359. Print.
  59. ^ South American Independence: Gender, Politics, Text. Eds. Catherine Davies, Claire Brewster, and Hilary Owen. Liverpool University Press, 2006. 29.Print.
  60. ^ Looser, Devoney.British Women Writers and the Writing of History 1670-1820 JHU Press, 2000. 64-67.Print. ISBN 0-8018-7905-1.
  61. ^ Backscheider, Paula R., and Catherine E. Ingrassia, eds. British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. 881. Print.

References[edit]

  • Backscheider, Paula R., and Catherine E. Ingrassia, eds. British Women Poets of the Long Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. Print.
  • Bowles, Emliy. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. The Encyclopedia of British Literature 1660-1789. Eds. Gary Day and Jack Lynch. Blackwell Publishing, 2015.
  • Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
  • Grundy, Isobel. Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Selected Letters. Ed. Isobel Grundy. Penguin Books, 1997. Print.
  • Looser, Devoney. British Women Writers and the Writing of History 1670-1820. JHU Press, 2000. Print.
  • Melman, Billie. Women's Orients: English Women and the Middle East, 1718-1918. University of Michigan Press. 1992. Print.
  • Rictor Norton, "John, Lord Hervey: The Third Sex." The Great Queers of History. 8 August 2009. Web. 10 November 2015.
  • Rosenhek, Jackie.Safe Smallpox InoculationsDoctor's Review: Medicine on the Move, Feb 2005. Web. 10 Nov 2015.
  • South American Independence: Gender, Politics, Text. Eds. Catherine Davies, Claire Brewster, and Hilary Owen. Liverpool University Press, 2006. Print.
  • Staves, Susan. "Battle Joined, 1715-1737." A Literary History of Women's Writing in Britain, 1660-1789. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.
Attribution

Further reading[edit]

  • Halsband, Robert (1956). The Life of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (Illustrated ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • The complete letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 3 vols, edited by Robert Halsband, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965-67.
  • Romance Writings, edited by Isobel Grundy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
  • The Turkish Embassy Letters, edited by Teresa Heffernan and Daniel O'Quinn, Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012.
  • Essays and Poems and Simplicity, a Comedy, edited by Isobel Grundy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977, revised 2nd 1993.
  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Comet of the Enlightenment, Isobel Grundy, Oxford University Press, USA; New edition 2001 714 pp ISBN 0-19-818765-3
  • The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Wharncliffe and W. Moy Thomas, editors. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1861.

Book reviews[edit]

  • Prescott, Sarah. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Comet of the Enlightenment, Isobel Grundy 1999. Review of English Studies, New Series, Vol. 51, No. 202 (May, 2000), pp. 300–303.

External links[edit]