Lake County, Indiana
|Lake County, Indiana|
Former Lake County Courthouse
in Crown Point, Indiana
Location in the state of Indiana
Indiana's location in the U.S.
|Metro area||Chicago Metropolitan|
|Established||February 15, 1837|
|Named for||Lake Michigan|
|County seat||Crown Point|
|Largest city|| Hammond (population)
Gary (total area)
|• Body||Board of Commissioners|
|• Commissioner||Roosevelt Allen, Jr. (D, 1st)|
|• Commissioner||Gerry J. Scheub (D, 2nd)|
|• Commissioner||Michael C. Repay (D, 3rd)|
|• County Council|
|• County||626.5 sq mi (1,623 km2)|
|• Land||498.9 sq mi (1,292 km2)|
|• Water||127.6 sq mi (330 km2)|
|• Metro||10,874 sq mi (28,160 km2)|
|Area rank||12th largest county in Indiana|
|• Region||2,726 sq mi (7,060 km2)|
|• Length||36 mi (58 km)|
|• Width||16 mi (26 km)|
|Elevation (mean)||663 ft (202 m)|
|Highest elevation – NE Winfield Twp||801 ft (244 m)|
|Lowest elevation – at Lake Michigan||585 ft (178 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||491,456|
|• Rank||2nd largest county in Indiana 131st largest county in U.S.|
|• Density||994/sq mi (384/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||Central (UTC-5)|
|ZIP Codes||46303, 46307-08, 46311-12, 46319-25, 46327, 46341-42, 46355-56, 46373, 46375-77, 46394, 46401-11|
|Indiana Senate districts||1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th|
|Indiana House of Representatives districts||1st, 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th and 19th|
|GNIS feature ID||0450495|
|South Shore Line stations||
|Public transit||East Chicago Transit
Gary Public Transportation
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Municipalities
- 4 Townships
- 5 Education
- 6 Public libraries
- 7 Hospitals
- 8 Economy
- 9 Newspapers
- 10 Climate and weather
- 11 Government
- 12 Demographics
- 13 See also
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Lake County was formed in 1837. From 1832 to 1836 the area that was to become Lake County was part of La Porte County. From 1836 to 1837 it was part of Porter County. It was named for its location on Lake Michigan. The original county seat was Liverpool until Lake Court House, which later became Crown Point was chosen in 1840.
According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 626.56 square miles (1,622.8 km2), of which 498.96 square miles (1,292.3 km2) (or 79.63%) is land and 127.60 square miles (330.5 km2) (or 20.37%) is water.
The northern and southern portions of the county (north of U.S. 30 and south of Lowell) are mainly low and flat, except for a few sand ridges and dunes and were both once very marshy and had to be drained. The lowest point, at 585 feet (178 m), is along the Lake Michigan shoreline.
The central part of the county is higher and hillier. As you travel south from the low and relatively flat lake plain in the northern part of the county, the land gradually rises in elevation until the peak of the Valparaiso Moraine. The highest point, at 801 feet (244 m), is in northeastern Winfield Township near 109th Street and North Lakeshore Drive in Lakes of the Four Seasons. From here the land descends south into the Kankakee Outwash Plain until the Kankakee River is reached.
National protected area
Interstate 65 in Lake County is called the Casimir Pulaski Memorial Highway. Interstate 80/94/US 6 is the Frank Borman Expressway from the Illinois state line east to the Indiana Toll Road interchange in the eastern portion of the county. Interstate 94 has been referred to as the Chicago-Detroit Industrial Freeway. US 6 is part of the Grand Army of the Republic Highway. Broadway (Indiana 53) is also the Carolyn Mosby Memorial Highway. Indiana 51 is known for its entire length as the Adam Benjamin Memorial Highway. US 30 is part of the historic Lincoln Highway. US 12 from Gary eastward is part of Dunes Highway. Cline Avenue (Indiana 912) from US 12 north and westward is known as the Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway.
