Lake Khanka

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Lake Khanka
Lake Xingkai
о́зеро Ха́нка
兴凯湖
Lake Khanka Landsat 7 2001-09-25.jpg
Landsat 7 image (2001)
Location Primorsky Krai, Russia / Heilongjiang, China
Coordinates 45°0′N 132°25′E / 45.000°N 132.417°E / 45.000; 132.417Coordinates: 45°0′N 132°25′E / 45.000°N 132.417°E / 45.000; 132.417
Primary outflows Songacha River
Basin countries People's Republic of China, Russia
Max. length 90 km (56 mi) [1]
Max. width 45 km (28 mi) [1]
Surface area 4,070 km2 (1,570 sq mi) [1]
Average depth 4.5 m (15 ft)
Max. depth 10.6 m (35 ft)
Water volume 18.3 km3 (4.4 cu mi) [1]
Residence time 9.9 yrs [1]
Shore length1 308 km (191 mi) [1]
Surface elevation 68 m (223 ft) - 70 m (230 ft)
Frozen December–April
Designated October 12, 1974 [2]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Khanka (Russian: о́зеро Ха́нка) or Lake Xingkai (simplified Chinese: 兴凯湖; traditional Chinese: 興凱湖; pinyin: Xīngkǎi Hú), is a freshwater lake located on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (at 45°0′N 132°25′E / 45.000°N 132.417°E / 45.000; 132.417).

Physical data[edit]

The north side of Lake Khanka in China

The lake's drainage basin covers an area of 16,890 square kilometres (6,520 sq mi), of which 97% is in Russian territory. It has 4,000 to 4,400 km2 (1,500 to 1,700 sq mi) of water surface area. It is fed by 23 rivers (8 in China and 15 in Russia), but the only outflow of the lake is the Songacha River.[3]

The lake's average depth is 4.5 metres (15 ft), while its maximum depth is 10.6 m (35 ft). Its average volume is 18.3 cubic kilometres (4.4 cu mi), though it can fill up to 22.6 km3 (5.4 cu mi). The lake belongs to the Ussuri River System, which is part of Amur River System.[citation needed]

The maximum monthly mean temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) in July, while the minimum monthly mean temperature is −21 °C (−6 °F) in January. Rainfall mainly occurs in summer, with average annual precipitation of 500-650 mm annually.[4]

The residence time of Lake Khanka is 9.9 years.[1]

Biodiversity and environment[edit]

The lake is an important area for birds, and includes a number of endangered species.[5]

See Khanka Nature Reserve

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Experience and Lessons Learned Brief for Lake Xingkai/Khanka" (PDF). Jin Xiangcan, Jiang Xia, Status and Prospects of the Russian-Chinese Cooperation in Environment Conservation and Water Management (Materials of the international conference, Moscow, MNR of Russia, 2007): 84. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Ramsar List". Ramsar.org. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  3. ^ "Lake Profile: Khanka (Xingkai)". LakeNet. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "Khanka Zapovednik -Climate" (in Russian). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Russia). Retrieved May 13, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Lake Khanka". Russian Federation 2RU003. wetlands.org. Retrieved 26 December 2012.