Lake Worth Beach, Florida

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Lake Worth Beach, Florida
City of Lake Worth Beach
Lake Worth Beach
Lake Worth Beach
Motto(s): 
"The Art of Florida Living."[1]
"Where The Tropics Begin"[2]
Location of Lake Worth Beach, in Palm Beach County, Florida
Location of Lake Worth Beach, in Palm Beach County, Florida
Coordinates: 26°37′11″N 80°3′31″W / 26.61972°N 80.05861°W / 26.61972; -80.05861Coordinates: 26°37′11″N 80°3′31″W / 26.61972°N 80.05861°W / 26.61972; -80.05861
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPalm Beach
Settled (Jewell Settlement)Circa 1885[3]
Platted (Lucerne)1911[4]
IncorporatedJune 14, 1913[3]
Named forLake Worth Lagoon and William J. Worth
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorBetty Resch[5]
 • CouncilmembersSarah Malega, Christopher McVoy, Kim Stokes,
and Herman Robinson[5]
 • City ManagerJuan Ruiz (interim)
 • City ClerkDeborah "Debbie" Andrea
Area
 • City6.81 sq mi (17.65 km2)
 • Land5.89 sq mi (15.26 km2)
 • Water0.92 sq mi (2.38 km2)  13.51%
Elevation16 ft (5 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City42,219
 • Density7,164.26/sq mi (2,766.10/km2)
 • Metro
6,138,333
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
33460, 33461, 33467, 33463[8]
Area code561
FIPS code12-39075[7]
GNIS feature ID0285292[7]
Websitewww.lakeworthbeachfl.gov

Lake Worth Beach, previously named Lake Worth, is a city in east-central Palm Beach County, Florida, United States, located about 64 miles (103 km) north of Miami. The city's name is derived from the body of water along its eastern border known as the Lake Worth Lagoon, which was named for General William J. Worth, who led United States Army forces during the last part of the Second Seminole War. Lake Worth Beach is situated south of West Palm Beach, southeast of Lake Clarke Shores, east of Palm Springs, and north of Lantana, while a small section of the city also partitions the town of Palm Beach. The 2010 census recorded a population of 34,910, which increased to 42,219 in the 2020 census.[9] Lake Worth Beach is within the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,138,333 people in 2020.[10]

In 1885, Samuel and Fannie James, both African American, were the first to settle in modern-day Lake Worth Beach, filing a homestead claim on 187 acres (76 ha). Fannie James operated the Jewell Post Office from 1889 to 1903 to serve the few residents who lived between Lantana and West Palm Beach. The population remained very small until a land development scheme by Bryant & Greenwood allowed buyers to receive a parcel of land if they purchased a lot in present-day Greenacres. The population increased from 38 in July 1912 to 308 only five months later. The town of Lake Worth was incorporated in June 1913. Residents voted to change the name of Lake Worth to Lake Worth Beach in 2019.

Today, Lake Worth Beach is a city featuring several historic neighborhoods, such as the National Register of Historic Places-listed College Park and Old Lucerne. The downtown area also has dozens of buildings that are part of the Historic Old Town Commercial District. Lake Worth Beach is one of the most ethnically and racially diverse cities in Palm Beach County. Several cultural events are hosted annually in Lake Worth Beach, including a street painting festival, several ethnic festivals, and Palm Beach Pride, one of the largest LGBTQIA+ pride festivals in Florida.

History[edit]

Prior to incorporation[edit]

Indigenous people known as the Jaega were the earliest reported inhabitants of the section of the Florida Atlantic coast in the areas of Martin and Palm Beach counties. Remains of shell mounds can be found near the Jupiter Inlet, inland in what is now Boynton Beach, and just south of the Boynton Inlet, indicating pre-Columbian Jaega habitation.[11]

Among the city's first non-indigenous settlers were Samuel and Fannie James, an African American couple and reported to be ex-slaves, known as the Black Diamonds, who settled on the shores of the Lake Worth Lagoon near the current 5th Avenue South in 1885. A stone monument dedicated to the Samuel and Fannies James at the northwest corner of Lucerne Avenue and J Street inaccurately uses the date 1883, due to a transcription error.[12]: 29  The couple made a claim for their land under the Homestead Act in 1885.[12]: 25  Their holdings, originally 187 acres (76 ha), increased over time to more than 700 acres (280 ha),[13]: 1  including 160 acres (65 ha) of homestead land south of Lake Avenue between M and F Streets;[14]: 82  163.3 acres (66.1 ha) in modern-day College Park, acquired from the estate of William Stephan, where Fannie ran a pineapple farm;[14]: 33–34  and 160 acres (65 ha) to the south between the current Dixie and Federal Highways, acquired from Swedish immigrants, Olai and Sarah Gudmundsen.[14]: 56–57 

The initial name of the area's first post office was Jewell (sometimes spelled Jewel),[15]: 20  which served the few residences between Lantana and West Palm Beach. Between 1889 and 1903, Fannie James served as postmaster of the post office, located in a small dry goods shop, which the couple operated to serve the lake traffic that connected the small pioneer homesteads located along the banks of the Lake Worth Lagoon.[4] Area pioneers also reported that Jewell was included as a stop on the route of the barefoot mailman via the Celestial Railroad by July 1889.[16]

Beginning in the 1890s, the Jameses sold off most of their acreage in parcels ranging in size from 5 to 20 acres (2.0 to 8.1 ha) to new residents and investors.[12]: 28  After Samuel's death in 1909, Fannie sold her remaining 156 acres (63 ha) to the developer, Palm Beach Farms company, keeping only a 1.25 acre (0.51 ha) farmette,[14]: 117  which lay outside the new city limits as required by the segregation provisions of the 1913 town of Lake Worth charter.[14]: 119  After Henry Flagler extended his rail line south from West Palm Beach to Miami in 1896, a land development scheme was created to plant a townsite between the railroad and the lake.[15]: 74  Purchasers of agricultural lots, most of which were located in modern-day Greenacres, would also receive a small, 25 by 25 ft (7.6 by 7.6 m) lot within the city of Lake Worth.[17] The developer, Bryant & Greenwood, promoted the area to markets across the United States and Canada.[18]: 17  They proposed to name the town Lucerne,[19] but the United States Postal Service refused to accept the name because there already was a Lucerne post office, now a neighborhood in Miami Gardens. Therefore, the city founders changed the new town's name to Lake Worth.[20]: 29 

In April 1911, "A solitary Indian mound surrounded by wild woods marked the spot where flourishing Lake Worth is now growing beyond the most vivid imagination", according to a promotional article published in the Lake Worth Herald.[21] The population of the nascent city stood at 38 in July 1912.[22] During that year, the library, schoolhouse, newspaper, Women's Club, Chamber of Commerce, and first church were established.[20]: 28  By the year's end, city's first census indicated that there were "308 residents, 125 houses, 10 wagons, seven automobiles, 36 bicycles and 876 fowls."[23] Additionally, from 1911 to 1912, the Palm Beach Farms Company platted approximately 7,000 residential lots and constructed some 55 mi (89 km) of roads, including Lake Avenue, a major thoroughfare.[24]

