||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In mathematics, a Lagrangian system is a pair (Y, L), consisting of a smooth fiber bundle Y → X and a Lagrangian density L, which yields the Euler–Lagrange differential operator acting on sections of Y → X.
In classical mechanics, many dynamical systems are Lagrangian systems. The configuration space of such a Lagrangian system is a fiber bundle Q → ℝ over the time axis ℝ. In particular, Q = ℝ × M if a reference frame is fixed. In classical field theory, all field systems are the Lagrangian ones.
Lagrangians and Euler–Lagrange operators
A Lagrangian L can be introduced as an element of the variational bicomplex of the differential graded algebra O∗∞(Y) of exterior forms on jet manifolds of Y → X. The coboundary operator of this bicomplex contains the variational operator δ which, acting on L, defines the associated Euler–Lagrange operator δL.
Given bundle coordinates xλ, yi on a fiber bundle Y and the adapted coordinates xλ, yi, yiΛ, (Λ = (λ1, ...,λk), |Λ| = k ≤ r) on jet manifolds JrY, a Lagrangian L and its Euler–Lagrange operator read
denote the total derivatives.
For instance, a first-order Lagrangian and its second-order Euler–Lagrange operator take the form
The kernel of an Euler–Lagrange operator provides the Euler–Lagrange equations δL = 0.
Cohomology and Noether's theorems
Cohomology of the variational bicomplex leads to the so-called variational formula
In a different way, Lagrangians, Euler–Lagrange operators and Euler–Lagrange equations are introduced in the framework of the calculus of variations.
In classical mechanics equations of motion are first and second order differential equations on a manifold M or various fiber bundles Q over ℝ. A solution of the equations of motion is called a motion.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)|
- Lagrangian mechanics
- Calculus of variations
- Noether's theorem
- Noether identities
- Jet bundle
- Jet (mathematics)
- Variational bicomplex
- Arnold, V. I. (1989), Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 60 (second ed.), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-96890-3
- Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G. (1997). New Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Methods in Field Theory. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-1587-8.
- Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G. (2011). Geometric formulation of classical and quantum mechanics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4313-72-8.
- Olver, P. (1993). Applications of Lie Groups to Differential Equations (2 ed.). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-94007-3.
- Sardanashvily, G. (2013). "Graded Lagrangian formalism". Int. G. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. World Scientific. 10 (5). ISSN 0219-8878. arXiv: . doi:10.1142/S0219887813500163.
- Sardanashvily, G. (2009). "Fibre Bundles, Jet Manifolds and Lagrangian Theory. Lectures for Theoreticians". arXiv: .