Laks (Iran)

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Laks
لک‌ها
Total population
c. 2.5 million (est. 2000)
Regions with significant populations
Western Iran:
  1,160,000[1] to 2,000,000[2], Turkey, Iraq[2]
Languages
Laki
Religion
Mostly Shi'a Islam, a Yarsanism minority
Related ethnic groups
Kurds, Lurs, and other Iranian peoples

Laks are a Kurdish[2] tribe[2] in southwestern Iran. They speak Laki (or Lekî), which is considered a Kurdish dialect[3][4][5][6][7][2] by most linguists.[8]

Laks inhabit a huge part of northern Luristan province (Laks of Pishekuh), and most of south eastern regions of neighboring province of Kermanshah, and some parts of western Ilam province (Poshte-Kuhi Laks). The area to the east of Mount Kabir is known as Pishe-Kuh and west of the mountain is Poshte-Kuh.

Origins

There has been much debate over the ethnic identity of the Laks throughout the twentieth century. Vladimir Minorsky, who wrote the entry "Lak" in the first edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam, referred to the Lak as "the most southern group of Kurd tribes in Persia" and stated that their language has the characteristics of Kurdish.[9] Some of the Lak tribes live in Lorestān Province, among Lur tribes, although Minorsky quotes some evidence that they were brought there from further north. He mentions that they are often confused with the Lur, but are different.[9]

History

The Zand dynasty who ruled parts of southwestern Iran was of Laki origin.[10]

Laki Tribes

  • Torkashvand
  • Adinevand
  • Azadbakht
  • Bajelan
  • Jalilvand
  • Osmanvand
  • Pauravand
  • Kakavand
  • Koulivand
  • Yousefvand
  • Gorgavand
  • Shahivand
  • Rizavand
  • Jalalvand
  • Jarvand
  • Mafivand
  • Balavand
  • Beyranvand
  • Zohravand
  • Eslavand
  • Shalalvand
  • Hassanvand
  • Khajevand
  • Itivand
  • Nooraali

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lki
  2. ^ a b c d e "Lak Tribe". Iranica Online. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  3. ^ "Laki". Ethnologue.
  4. ^ Anonby, Erik John (29 September 2003). "Update on Luri: How many languages?" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 13 (2): 171–197. doi:10.1017/S1356186303003067. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  5. ^ Gernot Windfuhr (2009). The Iranian Languages. London & New York: Routledge. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-7007-1 131-4.
  6. ^ Hulst, Harry van der; Goedemans, Rob; Zanten, Ellen van (2011). A Survey of Word Accentual Patterns in the Languages of the World. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198966.
  7. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt. Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte (in German). 200. p. 85. ISBN 3895001503.
  8. ^ "Atlas of the Languages of Iran A working classification". Languages of Iran. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b V. Minorsky, "Lak", Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  10. ^ Zand dynasty