Incorporation to the Great Depression[edit]

Lake Worth Beach was incorporated as the "town of Lake Worth" in June 1913.[20]: 26  The town grew rapidly enough that a new addition was platted in that inaugural year. The area along the Intracoastal from 5th Avenue South to 15th Avenue South still bears the name Addition 1.[18]: 15  An advertisement in the Lake Worth Herald in 1913 noted: "In the new addition, the Lake front has been divided into large lots covered with palm and tropical growth, where we expect to see charming villas and winter homes spring up as by enchantment. It will be the fashionable part of town, where the wealthy of the earth can display their artistic taste and make ideal homes. These lots are selling so fast that but very few are left."[21] Another section of the town was plotted in 1917, the Osborne Colored Addition, a small, African American neighborhood along the south end of Lake Worth and west of the Florida East Coast Railway. Some of the first African American families arrived in the addition in the early 1920s, when the Ku Klux Klan forced them out of western Lantana.[25] Two years after the addition was platted, a wooden automobile traffic bridge over Lake Worth was completed in 1919,[20]: 30  the same year the Brelsford family of Palm Beach deeded a 1,000 ft (300 m) parcel of land on the barrier island to the city.[18]: 18 

The city benefited with the rest of South Florida during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, with Lake Worth's population more than quadrupling from 1,106 in 1920 to nearly 6,000 in 1930.[18]: 15  Following the approval of a $100,000 bond issue in 1920, the Mediterranean Revival-style Lake Worth Casino and Baths was constructed.[18]: 18  Opening two years later, the casino drew many tourists to the area.[26] Moreover, the 1920s saw the completion of the Gulf Stream Hotel, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP),[18]: 18  as well as the construction of many commercial and industrial buildings and neighborhoods, including College Park and Lake Worth Heights.[18]: 15  Additionally, William A. Boutwell arrived in the area in the 1920s. He established Boutwell Dairy in 1927 and managed the company until retiring in 1956. Boutwell is credited with inventing half & half creamer; the dairy later merged with Alfar Creamery and then T.G. Lee, who distributed the product more widely until it became an American diner staple.[27][28]: 55 [29] Boutwell also owned a grocery store and masonry supply store and served as a Lake Worth city commissioner from 1924 to 1927 and briefly as vice mayor.[29] During his tenure, the city constructed approximately 36 mi (58 km) of roads and two elementary schools,[30] including the still active South Grade Elementary School.[31]

Scences of devastation from the 1928 hurricane in Lake Worth

The 1928 Okeechobee hurricane devastated Lake Worth. A survey indicated that the storm demolished about 600 homes and damaged 1,500 others, leaving about 700 people homeless.[32]: 5  Fewer than 10% of homes escaped damage.[33] Approximately 50 businesses were wrecked and 200 others received damage – roughly 75% of buildings in the business district.[32] The storm demolished or severely damaged many buildings, including First Presbyterian Church, St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, the Oakley Theater, the Gulf Stream Hotel, the Scottish Rites Cathedral, the Masonic Temple, the Florida Hotel, a car dealership, a sporting goods store, an investment company, the Old Lake Worth City Hall,[33] and an auditorium at Lake Worth Community High School.[34] Additionally, the bridge across the Intracoastal Waterway was virtually destroyed.[35] The hurricane caused approximately $4 million in Lake Worth,[32]: 5  as well as three deaths.[36][37][38]

In the immediate aftermath of the storm, the Gulf Stream Hotel was converted to a makeshift hospital.[32]: 5  The devastation left Lake Worth without a functional center for city government, although records were mostly unscathed. Consequently, a temporary City Hall was established at the Lauriston building.[39] The storm, combined with the Great Depression led to a severe economic decline within the community. Construction projects primarily shifted to repairing damaged buildings. However, there were a few conservation, construction, and New Deal projects during the 1930s.[18]: 16  This included when President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Works Progress Administration built a striking,[18]: 18  Moorish-styled "City Gymnasium" on the corner of Lake Avenue and Dixie Highway. The building today serves as City Hall.[18]: 8 

World War II to present[edit]

A postcard (c. 1953) showing the shoebox-style Lake Worth Casino built following the 1947 hurricane

Although no military installations were located in Lake Worth, the presence of military bases and repair facilities in nearby towns led to a significant increase in the city's population during World War II, from 7,406 in 1940 to 10,615 about five years later.[18]: 27  Development started again after World War II, especially due to the approval of the G.I. Bill, allowing new homes to become affordable. Many veterans who trained in South Florida also returned to the area, leading to a population boom.[40] The city also saw a wave of immigrants, especially from Finland. These Finnish immigrants established three churches in Lake Worth to preserve their heritage while also benefiting the local economy,[41] which returned to a state of stability in the post-war years.[40]

Two hurricanes impacted Lake Worth later in the 1940s, one in 1947 and the other in 1949. Although the former damaged nearly all businesses and about half of homes, few structures suffered serious damage.[42] However, among the structures experiencing substantial impact was the Lake Worth Casino, which was repaired and reopened in the 1950s with a shoebox style architectural design.[26] Although the 1949 hurricane made landfall in Lake Worth,[43] the cyclone caused less impact than the 1947 storm. Around 300–400 homes were damaged, with one destroyed, while the storm deroofed many homes in the Osborne Colored Addition. Winds also destroyed a filling station and shattered many windows at downtown businesses.[44]

In 1954, a concrete wall was erected at the Osborne Colored Addition to separate it from the white Whispering Palms neighborhood. Although the city officially integrated in 1969,[45] the neighborhood retained the name Osborne Colored Addition until 1994.[4] Today, the remnants of the wall is referred to as the Unity Wall and is instead used for murals.[45] Despite the Brown vs. Board of Education decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954, Palm Beach County schools only slowly integrated. John Green and Theresa Jakes Kanu became among the first black students to attend a formerly whites-only high school in Palm Beach County when they arrived at Lake Worth High Community High School in 1961. Little further progress on the racial integration of schools in the county occurred until a court order in 1970.[46]

The building that has served as the Lake Worth City Hall since the 1970s

The 1960s and 1970s also brought the construction of many apartments, condominiums, and larger commercial buildings, which often resulted in the demolition of older structures.[40] During a period of neglect and decline between the 1970s and 1990s, Lake Worth, in the words of then-city commissioner Dennis Dorsey, "had become known as the skin-flick capital of the country." The venue now known as the Lake Worth Playhouse was the Playtoy, and was well known in Palm Beach County as the theater that showed x-rated movies; Deep Throat was shown there, motivating a police raid in the 1970s.[47] The decade also saw the construction of the current bridge across the Intracoastal Waterway. Opening in 1973, the Robert A. Harris Bridge is two lanes wider and higher than the previous bridge, built in 1938.[48] Also during 1973, the Lake Worth City Hall moved from 414 Lake Avenue to 7 N. Dixie Highway, its current location. The building at the former address has been listed in the NRHP since 1989.[26]