- Canadian National Railway
- Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad
- Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad
- CSX Transportation
- Gary Railway
- Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad
- Norfolk Southern Railway
- South Shore Line
The municipalities in Lake County, and their populations as of the 2010 Census, are:
The 11 townships of Lake County, with their populations as of the 2010 Census, are:
Public school districts
The administration of public schools in Lake County is divided among 16 corporations and governing bodies, more than any other Indiana county.
- Crown Point Community School Corporation – Center and Winfield townships
- Gary Community School Corporation – City of Gary
- Griffith Public Schools – Town of Griffith
- Hanover Community School Corporation – Hanover Township
- Lake Central School Corporation – St. John Township
- Lake Ridge Schools Corporation – unincorporated Calumet Township
- Lake Station Community Schools – City of Lake Station
- Merrillville Community School Corporation – Ross Township
- River Forest Community School Corporation – Town of New Chicago and some portions of adjacent communities
- School City of East Chicago – City of East Chicago
- School City of Hammond – City of Hammond
- School City of Hobart – City of Hobart within Hobart Township
- School City of Whiting – City of Whiting
- School Town of Highland – Town of Highland
- School Town of Munster – Town of Munster
- Tri-Creek School Corporation – Cedar Creek, Eagle Creek and West Creek townships
Elementary and secondary schools operated by the Diocese of Gary:
- Andrean High School, Merrillville (9-12)
- Aquinas School at St. Andrew's, Merrillville (PK-8)
- Bishop Noll Institute, Hammond (9-12)
- Our Lady of Grace, Highland (PK-8)
- St. Casimir, Hammond (PK-8)
- St. John Bosco, Hammond (PK-8)
- St. John the Baptist, Whiting (PK-8)
- St. John the Evangelist, St. John (PK-8)
- St. Mary, Crown Point (PK-8)
- St. Mary, Griffith (PK-8)
- St. Michael, Schererville (PK-8)
- St. Stanislaus, East Chicago (PK-8)
- St. Thomas More, Munster (PK-8)
Colleges and Universities
The county is served by seven different public library systems:
- Crown Point Community Library has its main location with a branch in Winfield.
- East Chicago Public Library has its main location and the Robart A. Pastrick branch.
- Gary Public Library has its main location, the Du Bois Library, as well as the Brunswick, Kennedy and Woodson branches.
- Hammond Public Library
- Lake County Public Library has its main location in Merrillville as well as Cedar Lake, Dyer-Schererville, Griffith-Calumet Township, Highland, Hobart, Lake Station-New Chicago, Munster and St. John branches.
- Lowell Public Library has its main location with branches in Schneider and Shelby.
- Whiting Public Library
- Community Hospital, Munster – 429 beds
- Franciscan Healthcare, Munster – 63 beds
- Franciscan St. Anthony Health, Crown Point – 220 beds
- Franciscan St. Margaret Health, Dyer – 198 beds
- Franciscan St. Margaret Health, Hammond – 215 beds
- Methodist Hospitals – 536 beds
- Northlake Campus, Gary (Level III 'in-process' adult trauma center)
- Southlake Campus, Merrillville
- St. Catherine Hospital, East Chicago – 189 beds
- St. Mary Medical Center, Hobart – 170 beds
In a 2010 study, those businesses employing 1,000 or more in the county were:
|#||Employer||# of employees|
|1||St. Margaret Mercy Healthcare – Dyer/Hammond||3,000|
|2||St. Margaret Mercy Home Care – Schererville||3,000|
|3||Community Hospital – Munster||2,800|
|4||Horseshoe Casino – Hammond||2,200|
|5||Ameristar Casino – East Chicago||1,800|
|6||BP America Inc – Whiting||1,500|
|7||Methodist Hospitals – Gary/Merrillville||1,500|
|8||St. Anthony Medical Center – Crown Point||1,450|
|9||Purdue University Calumet – Hammond||1,109|
|10||St. Mary Medical Center – Hobart||1,100|
|11||NiSource – Merrillville||1,000|
|12||St. Maria Christian Formation – Dyer||1,000|
The Times is the largest daily newspaper in Lake County and Northwest Indiana, and the second largest in the state. Lake County is also served by the Post-Tribune, a daily newspaper based in Merrillville.
