Laylat al-Qadr

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Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat-al-qadr.jpg
Reading Qur'an is one of the key observances of the Qadr night.
Official name ليلة القدر (Night of Decree)
Also called Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Determination[1]
Observed by Muslims
Significance Night the Quran was revealed;
Angels descend to the earth and the annual decree is revealed to them;
Better than 1000 months of worship
Observances Night prayers, Reading Quran, Making Dua, Doing Dhikr, Observing Iʿtikāf
Date See text

Laylat al-Qadr (Arabic: لیلة القدر‎‎) (also known as Shab-e-Qadr , loaned from Persian), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power,[2] Night of Value, Night of Destiny,[3] or Night of Measures, is in Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[4] It is one of the nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. Muslims believe that on this night the blessings and mercy of Allah are abundant, sins are forgiven, supplications are accepted, and that the annual decree is revealed to the angels who also descend to earth.

Revelation to Muhammad[edit]

Some commentators believe that Quran was revealed to Muhammad two times being 'the immediate revelation' happening on the Laylat al-Qadr and 'gradual revelation' across 23 years. The Quran uses the word Inzal (Arabic: انزال‎‎) which justifies 'the immediate revelation', according to Allamah Tabatabai.[5] However some others believe that the revelation of Quran occurred in two phases, with the first phase being the revelation in its entirety on Laylat al-Qadr to the angel Gabriel (Jibril in Arabic) in the lowest heaven, and then the subsequent verse-by-verse revelation to Muhammad by Gabriel.[3] The revelation started in 610 CE at the Hira cave on Mount Nur in Mecca. The first Sura that was revealed was Sūrat al-ʿAlaq (in Arabic العلق). During the first revelation the first five verses of this Sura, or chapter, were revealed.[citation needed]

Date[edit]

The specific date of Laylat al-Qadr is not mentioned in the Quran.[6][7]

Sunni Islam[edit]

In Islamic countries and Sunni communities all over the world, Laylat al-Qadr is found to be on the last nights of Ramadan, mostly in on one of the odd nights (21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th) whereby night precedes day. Many traditions insist particularly on the night before the 27th of Ramadan.[8][9][10]

27th of Ramadan Gregorian date [11]
1435 23 July 2014
1436 13 July 2015
1437 2 July 2016
1438 22 June 2017

Shia Islam[edit]

Iranians observing Qadr Night in Imam Reza shrine
Iranians observing Qadr Night in Jamkaran Mosque

Shia Muslims similarly believe that Laylat al-Qadr is to be found in the last ten odd nights of Ramadan but mostly on the 19th, 21st or 23rd of Ramadan with 23rd being the most important night.[12] The 19th, according to the Shia belief coincides with the night Ali was attacked in the Mihrab while worshipping in the Great Mosque of Kufa, and died on the 21st of Ramadan. Shia Muslims regard these three nights as greatly rewarding.

Many Shia Muslims, who make up the largest minority of Islamic followers — including the Ismailis and Dawoodi Bohras[13] observe Laylat al-Qadr on the 23rd night of Ramadan, in keeping with traditions received through Ali and his wife Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter and the Fatimid Imams The tradition is also said to have been articulated by Ja'far al-Sadiq and other Shia Imams.[5][14][9]

23rd of Ramadan Gregorian date
1436 10 July 2015
1437 27 June 2016[15]
1438 18 June 2017[16]

Mahdavi Muslims[edit]

Mahdavi Muslims observe Laylat al-Qadar on the 27th night of Ramadan as Dougana Laylat al-Qadr (in Persian, the word Dogana means "double"; here the word Dougana symbolizes the two rak'ahs of prayer performed during this night). Following the practice and traditions of their promised Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri, the Mahdavis dress in colorful traditional attire and converge at Mahdavia mosques in their respective localities. Past midnight, between 26 and 27 Ramadan they collectively offer two rak'ahs of thanksgiving prayers, led by their Murshids.[citation needed]