Foreign political turmoil and the South Florida construction boom have brought another wave of immigrants from Central America and the Caribbean, especially since the 1980s. Included in the immigration wave of that decade were many Guatemalan-Mayans, who consider themselves indigenous people rather than "Hispanic" or "Latino", and some may not speak Spanish. Many Guatemalan-Maya people migrated to Lake Worth Beach to seek refuge from the Guatemalan genocide being committed against the indigenous Maya people in Guatemala, often referred to as the Silent Holocaust. The Maya mostly converse in Mam, Q'anjob'al, or any one of 22 existing Mayan languages spoken in Guatemala.[49] Adding to the racial and linguistic mix of the city is a large Haitian population, many of whom speak Creole. Most immigrants from Haiti have also arrived in the United States since the early 1980s.[50]

The Lake Worth Pier, damaged by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004

The downtown area has seen a huge resurgence in interest and now sports an array of art galleries, sidewalk cafés, and night clubs.[24] The city's main street, Lake Avenue, contains some of the oldest commercial structures in South Florida. Lake Avenue, along with the parallel street of Lucerne Avenue, include most of the structures constituting the Historic Old Town Commercial District, which has been listed in the NRHP since 2001.[18]: 4–5  Later in the 2000s decade, the city was hit especially hard by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004 and Wilma in 2005. Wilma alone destroyed 27 homes and 7 businesses and damaged 2,491 homes and 93 businesses to some degree.[51] Damage to businesses, government properties, and residences combined from Wilma totaled approximately $28.3 million.[52] The William O. Lockhart Municipal Pier, constructed in 1954, suffered significant damage from the hurricanes, especially due to Frances and Jeanne, requiring $3.4 million to be repaired.[48] The pier is home to a tide gauge with a sporadic history, showing an above average rate of sea level rise.[53]

In 2015, the city was accused of asking for business licenses from surrounding churches. Then-City Manager Michael Bornstein described the controversy as a "dust-up" that became politicized, while the accuser, Pastor Mike Olive of Common Ground Church, later stated that the "problems are behind us now."[54]

A ballot initiative to change the name of the city to Lake Worth Beach in 2019 passed by a narrow margin.[55] The city stated that the name change "will be implemented slowly".[56]

The city government became embroiled in another controversy that garnered national headlines in March 2020. Then-Mayor Pam Triolo and then-Lake Worth Beach Commissioner Omari Hardy became involved in a heated discussion over the potential for shutting off electrical services due to non-payment in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns.[57] In response, the city government allowed electrical service to residents to remain uninterrupted for the next few months, with or without payment, before city commissioners unanimously voted to resume power shutoffs in July 2020.[58]

Geography[edit]

Lake Worth Lagoon

Lake Worth Beach is located at 26°37′11″N 80°3′31″W / 26.61972°N 80.05861°W / 26.61972; -80.05861,[6] bordering West Palm Beach to the north, Lake Clarke Shores to the northeast, and Lantana to the south. Additionally, the municipal beach section borders Palm Beach, while the city is also just east of Palm Springs.[59] Lake Worth Beach is located about 64 miles (103 km) north of Miami.[60] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.81 square miles (18 km2), of which 5.89 square miles (15 km2) is land and 0.92 square miles (2 km2) (13.51%) is water.[6]

Several geographical features in Palm Beach County somewhat confusingly share the name "Lake Worth." The city of Lake Worth Beach is named after a lagoon which is officially known as the Lake Worth Lagoon. This lagoon opens to the Atlantic Ocean at the Port of Palm Beach via the Lake Worth Inlet. The next closest inlet exists further south in Boynton Beach. The port and two inlets are all distant from the actual city of Lake Worth Beach. The lake is a long channel that spans much of northern Palm Beach County; indeed, the Intracoastal Waterway traverses the length of the lagoon. The manmade inlets to the ocean have replaced the natural freshwater with saltwater, such that the lagoon is actually now a tidal body, instead of a true lagoon.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has mapped most of Lake Worth Beach in the Southern Florida Flatwoods land resource area.[61] Deep, poorly drained acidic sandy soils are typical for the area; they have gray topsoil, white subsoil, and a dark hardpan. Much of Lake Worth Beach is built on a rapidly drained white or gray sand which is too dry and infertile to support vigorous plant growth. The western outskirts of Lake Worth Beach are in the Southern Florida Lowlands area. Topsoils there are sandy, but the subsoils have a much higher content of clay and the soils are relatively fertile. As in the flatwoods, these soils are poorly drained for many purposes unless drainage systems are installed.[62]

Although the incorporated city of Lake Worth Beach is small geographically, as is common in Palm Beach County, a large unincorporated urbanized area with a Lake Worth postal address lies to the west of the city. Only two zip codes are within the city's boundaries, 33460 and the eastern edge of 33641, while 33449, the remainder of 33461, 33462, 33463, and 33467 zip codes are located outside the city limits but may use a Lake Worth mailing address. Thus, The Palm Beach Post noted in 2019 that there are more mailing addresses for Lake Worth (unincorporated area) than Lake Worth Beach (the proper, incorporated area).[55]

Cityscape and neighborhoods[edit]

The Lake Worth Beach Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) maintains the Neighborhood Association President's Council (NAPC). The three purposes of the NAPC, according to the Lake Worth Beach CRA, is to improve representation of diversity in the city's neighborhoods, to maintain open communications between city government and neighborhood associations, and to promote volunteering to assist needy areas.[63]

A total of 17 neighborhood associations are recognized by the Lake Worth Beach CRA, including:[64]

  • Bryant Park, bounded by the Intracoastal Waterway to the east, Lucerne Avenue (State Road 802) to the north, S Federal Highway (State Road 5) to the west, and 5th Avenue S to the south; also includes the Lake Worth Municipal Beach[64]
  • College Park, bounded by the Intracoastal Waterway to the east, West Palm Beach to its north, Dixie Highway (Route 1) to the west, and Wellesley Drive to the south[64]
  • Downtown Jewel, bounded by S Federal Highway to the east, Lucerne Avenue to the north, Dixie Highway to the west, and 6th Avenue S to the south[64]
  • Eden Place, bounded by the Intracoastal Waterway to the east, Wellesley Drive to the north, Dixie Highway to the west, and 13th Avenue N to the south[64]
  • Lake Cove, near the northwest corner of Lake Worth Beach[64]
  • Mango Groves, bounded by N Federal Highway to the east, 13th Avenue N to the north, Dixie Highway to the west, and Lucerne Avenue to the south[64]
  • Memorial Park, bounded by 6th Avenue to the north[64]
  • Murray Hills, bordering Lake Osborne along Cynthia Lane[64]
  • Parrot Cove, also known as Old Lucerne, bounded by Lake Worth Beach Golf Club to the east, 13th Avenue N to the north, N Federal Highway to the west, and Lucerne Avenue to the south[64]
  • Pineapple Beach, S Federal Highway to the east, 6th Avenue N to the north, Dixie Highway to the west, and Lantana to the south[64]
  • ROLO (Residences on Lake Osborne), includes all areas west of Interstate 95 sans Murray Hills neighborhood[64]
  • Royal Poinciana, bounded by Dixie Highway to the east, Lucerne Avenue to the north, Interstate 95 to the west, and 6th Avenue S to the south[64]
  • South Palm Park, bounded by the Intracoastal Waterway to the east, 5th Avenue S to the north, S Federal Highway to the west, and Lantana to the south[64]
  • Sunset Ridge, bounded by Dixie Highway to the east, West Palm Beach to the north, Lake Clarke Shores to the west, and 10th Avenue N to the south[64]
  • Tropical Ridge, bounded by Dixie Highway to the east, 10th Avenue N to the north, Interstate 95 to the west, and Lucerne Avenue to the south[64]
  • Vernon Heights, located near the northwest corner of Lake Worth Beach[64]
  • Whispering Palms, bounded by Dixie Highway to the east, 12th Avenue S to the north, Interstate 95 to the west, and Lantana to the south[64]