Climate and weather
|Crown Point, Indiana|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In recent years, average temperatures in Crown Point have ranged from a low of 12 °F (−11 °C) in January to a high of 84 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −28 °F (−33 °C) was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.68 inches (43 mm) in February to 4.79 inches (122 mm) in June.
County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.
Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.
County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.
County elected officials
|2008||32.5% 67,742||66.7% 139,301||0.8% 1,525|
|2004||38.2% 71,903||61.1% 114,743||0.7% 1,714|
|2000||36.0% 63,389||62.0% 109,078||2.0% 3,527|
|1996||29.2% 47,873||61.2% 100,198||9.6% 15,789|
|1992||28.9% 53,867||55.2% 102,778||15.9% 29,653|
|1988||43.0% 79,929||56.6% 105,026||0.4% 780|
|1984||44.3% 94,870||55.1% 117,984||0.6% 1,289|
|1980||46.0% 95,408||48.8% 101,145||5.2% 10,786|
|1976||42.4% 90,119||56.7% 120,700||0.9% 1,922|
|1972||56.2% 115,480||43.1% 88,510||0.7% 1,352|
|1968||36.5% 77,911||46.8% 99,897||16.7% 35,766|
|1964||35.2% 73,722||64.4% 134,978||0.4% 823|
|1960||37.0% 78,278||62.8% 132,554||0.2% 526|
Lake County has long been a Democratic stronghold, giving pluralities to Democrats in every Presidential election since 1960 except 1972.
Lake is part of Indiana's 1st congressional district, which is held by Democrat Pete Visclosky. In the State Senate, Lake is part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th districts, which are held by three Democrats and one Republican. In the Indiana House of Representatives, Lake is part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th and 19th districts, which are held by four Democrats and four Republicans.
2008 Presidential Primary
In the 2008 Democratic presidential primary on May 6, 2008, Lake County was one of the last counties to report results. Lake County had reported no results at 11 p.m. ET, and at midnight ET, only 28% of Lake County's vote had been reported. A large number of absentee ballots and a record turnout delayed the tallies, and polls closed an hour later than much of the state because Lake County is in the Central Time Zone. Early returns showed Senator Barack Obama leading by a potentially lead-changing margin, leaving the race between Senator Hillary Clinton and Obama "too close to call" until final tallies were reported.
As of the census of 2000, there were 484,564 people, 181,633 households, and 126,961 families residing in the county. The population density was 975 people per square mile (376/km²). There were 194,992 housing units at an average density of 392 per square mile (151/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 66.72% White, 25.33% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.96% from other races, and 1.85% from two or more races. 12.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. The most commonly cited national ancestries were German (12.2%), Polish (9.6%) and Irish (7.1%).
In 2000, there were 181,633 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 16.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.10% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the county the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.90 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 89.00 men.
The median income for a household in the county was $41,829, and the median income for a family was $50,131. Males had a median income of $41,986 versus $26,393 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,639. About 9.70% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010 the racial makeup of the county population was 55.27% Non-Hispanic white, 25.30% Non-Hispanic black, 0.33% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.09% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 1.26% Non-Hispanics of two or more races and 16.67% Hispanic or Latino.
