Lai Choi San
Lai Choi San (Mountain of Wealth) was a 20th-century Chinese pirate. The only evidence of her existence is the book I Sailed With Pirates by Aleko Lilius, published in 1931 where she was said to be the most powerful and well-known female pirate leader in Chinese history, rivaled perhaps only by Ching Shih of the previous century.
She commanded a fleet of some 12 junks in the area of Macao and the South China Sea during the 1920s and 1930s. Though her fleet was based in the South China Sea, she frequented the East China Sea and sometimes the Sulu Sea near Palawan in the Philippines.
Laoi Choi San was one of several pirates that Lilius claims to have traveled with during the late 1920s. Lilius describes her fleet as "twelve smooth-bore, medieval-looking cannons onboard, and two rather modern ones. Along the bulwarks of the junk were bolted rows of heavy iron plates". Her crew are referred to as ladrones (pirates, robbers) by the Portuguese and, according to Lilius, were "all fearsome fellows, muscular bare-chested men who wore wide-brimmed hats and tied red kerchiefs around their necks and heads". Lai Choi San has been referred to as a female "Robin Hood" figure, however she and her crew were often paid protection money by local merchants and operated with little interference from either Portuguese or Chinese authorities since inheriting the fleet from her father upon his death.
Influence in culture
In Missee Lee, Arthur Ransome's young adult novel set in the South China Sea waters, the title role is taken by a character who shares many of Lai Choi San's distinguishing characteristics. Missee Lee, who commands a flotilla of armed junks sailed by muscular Chinese pirates, both kidnaps and then rescues the heroic English children sailing in the area. 
Lai Choi San was also the model for the Dragon Lady, one of the main villains which appeared in the comic, radio and television series Terry and the Pirates. The series creator Milton Caniff later claimed to have been inspired by reading a story about her. The character would heavily influence the stock character whose persona is usually portrayed as a beautiful yet cold-hearted villainess as seen in later popular culture. In a book "Los Futbolisímos", by Roberto Santiago, a Spanish thief girl called Almudena García, uses Laoi Chai San's name as a pseudonym.
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