The College Park and Old Lucerne (Parrot Cove) neighborhoods are notable for being historic districts listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The former is a neighborhood in which most of the homes were constructed 1925 and 1949. Of the 123 residences in College Park, 90 residences are classified as contributing and the remaining 33 others classified as non-contributing, with a majority of those constructed after 1949.[65] The Old Lucerne Historic Residential District is the section of Lake Worth Beach where Samuel and Fannie James lived. A total of 346 structures are located in the district, with 218 classified as contributing and 128 are classified as non-contributing. The contributing structures were constructed from as early as about 1913 to 1951.[20]

Downtown[edit]

A few buildings in the downtown area

The Historic Old Town Commercial District, listed in the NRHP in 2001, encompasses much of downtown Lake Worth Beach. A total of 59 buildings are part of the roughly 16-acre (6.5 ha) area,which stretches westward to the Florida East Coast Railroad (adjacent to G Street), eastward to M Street, northward to Lucerne Avenue, and southward to 1st Avenue S.[18]: 5  It is distinguished by its two main streets, the east-to-west Lake Avenue and Lucerne Avenue, while Dixie Highway (Route 1) is a major north-south thoroughfare through the district.[18]: 6  Of the 59 structures, 46 are classified as contributing and the other 13 are considered non-contributing. The contributing buildings, constructed between 1912 and 1949, are generally of Masonry Vernacular-style architecture, although Art Deco, Mediterranean Revival, and Moorish Revival styles are also present.[18]: 5 

Lake Worth Beach's downtown area has distinct character and is a popular destination for both tourists and residents of South Florida. Several of the city's notable buildings are located in this section, including the current City Hall,[18]: 5  former City Hall (NRHP-listed in 1989 and includes the Lake Worth Historical Museum), Lake Worth Beach Post Office,[26] Lake Worth Playhouse,[18]: 18  Lake Worth Beach Public Library,[66] and Park Theater,[18]: 5  although not all of these structures are listed as part of the Historic Old Town Commercial District.[18]: 10–12 

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
19201,106
19305,940437.1%
19407,40824.7%
195011,77759.0%
196020,75876.3%
197023,71414.2%
198027,04814.1%
199028,5645.6%
200035,13323.0%
201034,910−0.6%
202042,21920.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[67]

2020 census[edit]

As of the 2020 census, 42,219 people and 15,457 households were residing in the city. The population density was 7,164.26 inhabitants per square mile (2,766.10/km2). The 17,476 housing units averaged 2,564.90 inhabitants per square mile (990.31/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 39.0% White, 19.1% African American, 5.8% Native American, 1.0% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 19.1% from other races, and 16.0% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 45.8% of the population.[68]

Approximately 76.5% of residents of the city were age 18 and over.[68]

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 census, 34,910 people, 16,473 households, and 6,966 families were residing in the city. The population density was 5,126.28 inhabitants per square mile (1,979.26/km2). The 16,473 housing units averaged 2,418.94 inhabitants per square mile (933.95/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 60.0% White, 19.8% African American, 5.6% Native American, 1.0% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 8.9% from other races, and 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 39.6% of the population.[69]

In the city, the age distribution was 5.2% at 65 or older, 22.2% was under 18, 17.0% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, and 24.5% from 45 to 64; the median age was 35. years. For every 117 males, there were 100 females. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121 males. Around 30.1% of the households in 2010 had children under the age of 18 living with them, 11.7% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no spouse present, and 46.2% were not families. About 33.1% of all households were made up of one individual, and 22.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65, and the average family size was 3.37.[69]

The median income for a household in the city was $35,428 (2009–2013) and 32.3% of the population was below the poverty level.

2000 census[edit]

As of the 2000 census, 35,133 people, 13,828 households, 7,872 families were residing in the city. The population density was 5,159.03 inhabitants per square mile (1,991.90 /km2). The 15,861 housing units averaged 2,329.07 inhabitants per square mile (899.26 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 65.1% White, 18.9% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.7% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.6% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 29.7% of the population.[70]

The age distribution of the population was spread out in 2000, with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 109 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112 males. In 2000, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.9% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no spouse present, and 44.4% were non-families. Approximately 33.6% of all households were made up of one individual, and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.19.[70]

As of 2000, the three most spoken first languages in Lake Worth Beach were English at 56.61%, Spanish at 26.57%, and French Creole, which was spoken by 9.17% of the population. Lake Worth Beach has a large Finnish expatriate population, and Finnish is spoken by 2.57% of the city's residents as their native language. Other languages spoken by residents of the city include French at 1.96%, Mayan languages were spoken by 1.11% (primarily spoken by Guatemalans of Mayan descent), and German as a mother tongue was spoken by 0.52% of the population.[71]

As of 2000, Lake Worth Beach had the twentieth highest percentage of Guatemalan residents in the United States, with 4.87% of the populace.[72] It had the twenty-first highest percentage of Haitian residents in the United States, at 8.10% of the city's population,[73] and the eighty-third highest percentage of Cuban residents in the United States, at 3.47% of its population.[74] It also had the twenty-third most Hondurans in the United States, at 1.59% of all residents.[75] Also according to the 2000 census, people of Finnish ancestry were 3.4% of the population. With 1,026 people claiming Finn descent in 2000,[76] Lake Worth Beach had the largest concentration of Finnish people in the world, outside of Finland.[77]

Culture[edit]

Arts[edit]

The Cultural Council for Palm Beach County referred to Lake Worth Beach as "A Multicultural Mecca for the Arts".[78] The organization, founded by Alexander W. Dreyfoos Jr. as the Palm Beach County Council of the Arts in West Palm Beach in 1978, evolved into the official county government agency to support and promote local arts and culture. In 2012, the Cultural Council for Palm Beach County relocated from West Palm Beach to the Robert M. Montgomery Jr. Building in Lake Worth Beach and renovated the building with the assistance of the Lake Worth Beach CRA.[79] This building was formerly the 1,000 seat Lake Theatre, which opened at 601 Lake Avenue in 1940, constructed at a cost of $75,000.[31]