|Places by population and race|
|Place||Population (2010)||White||Black or African
|Hispanic or Latino
(of any race)
|Cedar Lake, town||11,560||94.9%||0.5%||0.4%||4.2%||6.5%|
|Crown Point, city||27,317||88.2%||6.3%||1.8%||3.7%||8.1%|
|East Chicago, city||29,698||35.5%||42.9%||0.1%||21.5%||50.9%|
|Lake Dalecarlia, CDP||1,355||97.3%||0.2%||0.1%||2.4%||3.4%|
|Lake Station, city||12,572||79.7%||3.6%||0.3%||16.4%||28.0%|
|Lakes of the Four Seasons, CDP ||7,033||93.4%||1.2%||1.0%||4.4%||8.5%|
|New Chicago, town||2,035||81.0%||2.2%||0.7%||16.1%||27.4%|
|St. John, town||14,850||93.5%||1.3%||1.3%||3.9%||8.2%|
|Places by population and standard of living|
|Cedar Lake, town||11,560||$25,477||$59,090||$151,400|
|Crown Point, city||27,317||$31,454||$64,876||$174,900|
|East Chicago, city||29,698||$13,457||$27,171||$86,800|
|Lake Dalecarlia, CDP||1,355||$25,035||$52,321||$165,400|
|Lake Station, city||12,572||$16,953||$36,955||$82,400|
|Lakes of the Four Seasons, CDP [note 2]||7,033||$32,908||$84,242||$182,600|
|New Chicago, town||2,035||$18,083||$38,672||$97,700|
|St. John, town||14,850||$36,490||$97,868||$254,600|
- Lake County Indiana Sheriff's Department
- List of public art in Lake County, Indiana
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake County, Indiana
- Forstall, Richard L. (editor) (1995). U. S. Population of States and Counties - 1790 Through 1990. National Technical Information Services (NTIS). ISBN 0-934213-48-8.
- Schoon, Kenneth J. (2003). Calumet Beginnings: Ancient Shorelines and Settlements at the South End of Lake Michigan. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34218-X.
- Other = Combined percentages for American Indian or Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; other races; and two or more races
- Population is 3,936 within Lake County; 3,097 reside in Porter County
- "Lake County History". Lake County Historical Museum. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- "2014 Public Officials Directory". Lake County Board of Elections and Voter's Registration. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
- Timothy Horton Ball (1873). Lake County, Indiana, from 1834 to 1872. Chicago: J.W. Goodspeed. p. 5
- "Lake County". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Palmer Quadrangle – Indiana – Lake Co. (Map). 1:24,000. 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). United States Geological Survey. 2013.
- Whiting Quadrangle – Indiana – Lake Co. (Map). 1:24,000. 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). United States Geological Survey. 2013.
- "USA Counties in Profile". STATS Indiana. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics 2010, Table DP-1, 2010 Demographic Profile Data. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- "Lake County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 1. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-1-2006/78-journals/vol-1-2006/117-alice-gray-dorothy-buell-and-naomi-svihla-preservationists-of-ogden-dunes
- Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009). The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation. The South Shore Journal, 3. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-3-2009/83-journals/vol-3-2009/75-the-historical-roots-of-the-nature-conservancy-in-the-northwest-indianachicagoland-region-from-science-to-preservation
- Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2011). Marktown: Clayton Mark's Planned Worker Community in Northwest Indiana. South Shore Journal, 4. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-4-2011/82-marktown-clayton-marks-planned-worker-community-in-northwest-indiana
- Kenneth J. Schoon (2003). Calumet Beginnings: Ancient Shorelines and Settlements at the South End of Lake Michigan. Indiana: Indiana University Press. pps. 20-23.
- De Witt Clinton Goodrich & Charles Richard Tuttle (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indiana: R. S. Peale & Co. p. 565.
- "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States alCensus. Retrieved 2011-10-10.[dead link]
- "Crown Point Community Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "East Chicago Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Gary Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Hammond Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Lake County Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Lowell Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Whiting Public Library". Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Indiana Trauma Centers". Indiana State Department of Health. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- Center for Economic Development, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs (2011). Northwest Indiana Regional Analysis: Demographics, Economy, Entrepreneurship and Innovation (PDF). Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland State University. pp. 31–32.
- "Monthly Averages for Crown Point, Indiana". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- "US Congressman Pete Visclosky". US Congress. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
- "Awaiting one county". CNN. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Indiana's Lake County has tradition of late vote tallies[dead link]
- Races tightens in Indiana
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Population is 3,936 within Lake County; 3,097 reside in Porter County
- U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table DP03, Selected Economic Charactaristics. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table DP04, Selected Housing Charactaristics. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
||Cook County, Illinois||Lake Michigan|
|Will County, Illinois||Porter County|
|Kankakee County, Illinois||Newton County||Jasper County|