Lake Zhalanashkol

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Zhalanashkol
Жалаңашкөл [1]
Coordinates 45°34′00″N 81°10′00″E / 45.56667°N 81.16667°E / 45.56667; 81.16667Coordinates: 45°34′00″N 81°10′00″E / 45.56667°N 81.16667°E / 45.56667; 81.16667
Basin countries Kazakhstan, China
Max. length 9 km
Max. width 5.6 km
Surface area 38 km²
Average depth 3 m
Max. depth 5.5 m
Surface elevation 368 m

Lake Zhalanashkol (Kazakh: Жалаңашкөл, literally "Bare Lake", or "Exposed Lake"; Russian: Жаланашколь) is a freshwater lake in the eastern part of Kazakhstan, on the border of Almaty Province (Alakol District) and East Kazakhstan Province (Urzhar District). It is the smallest out of the four major lakes of the Alakol depression (the other three being the Alakol, the Sasykkol, and the Koshkarkol). It is also the southernmost of the four, the one closest to the Dzungarian Gate and the Aibi Lake on the other, Chinese, side of the Gate.

On the maps compiled in the 18th and 19th century the Zhalanashkol is labeled Taskol (literally "Stone Lake"); this name is now obsolete.[2]

In its geological past, the Zhalanashkol may have been the southernmost bay of the larger Lake Alakol. However, now the valley that connects the two lakes has been filled with sediment. Seasonally (when the water level in the Zhalanashkol is at its highest), water drains from the Zhalanashkol to the Alakol along the 10-km long slough called Zhaman-Otkel (Russian: Жаман-Откель).[2]

No rivers reach the Zhalanashkol. (The Terekty River flows toward Zhalanashkol from the mountains of China's Yumin County, but reaches the lake only in the form of a usually dry alluvial fan.) The lake is fed by ground water, and by seasonal runoff of rainwater or snow meltwater from the surrounding area.[2]

The lake is usually frozen until late March.[2]

Lake Zhalanashkol is part of the Alakol Nature Reserve.

The Aktogay-Dostyk (Kazakhstan's connector between the Turkestan–Siberia Railway and China's Lanzhou–Xinjiang Railway) runs along the lake's eastern shore. The Zhalanashkol Railway Station is located there (45°36′00″N 82°11′00″E / 45.60000°N 82.18333°E / 45.60000; 82.18333); a Kazakhstan border patrol station of the same name is nearby.

The highway to Dostyk runs on the lake's west side.

A Sino-Soviet border conflict, which took place in August 1969 in the hills east of the lake, has been known in the USSR and post-Soviet states as the "Lake Zhalanashkol incident". In China it is known as the Tielieketi incident, based on the name of a locality on the Chinese side on the border, itself coming from the Terekty River.

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d Березовиков Н.Н., Гаврилов Э.И., Хроков В.В., (2007), "Орнитофауна озера Жаланашколь и Джунгарских ворот (The bird fauna of Lake Zhalanashkol and the Dzhungarian Gate),", Русский орнитологический журнал (The Russian Ornithological Journal) 16 (348): 295–333  (Russian)