Several art galleries are located in downtown Lake Worth Beach, according to the Cultural Council for Palm Beach County. This includes the Art Link International, Artisans on the Ave, Benzaiten, Bruce Konder Galleries, Flamingo Gallery, HATCH 1121, No So So, and Palm Beach Gallery. The council also lists art organizations and facilities such as the Armory Arts Center, Bamboo Room, Book Cellar, Downtown Dance, Lake Worth Art League, Lake Worth Playhouse, Lake Worth Public Library, Social House, and Urban Arts Lofts.[80]: 12  Of note, the Lake Worth Playhouse was founded in 1953. The building it is housed in originally opened in 1929 as the Oakley Theatre, which had previously been virtually demolished by the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. However, the Oakley Theatre quickly went into bankruptcy due to the Great Depression.[31]

Festivals[edit]

Yearly festivals such as the Street Painting Festival[81] and Finlandia Week (a celebration of Lake Worth Beach's Finnish population) attract thousands of people. When combined with neighboring Lantana's Finnish community, it becomes the largest Finnish community in the United States. The largest Oktoberfest in South Florida is held every October just outside the city on Lantana Road. The City Tree Board organizes an annual "Lake Worth Festival of Trees," which usually takes place in the Cultural Plaza on the third Saturday in February, and the weekend before the Street Painting Festival. The city holds a semi-weekly celebration called "Evenings on the Avenue" which takes place in the Cultural Plaza, next to the City Hall Annex.

The annual Gay Pride Parade for Palm Beach County is held in Lake Worth Beach. According to Discover The Palm Beaches, over 30,000 people attend the event, which is one of the largest pride parades in Florida and the oldest active in the state.[82] The county's only LGBT center, Compass, is located in Lake Worth Beach.[83]

Cinematography[edit]

A substantial portion of the 1981 movie, Body Heat, starring William Hurt and Kathleen Turner, was filmed in downtown Lake Worth Beach. The city became the fictitious town of Miranda Beach. In the movie, the building at 813 Lucerne Avenue became Stella's Coffee Shop, Lake Worth City Hall became Miranda Beach City Hall, and the building at 811 Lake Avenue became Ned's office, while the film also showed the French restaurant L'Anjo (now Los Panchos Tacos & Tequila Bar). Additionally, former Congressman Mark Foley appeared as an extra in the film. Three years later, the 1984 movie Harry & Son was also filmed in Lake Worth Beach.[84]

Historic Lake Worth Casino photos displayed in the historical museum

Historical preservation[edit]

The Lake Worth Historical Museum is located on the second floor of the old Lake Worth City Hall. From the 1920s to 1973, the building functioned as Lake Worth Beach's city hall.[26] Additionally, the Historical Society of Lake Worth is located at the public library.[85] In 2017, the Lake Worth Beach Department of Community Sustainability and Division of Planning, Zoning and Historic Preservation; the Historic Resources Preservation Board; and the Historical Society of Lake Worth designated seven homes constructed in 1912 as historical properties, identified as the oldest residences in the city without major alterations.[86] Efforts by the city to preserve historic structures and districts dates back to an ordinance approved by the city council in 1996. The Lake Worth Beach government considers six areas to be historic districts: College Park, Northeast Lucerne, Old Lucerne, Old Town, Southeast Lucerne, and South Palm Park.[87]

Federally, the NRHP lists three historic districts and three historic structures in Lake Worth Beach. The historic districts listed are College Park, Old Lucerne, and Old Town, while the structures listed are the Gulf Stream Hotel, Old Lake Worth City Hall,[88] and Osborne School.[89] Additionally, the Osborne School is also listed in Florida's Historic Black Public Schools Multiple Property Submission.[90]: 8 

Education[edit]

Public schools in Lake Worth Beach are part of the School District of Palm Beach County. Elementary school students are served by four public schools, all located within the boundaries of Lake Worth Beach – Barton Elementary, Highland Elementary, North Grade Elementary, and South Grade Elementary,[91] established in 1926.[31] Most public middle school students attend Lake Worth Middle School, while those living south of 12th Avenue S attend Lantana Community Middle School in Lantana.[92] All public high school students in the city are assigned to Lake Worth Community High School.[93] Established in 1922, it is the oldest continuously operating high school in Palm Beach County.[31]

Sacred Heart Catholic Church operates a separate private school (pre-K through 8) in Lake Worth Beach.[94] There is also a charter school in the city, the Academy for Positive Learning.[95]

Additionally, within the city's boundaries is the former Osborne School, also known as Osborne Elementary School. Constructed in 1948, the school served black elementary students in the formerly segregated Osborne neighborhood until 1971.[90]: 8  Subsequently, busing policies implemented in the early 1970s left the Osborne School vacant.[90]: 12  Since 2003, the school building has been listed in both the National Register of Historic Places and Florida's Historic Black Public Schools Multiple Property Submission.[90]: 8 

The main campus of Palm Beach State College is located in unincorporated Lake Worth. It is the oldest community college in Florida, founded in 1933 as Palm Beach Junior College. It was at one time located on the campus of Palm Beach High School, at the present day Dreyfoos School of the Arts in downtown West Palm Beach. The school moved to its present location in 1956. The name was changed to Palm Beach Community College in 1988 and later renamed Palm Beach State College in 2010 to reflect that the school was offering four-year degrees.[96]

Public libraries[edit]

The Lake Worth Beach Public Library

The Lake Worth Beach Public Library, located in the historic downtown area at 15 North M Street, is a Mediterranean-style architectural building, completed in 1941 at a cost of $66,000, an amount raised by the Lake Worth Library Association. A dedicatory service was held on August 12, 1941. It is a part of the Library Cooperative of the Palm Beaches.[97] Annually, the library circulates approximately 65,000 items, including 57,468 books.[98]

However, efforts to organize a library date back to 1912, one year prior to the city's incorporation. Local pioneers saw the need for a library and requested book donations via an advertisement in the Lucerne Herald newspaper in May 1912. R.D. Strong and John L. McKissock then established the Lake Worth Library Association on November 30. For several years, the library was housed inside a reading room located in City Hall. Although residents voted to officially establish the Lake Worth Public Library and allot $6,000 for the construction of a building in 1926, the funds remained insufficient.[66]

Congress approved a bill allotting $60,000 to construct a building bearing the name Major General William Jenkins Worth Memorial Library in 1939, nearly 100 years after the body of water was named in his honor. However, after President Franklin D. Roosevelt vetoed the bill, the residents of the community continued raising funds until the building was finally completed in 1941. James and William Strait also contributed $10,000 for an art museum wing, which is now the children's section.[66] The library also houses noted artist R. Sherman Winton's only known collection, which features historical Florida themes of the Spanish period, as well as wood carvings by Sam J. Schlappich, a local artist who was featured in the Century of Progress Fair in 1933 and the World's Fair in 1939.[99]

In addition to the Lake Worth Beach Public Library, the city has more than 100 Little Free Library book exchanges as of late 2020. The construction and maintenance of the Little Free Libraries began due to the efforts of resident Mary Lindsey and over 120 voluneeters. By December 2020, the Little Free Library system in Lake Worth Beach had distributed approximately 500,000 books.[100]

Recreation[edit]

