Lakhta Center

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Coordinates: 59°59′13.7″N 30°10′37.3″E / 59.987139°N 30.177028°E / 59.987139; 30.177028

Lakhta Center
Лахта Центр
Lakhta Center 07.jpg
Artist's impression of the tower
Former names Okhta Center
General information
Status Under construction
Location Lakhta
Construction started 2012
Completed 2018 (planned)
Height 462 m (1,516 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 86
Design and construction
Architecture firm Gorproekt CJSC (the initial concept made by RMJM London)

Lakhta Center (Russian: Ла́хта Це́нтр) is a large mixed-use non-residential construction project in Saint Petersburg, Russia. When the project was still planned for its original site next to the historical center of St. Petersburg, it was first called Gazprom City (Russian: Газпро́м си́ти) and later Okhta Center (Russian: О́хта це́нтр). After public outcry over the project's expected effect on the architectural integrity of the city's historical center, and its numerous violations of city laws, the project site was moved to Lakhta.

External video
(Russian) «From Okhta to Lakhta». Animation film about the reasons why the Center was moved from Okhta to Lakhta, Flash Video

Lakhta Center is planned to include the first supertall skyscraper in the city, a scientific and educational complex, sports and leisure facilities, and an outdoor amphitheater.[1] The 462-metre[2] main tower of Lakhta Center, upon its planned completion in 2018,[3] is expected to be the tallest building in Russia and Europe.[4]

The concrete pouring of the bottom slab of the box-shaped foundation ended March 1, 2015, was registered by Guinness World Records as the largest continuous concrete pour. 19,624 cubic metres of concrete was used which is approximately 3,000 cubic meters more than in the previous similar record registered at Wilshire Grand Tower.[5]

The design of the main tower of Lakhta Center project inherited the design of the main tower of the project Okhta Center, which was succeeded by the project Lakhta Center upon the decision of Gazprom and the city of Saint Petersburg to relocate the project of Gazprom's new headquarters in December 2010. The design development of Lakhta Center is being undertaken by Russian architectural and engineering companies Gorpoekt and ViPS.

In 2008, Arabtec, the construction company involved in the construction of the world’s tallest building in Dubai, won a contract to build this 60 billion ruble ($2.56 billion) complex.[6]

The interior design of the most objects of the Lakhta Center will be made by international Exclusiva Design Srl Bureau, which has won an open contest for the designing of the public zones of the Lakhta Center in 2014. According to the concept proposed by Exclusiva Design Srl, Lakhta Center's interiors will be designed in futuristic style.[7]

At the stage of construction approximately 3 thousand people will be employed. Most of them are from the professional spheres connected to buildings' design and construction. After the construction is completed it is expected to employ a few thousand workers of different occupations in Lakhta Center complex.[8]

Lakhta Center: Key Characteristics[edit]

In Lakhta Center there will be:

Hotel will be located in the south part of the complex right near the tower.[10] Along with 200 rooms it will include a number of conference halls which will be constructed and equipped in order to meet all the requirements of holding modern public events. The conference halls' interiors will be selected from projects of young architects participating in the "Archichance" contest.[11] 100 people will be employed by the hotel. Recently it was announced that the hotel will be made according to the standards applied to 4-star hotels and will be operated by Crowne Plaza Hotels, a member of InterContinental Hotels Group.[12]

  • Sport center with indoor and outdoor skating rings
  • Children's scientific center and museum[13]

Center of Amusing Science with total area of more than 7000 square metres will be situated in the Lakhta Center's North and South buildings.[14] The concept of the Center of Amusing Science was worked out in collaboration with specialists from the Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.[15] In the South Building it is planned to place an exploratorium type exposition with interactive showpieces. The exposition will be divided to the zones organized according to the participants' age. In the North building there will be a scientific center. These two centers are to be connected by the bridge. This two-stage composition is aimed at waking up and maintaining of the interest in science in young generations.[16][17] In December, 2015 a contract about the joint construction of the scientific center "Mir Nauki" ("The World of Science") between Saint Petersburgh administration and Gazprom Company was signed. After its opening in 2017 the Center will be included to ECSITE - European Network of Science Centers and Museums.[18]

  • Innovation area for exhibition of scientific achievements of technical universities[19]
  • Planetarium[20]

The Planetarium is to be situated in the upper part of the building which directly sides the tower. Planetarium's capacity is 140 people. The place will be equipped with up-to-date optic instruments and computers. It will allow to organize events both of entertaining and educational kind.[21]

  • Medical center with pediatric unit
  • Multifunctional auditorium

Multifunctional auditorium is designed to be appropriate for holding both business and entertainment events. It will be possible to use the auditorium as one big hall or to transform it into two smaller ones. The design of the auditorium makes it possible to regulate the height of the walls and seatings, remove or add seating places. [22][23]