Mahdavis believe that God blessed them with this most valued night of might/power, by the virtue of Muhammad Jaunpuri while travelling from Thatta (now in Pakistani province of Sindh) towards Farah (now in Afghanistan). During his stay in Makran, Imam Mahdi, in compliance with divine order, offered Dogana Laylat al-Qadr past midnight of 27 Ramadan 908 AH along with his family members and companions at the nearby mountain, which was later named after him as Koh-e-Murad.[17][18]

Religious importance[edit]

The night is not comparable to the others in view of Muslims[12] and according to a tradition, the blessings due to the worships during this night can't be equaled even by worshiping throughout the entire life. The reward of worships done in this one single night is more than the reward of around 83 years(1000 months) of worship. [4]

Quran[edit]

Laylat al-Qadr is referenced in the Quran:[3][12]

We have indeed revealed this (Message) in the night of Qadr:
And what will explain to thee what the night of Qadr is?
The night of Qadr is better than a thousand months.
Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah's permission, on every errand:
Peace! This until the rise of dawn!

— Sura 97 (Al-Qadr), āyāt 1-5[19]

The verses above regard the night as better than one thousand months.[12] The whole month of Ramadan is a period of spiritual training wherein believers devote much of their time to fasting, praying, reciting the Quran, remembering Allah, and giving charity.[citation needed] However, because of the revealed importance of this night, Muslims strive [give more effort] harder in the last ten days of Ramadan since the Laylat al-Qadr could be one of the odd-numbered days in these last ten (the first, third, fifth, seventh or ninth). Normally, some Muslims from each community perform iʿtikāf in the mosque: they remain in the mosque for the last ten days of the month for prayers and recitation.[3] Women also observe i'tikaf. They remain in prayer and meditation mostly, although they are allowed to do the minimum domestic work to run the family. When Muhammed observed i'tikaf in a tent, he saw a few tents around his. His wives joined him by pitching tents.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Britannica Guide to the Islamic World. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2009. ISBN 9781593398491. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  2. ^ Daneshgar, Majid; Saleh, Walid. Islamic Studies Today: Essays in Honor of Andrew Rippin. BRILL. ISBN 9789004337121. 
  3. ^ a b c d A. Beverley, James (2011). Melton, J. Gordon, ed. Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598842067. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Halim, Fachrizal A. Legal Authority in Premodern Islam: Yahya B Sharaf Al-Nawawi in the Shafi'i School of Law. Routledge. ISBN 9781317749189. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Staff. "Qadr night from the view point of Allamah Tabtabaei". Allamah Tabtabaei University. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  6. ^ Islam and state in Sumatra: a study of seventeenth-century Aceh. p.128.
  7. ^ Marjo Buitelaar. Fasting and feasting in Morocco: women's participation in ramzan. p.64
  8. ^ Night of 27 Ramadan
  9. ^ a b Mohammad Younes, Arefi. "The importance of Qadr night and the secret behind it's being hidden". The message of Woman (in farsi). Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  10. ^ Parsa, Farvardin. "Laylat al-Qadr from the viewpoint of Sunni Muslims". Andisheh Club. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  11. ^ http://www.calendarlabs.com/holidays/islam/laylat-al-kadr.php
  12. ^ a b c d Ysuf, Imtiyaz. "Laylat al-Qadr". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. 
  13. ^ "The Ismaili: Laylat al-Qadr". Retrieved 2015-07-08. 
  14. ^ SUPPLICATIONS FOR THE MONTH OF RAMADHAN. Tayyiba Publishers & Distributors. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  15. ^ "Calendar center of Geophysics institute of Tehran University, 1395 Calendar" (PDF) (in Persian). Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  16. ^ "Calendar center of Geophysics institute of Tehran University, 1396 Calendar" (PDF) (in Persian). Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  17. ^ Koh e Murad
  18. ^ Dogana laytul qadr reference.
  19. ^ Quran 97:1–5

External links[edit]