The William O. Lockhart Municipal Pier in 2011

The city's municipal beach is one of Southeast Florida's few remaining large area of open, public space along the ocean.[101] In 2013, the Lake Worth Casino complex reopened following a two-year, $6 million renovation. The neoclassical building approximates the original 1920s casino building, which served as a gambling establishment until the 1930s and had stood overlooking the ocean until it was replaced by a more modern, boxy building after the 1947 hurricane. [26] Near the casino is the William O. Lockhart Municipal Pier, one of Lake Worth Beach's most recognizable landmarks. Following Hurricane Frances in 2004, the pier was repaired and raised 5 feet (1.5 m). The structure of the pier and wave action results in the creation of sandbars, which, according to the Lake Worth Community Redevelopment Agency, causes the pier to "provide the most consistent surf in South Florida."[101]

The Snook Islands Natural Area, located on the west shore of the Intracoastal Waterway just north of the bridge, is a 118-acre (48 hectarce) wetland restoration area that includes a boardwalk, floating dock, and kayak launch.[102] The nearby municipal golf course includes 18-holes with a view across the Intracoastal Waterway.[103] Bryant Park, located in downtown Lake Worth Beach, has an Addison Mizner-designed 1930s bandshell, which is used for festivals and other events.[31] Overall, Lake Worth Beach has more than 20 recreational facilities and municipal parks.[104] On the west side of the city, the county-owned John Prince Memorial Park follows the winding shores of Lake Osborne and offers several miles of bike and walking trails as well as hundreds of acres for picnicking, volleyball, and overnight camping.[105]

Infrastructure[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

Lake Worth Tri-Rail Station.

Interstate 95 runs north-to-south along the west side of the city, with two ramps in Lake Worth Beach, one at 10th Avenue N and the other at 6th Avenue S.[106][107] Several highways traverse the city. Route 1 and state roads 5 (N Federal Highway) and A1A run north-to-south in Lake Worth Beach,[108] while State Road 802 (Lake Worth Road, Lake Avenue, and Lucerne Avenue) runs east-to-west.[106][108]

The Tri-Rail commuter rail system serves the city at the Lake Worth station, which opened in 1989. Tri-Rail connects Lake Worth Beach to other cities in eastern Palm Beach County and to Broward and Miami-Dade counties.[109] It is also served by PalmTran buses. This includes Route 1, which runs northward and southward along Dixie Highway;[110] Route 61, which runs along 10th Avenue N to Dixie Highway to Lucerne Avenue and reaches Palm Beach State College before reversing its course (going eastward along Lake Avenue);[111] Route 62, which runs eastward along Lake Worth Road and Lake Avenue to the municipal beach and then reverses course along Lucerne Avenue;[112] and Route 64, which runs eastward along 6th Avenue S to Dixie Highway, then southward to 12th Avenue S, and finally southward along Barton Road and Andrew Redding Road before reverse course at the Lantana Lake Worth Health Center in Lantana.[113]

Emergency services[edit]

Palm Beach County Fire Rescue (PBCFR) is responsible for firefighting services in Lake Worth Beach. PBCFR has two stations within the city's boundaries, Station 91 at 1020 Lucerne Avenue (Battalion 3 headquarters) and Station 93 at 1229 Detroit Street.[114] In order to prepare for, mitigate, and recover from emergencies and disasters, Lake Worth Beach's Emergency Management Program has established the Emergency Management team. Parts of the city are located within Evacuation Zone C,[115] which is ordered to evacuate when a Category 3 hurricane (or stronger) threatens the area.[116] The nearest hospital is the JFK Medical Center in Atlantis.[117]

Lake Worth Beach has a local reputation for high crime and has been counted as among the highest crime cities in the state.[118] The city's police department was disbanded in 2008 and law enforcement duties were taken over by the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office (PBSO).[119] Crime initially fell in the years following the merger, with murders down 73%, robberies down 47%, and burglaries down 23% from the period of 2007 to 2014.[120] Violent crime rates then dropped by double-digit percentages for three consecutive years, 2016―2018. However, in 2019, the violent crime rate increased by 5.2% from the previous year. Much of the rise was attributable to an increase in aggravated assaults, although the city reported a decrease in burglaries and rapes.[121]

The city was part of the worsening opioid epidemic in the United States. From 2015 to 2016, the number of suspected drug overdose deaths rose by 56%. As of 2016, the estimated rate of overdose deaths was 20 out of every 10,000 people, higher than in neighboring towns.[122] Overdose rates began decreasing by the late 2010s, however. PBSO reported 301 overdoses in Lake Worth Beach between May 2019 and April 2020, down from 354 between May 2018 and April 2019.[121]

Utilities[edit]

In contrast with many other localities in eastern Florida, who are usually served by Florida Power & Light,[123]: 5  Lake Worth Beach operates its own electrical utility. Founded in 1914 as the "Lake Worth Water, Light, and Ice Company" to serve about 600 residents,[18]: 15  Lake Worth Beach Electric Utility has approximately 27,000 customers as of 2019. This also includes about 7,200 customers in Palm Springs and some adjacent unincorporated areas of Palm Beach County.[124] In an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the city purchased and began operating a solar farm in 2017, becoming the first municipality in Florida to do so.[125] By May 2021, more than 38% of power generated by Lake Worth Beach Electric Utility originated from solar energy. Citizen Owned Energy forecasts that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the Lake Worth Beach Electric Utility will decrease to less than half of its 2005 levels by 2024.[126]

The Lake Worth Beach Water Utilities Department is responsible for providing residents with drinking water and the collection of wastewater and stormwater. Drinking water originates at a water treatment plant and is distributed via about 168 mi (270 km) of pipelines across the city. Lake Worth Beach owns and operates 33 pump stations, along with roughly 125 mi (201 km) of gravity and pressure pipes. Additionally, the city owns and maintains a master pump station, which also collects wastewater from Atlantis, Lake Clarke Shores, Manalapan, Palm Beach State College, South Palm Beach, and Palm Spring. This wastewater is then sent to the East Central Regional Water Reclamation Facility for treatment. Stormwater is collected via 46 outfalls, which drain into the Lake Worth Lagoon.[127]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lake Worth, Florida". City of Lake Worth, Florida. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  2. ^ "Welcome to the City of Lake Worth, Florida: Where the Tropics Begin". City of Lake Worth, Florida. Archived from the original on April 24, 1999. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Mary Kate Leming (September 4, 2013). "Celebrating Our History: Before Lake Worth, there was Jewell". The Coastal Star. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Lake Worth Beach, Florida". Historical Society of Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  5. ^ a b "City Commission". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "Lake Worth Beach". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. October 18, 1979. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  8. ^ "Lake Worth, FL ZIP Codes". zipmap.net. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  9. ^ "QuickFacts: Lake Worth Beach city, Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  10. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Miami-Dade County, Florida; Broward County, Florida; Palm Beach County, Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  11. ^ David J. Castello (May 27, 2019). "The Jeaga – Palm Beach County's Indigenous Tribe". WestPalmBeach.com. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  12. ^ a b c Ted Brownstein (Fall 2013). "Social Status and Race in the Pioneer Lake Worth Community - A Case Study of Fannie and Samuel James" (PDF). The Tustenegee. Historical Society of Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  13. ^ "Lake Worth's Oldest Houses" (PDF). Historical Society of Lake Worth Beach. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e Ted Brownstein (2013). Pioneers of Jewell. Lake Worth, Florida: Lake Worth Herald Publications. ISBN 978-0-9832609-4-3.
  15. ^ a b Jonathan W. Koontz (1997). Lake Worth: Jewel of the Gold Coast. The Greater Lake Worth Chamber of Commerce.
  16. ^ "The Barefoot Mail Route". Lake Worth Pioneer Association. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  17. ^ "Greenacres". Historical Society of Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Historic Old Town Commercial District (Report). National Register of Historic Places. 2001. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  19. ^ "Lucerne – The City Beautiful". Lucerne Herald. May 23, 1912. p. 1. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  20. ^ a b c d e Old Lucerne Historic Residential District (Report). National Register of Historic Places. 2001. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  21. ^ a b "The Eyes of the World are Turned Toward Lake Worth". Lake Worth Herald. August 28, 1913. p. 7. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  22. ^ J.D. Vivian (June 27, 2013). "Lake Worth: Growth of a Beach Town". The Palm Beach Post. p. S3. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  23. ^ "Lake Worth: Where The Tropics Begin". jcbserver.com. September 27, 1998. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  24. ^ a b "Did You Know..." (PDF). The Tustenegee. Historical Society of Palm Beach County. April 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  25. ^ Angela Hornsby (September 11, 1994). "Eliminating epithet from county records not easy, officials say". The Palm Beach Post. p. 4B. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  26. ^ a b c d e f J.D. Vivian (June 27, 2013). "Lake Worth: Town Jewels". The Palm Beach Post. p. S6. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  27. ^ "Alfar Creamery" (PDF). The Palm Beach Post. Historical Society of Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  28. ^ Beverly Mustaine (1999). The Images of America: On Lake Worth. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Books. ISBN 978-0-7385-0055-3.
  29. ^ a b Eliot Kleinberg (December 5, 2001). "Lake Worth's Boutwell Road Named After Area Dairyman". The Palm Beach Post, Historic Palm Beach Blog. Archived from the original on May 15, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  30. ^ "LW Dairy Pioneer Buried". The Palm Beach Post. July 3, 1982. p. 2B. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  31. ^ a b c d e f J.D. Vivian (June 27, 2013). "Lake Worth: Town Jewels". The Palm Beach Post. p. S7. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d "Palm Beach Hurricane—92 Views". Chicago, Illinois: American Autochrome Company. 1928. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  33. ^ a b "Property Loss Here Placed at $3,000,000". Lake Worth Herald. September 21, 1928. p. 1. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  34. ^ "1500 Homeless Are Lake Worth Charges". The Palm Beach Post. September 20, 1928. p. 1. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  35. ^ "County's Storm Loss Will Total $350,000 According To Boyd". The Palm Beach Post. September 28, 1928. p. 2. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  36. ^ "John Joy Dies After Exposure From Storm". The Palm Beach Post. September 21, 1928. p. 6. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  37. ^ "Storm Exposure Is Blamed For Death". The Palm Beach Post. September 25, 1928. p. 6. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  38. ^ "Aged Lake Worth Man Second Storm Fatality". The Palm Beach Post. September 22, 1928. p. 3. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  39. ^ "Important Lake Worth Records Found Intact". The Palm Beach Post. September 22, 1928. p. 3. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  40. ^ a b c "Facts and Information". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  41. ^ Robert I. Davidsson (March 9, 2017). "Local Church Has Its Roots in Arctic 'Saami' Ministry". Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  42. ^ "L. W. Reports Few Hardships". The Palm Beach Post. September 19, 1947. p. 4. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  43. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, 2020.
  44. ^ "Lake Worth Reports Damage is Less Than in 1947 Storm". The Palm Beach Post. August 28, 1949. p. 10. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  45. ^ a b Ben Kerr (July 13, 2021). "Press Release: Lake Worth Beach Unity Wall Unveiling Road Closure". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  46. ^ Scott Travis (May 9, 2004). "Brown vs. Board of Education". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  47. ^ Frank Cerabino; Laura Lordi. "Our (se)X-rated history: A titillating tour of nudity in Palm Beach County". Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  48. ^ a b J.D. Vivian (June 27, 2013). "Lake Worth: Growth of a Beach Town". The Palm Beach Post. p. S5. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  49. ^ Alexia Campbell; Carey Wagner (August 16, 2009). "The Mayans of Lake Worth". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  50. ^ Sandra Jacobs (February 7, 1988). "Learning to Cope Haitian Population Places Burden on Community Services". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  51. ^ Palm Beach County Affordable Housing Study (PDF) (Report). West Palm Beach, Florida: Palm Beach County Department of Economic Sustainability. p. 5 - 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  52. ^ Luis F. Perez; Angel Streeter; Ushma Patel (December 18, 2005). "Adding Up Wilma's Fury: $2.9 Billion Countywide - More than 55,000 Homes, 3,600 Businesses Damaged". Sun-Sentinel. p. 16A. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  53. ^ "Mean Sea Level Trend 8722670 Lake Worth Pier". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  54. ^ Kevin D. Thompson (April 15, 2016). "Pastor set to take over Bamboo Room club". The Palm Beach Post. p. B5. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  55. ^ a b Kevin D. Thompson (May 4, 2019). "Postal puzzle: So did Lake Worth Beach really erase Lake Worth? Sort of... but not really". The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  56. ^ Tom Swift (March 12, 2019). "Lake Worth changes its name to Lake Worth Beach". Local10.com. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  57. ^ Lori Rozsa (March 22, 2020). "Video shows official confronting mayor over utility shut-offs amid coronavirus outbreak". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  58. ^ Danielle Waugh (July 3, 2020). "Utility shutoffs to resume in Lake Worth Beach". WPEC. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  59. ^ "Palm Beach County Municipal Boundaries" (PDF). Palm Beach County Department of Planning, Zoning & Building. November 2, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  60. ^ "Distance from Miami, FL to Lake Worth, FL". Distance between cities. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  61. ^ Map of Major Land Resource Areas in Florida (Map). United States Department of Agriculture. 1997. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  62. ^ "Major Land Resource Areas in Florida". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  63. ^ "Neighborhood Association President's Council". Lake Worth Beach Community Redevelopment Agency. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Neighborhood Associations in the city of Lake Worth, FL (Map). Neighborhood Association President's Council; Google Maps. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  65. ^ College Park Historic District (Report). National Register of Historic Places. 2001. pp. 5 and 8. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  66. ^ a b c "History of the Lake Worth Library". Friends of the Lake Worth Library. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  67. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  68. ^ a b "2020 Census County and Cities Profiles (PL 94-171): Palm Beach County" (PDF). Florida Office of Economic & Demographic Research. 2021. pp. 94–96. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  69. ^ a b "Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010" (PDF). Florida Office of Economic & Demographic Research. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  70. ^ a b "Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000" (PDF). Florida Office of Economic & Demographic Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  71. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Lake Worth, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  72. ^ "Ancestry Map of Guatemalan Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  73. ^ "Ancestry Map of Haitian Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2019. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  74. ^ "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2019. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  75. ^ "Ancestry Map of Honduran Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  76. ^ "Fact Sheet, Lake Worth city, Florida". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  77. ^ Alexandra Navarro Clifton (August 21, 2003). "Finnish cabinetmakers find U.S. foothold in Lake Worth". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  78. ^ "Lake Worth Beach". Cultural Council for Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  79. ^ "Palm Beach County Cultural Council". Historical Society of Palm Beach County. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  80. ^ Arts & Cultural Master Plan for Downtown Lake Worth (PDF). Lord Cultural Resources; Jon Stover Associates (Report). Cultural Council for Palm Beach County. 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  81. ^ "Lake Worth Beach Street Painting Festival". Discover The Palm Beaches. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  82. ^ "LGBTQ+ Celebrations". Discover The Palm Beaches. June 26, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  83. ^ Mike Halterman (August 19, 2015). "Discover Gay Florida - Palm Beach County". HOTspots. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  84. ^ Peter Burke (August 27, 2021). "'Body Heat' 40 years later: Remembering when Lake Worth became Miranda Beach". WPTV-TV. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  85. ^ "Become a member". Historical Society of Lake Worth. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  86. ^ Jen Engoren (May 24, 2017). "Historical Society of Lake Worth designates 7 historic homes". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  87. ^ "Historic Preservation". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  88. ^ "Florida – Palm Beach County". American Dreams Inc. p. 1. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  89. ^ "Florida – Palm Beach County". American Dreams Inc. p. 2. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  90. ^ a b c d Osborne School (Report). National Register of Historic Places. 2003. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  91. ^ "Elementary School Attendance Boundaries SY2020–21" (PDF). School District of Palm Beach County. 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  92. ^ "Middle School Attendance Boundaries SY2020–21" (PDF). School District of Palm Beach County. 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  93. ^ "High School Attendance Boundaries SY2020–21" (PDF). School District of Palm Beach County. 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  94. ^ "Kindergarten through 8th Grade Tuition Rates and Fees 2021-2022". Sacred Heart School. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  95. ^ "Academy for Positive Learning". U.S. News. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  96. ^ "History of Palm Beach State College". Palm Beach State College. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  97. ^ Jan Engoren (April 17, 2019). "Lake Worth's 'quirky' library celebrates 75 years". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  98. ^ "Lake Worth Beach Public Library". Library Technology Guides. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  99. ^ Hon. Alcee Hastings (November 9, 2012). "Congressional Record–Extensions of Remarks" (PDF). p. E1737. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  100. ^ "'Little Free Libraries' program distributes 500,000 books in Lake Worth Beach". WPTV-TV. December 30, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  101. ^ a b "Municipal Beach Fishing Pier". Lake Worth Community Redevelopment Agency. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  102. ^ "Snook Islands". Palm Beach County Government. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  103. ^ "Municipal Golf Course". Lake Worth Community Redevelopment Agency. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  104. ^ "Recreation". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  105. ^ "John Prince Park". Palm Beach County Government. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  106. ^ a b "Roadway Atlas (Page 81)" (PDF). Palm Beach County Engineering and Public Works. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  107. ^ "Roadway Atlas (Page 91)" (PDF). Palm Beach County Engineering and Public Works. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  108. ^ a b "Roadway Atlas (Page 82)" (PDF). Palm Beach County Engineering and Public Works. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  109. ^ Amy Driscoll (January 7, 1989). "Tri-Rail is 'refreshing alternative'". The Palm Beach Post. p. 14A. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  110. ^ "Palm Beach Gardens to Boca Raton via U.S. 1 – Route 1" (PDF). Palm Beach County Government. September 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  111. ^ "Greenacres to Lake Worth via Cresthaven/10th Ave N – Route 61" (PDF). Palm Beach County Government. September 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  112. ^ "Wellington to Lake Worth Beach via Lake Worth – Route 62" (PDF). Palm Beach County Government. September 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  113. ^ "Greenacres to Lantana via Melaleuca/6th Ave S – Route 64" (PDF). Palm Beach County Government. September 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  114. ^ "Stations". Palm Beach County Government. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  115. ^ "Emergency Management". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  116. ^ "Map A.9. Coastal Evacuation Zones & Routes". City of Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. September 21, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  117. ^ "Palm Beach County District 3" (PDF). Palm Beach County Government. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  118. ^ Chelsea Todaro (February 28, 2018). "Report: 2 Palm Beach County cities among most dangerous in the U.S." The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  119. ^ Jane Musgrave (December 23, 2017). "Court gives ex-cop another shot at disability benefits from Lake Worth". The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  120. ^ Kevin Thompson (August 14, 2015). "Fourth most dangerous city in state? This local city takes exception". The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on July 6, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  121. ^ a b Jorge Millian (May 8, 2020). "After big drops, crime in Lake Worth Beach surged in 2019". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  122. ^ Ryan Van Velzer (December 24, 2016). "Amid opioid crisis, a look at Palm Beach County's worst-affected cities". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  123. ^ NextEra Energy Annual Report 2019 (PDF) (Report). NextEra Energy. December 31, 2019.
  124. ^ Bailey LeFever (August 26, 2019). "Layoffs loom as Lake Worth Beach struggles with electric utility issues". The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  125. ^ Jan Engoren (February 28, 2017). "Lake Worth's solar energy project unveiled". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  126. ^ Fact Sheet (PDF) (Report). Citizen Owned Energy, Lake Worth Beach Electric Utility. May 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  127. ^ "Utilities". City of Lake Worth Beach, Florida. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  128. ^ "Obituary". Lake Worth Herald. March 28, 1946. p. 5. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  129. ^ "Kevin Fagan". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  130. ^ "Foley, Mark A." Office of Art and Archives & Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  131. ^ Brooke Carter (May 16, 2018). "Ghostemane Net Worth 2018". Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  132. ^ Bettelou Peterson (September 23, 1986). "Deidre Hall works day and night". Detroit Free Press. p. 11B. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  133. ^ "Andy Hansen Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  134. ^ "Andy Hansen Baseball Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  135. ^ "Nicki Hunter". Internet Adult Film Database. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  136. ^ Chris Solomon (October 1, 2016). "Brooks Koepka is the Ryder Cup rookie that every USA fan should know and love". SB Nation. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  137. ^ "Raven Interview". The Miami Herald. 2004. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  138. ^ "Joe Looney". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  139. ^ "Robin Morgan". The Shalvi/Hyman Encyclopedia of Jewish Women. June 23, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  140. ^ Brian Biggane (November 12, 2008). "Pitcher's career cut short after line drive injury". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1A. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  141. ^ David Raglin (2008). "Mayo Smith". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  142. ^ "Otis Thorpe". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  143. ^ John Evenson (February 23, 2021). "Former Park Vista star Trea Turner happy for spring training at home with new baby boy". WPEC. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  144. ^ Paul Lomartire (July 28, 2016). "Demons and doom: The Whitmans of Lake Worth". The Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018.
  145. ^ a b c d "Lake Worth Sister City Board gets new members". The Palm Beach Post. August 30, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2021.

External links[edit]