The total area of the scene of the amphitheater will make 1495 square meters. Amphitheater's capacity will be 2 thousand people.[24]

  • Cinema

Cinema with the total area of 2600 square metres will consist of five cinema halls of different capacity. There will be two standard cinema halls for the audience of 130-150 people, one small hall with 49 seats and one VIP hall with 53 chairs. It is also planned to build a 3D cinema hall. The cinema will be equipped with its own high-speed elevators.[25]

  • Observation deck

The free public observation deck will be located on the uppermost floor of the tower, at the 378m height. The deck will be constructed with 360 degree viewing angle and is to be equipped with modern telescopes. These telescopes are able to work and show the city view in any weather conditions and to be equipped with an interactive map of Saint Petersburg to provide the visitors with information about city's sightseeings at the moment of observation. The deck is planned to be open for visitors in the daytime as well as at night[26][27]

  • Panoramic restaurant, cafes

[28]

  • Exhibition areas
  • Shop gallery
  • Recreation area[29]

Features of Design[edit]

Interior of the Lakhta Center
  • A box-type foundation consisting of two massive structures, each being one floor high, will be the base of the tower. The bottom of the foundation will be located at the depth of 20m.[30] The box-type foundation is mounted on 264 piles, 2m in diameter and 82m of length each.[31]
  • In the basis of the construction there is a reinforced concrete core in which all the vertical communications like pipes and cables are placed. Besides the structural strength of the skyscraper is provided by outrigger columns owing to which stability of the building will remain even if 30% of all the bearing structures is removed. Outrigger trusses are placed within approximately each 70 metres throughout the entire height of the building.[32]
  • In order to provide a high bearing capacity of the building there are 4 outrigger transitions contemplated in the project. These "high-altitude foundations" will let distribute the weight of the tower and compensate the impact of wind load. On each outrigger transition will lean 14 above floors.[33]
  • All in all, 2080 piles are used in the construction out of which 264 piles are under the Tower, 848 piles are under the mixed-use building and 968 are mounted under the stylobate.
  • Two types of piles are used in the construction of the box foundation of the Tower. Under the core of the building where pressures are maximal 65m long piles will be mounted. Piles of 55 m long will be mounted along the perimeter of the building. It is so in order to compensate the forming of the "bowl-like" deformation due to which the yielding in the center of the construction is more than along the edges. The bearing capacity of each pile is 5,000 tons while live load of each pile is 2,500 tons.[34]
  • The total length of the piles under the Tower makes up 15,800 metres. The total load on the pile foundation (the weight of the Tower) is 670,000 tons.[34]
  • Several randomly chosen piles were tested for durability in so-called "O-cell" (or Ostenberg cell). This system of calibrated hydraulic jacks, integrated within one module allows to simulate the load which each of the tested piles will have in reality.[35]
  • Piles' integrity is checked up by the ultrasound test. Four ultrasonic sensors are placed along the whole length of the pile. The data received allows to understand whether there are any laminations inside the pile. Besides constructors constantly monitor the level of soil settlement under the piles' base using the pressure sensors placed inside the special holes.[36]
  • One of the important parts of the building foundation will be the diaphragm wall. It will hold the walls of the foundation pit with a help of a thrust disk system. Bearing members of the tower foundation will go 82m under the ground.
  • Due to the specific design of the tower - the building is constantly "twisting" around its center - from 189 000 metallic structures and tie beams only two are the same. All other elements differ from each other by 3 degrees.[37]
  • Unique facade structures and window units from cold-bent glass are to be used in order to point out a smooth shape of the tower. Such a quantity of unique facade glass will be used for the first time. The total area of the facades of the mixed-used building makes up 60,000 square meters.[38]
  • In order to calculate the wind load on the future Lakhta Center's building specialists from Canada and Russia placed the model of the building into the wind tunnel. So, the wind load on the facade and the core of the construction were counted up. It was found out that the wind load changes in accordance to the height of the building and makes up from 300 to 500 Pascal (unit).[39]
  • According to the project, there will be 34 elevators in the tower, but only some of them will go to the topmost floor. The mixed-use building will be equipped with 62 elevators. Besides these elevators there will be special firefighters lifts constructed to be used in case of emergency. Total capacity of all elevators makes up 1280 people. Express shuttle up to the observation deck will have a velocity of 8 m/sec.[40]
  • Lakhta Center's foundation is going to be concreted continuously in round-the-clock mode. Constructors plan to pour 24 thousand cubic metres in 48 hours. The volume of concrete to be poured under the mixed-use building near the tower is 48 thousand cubic metres. This volume is large enough to claim to be included in the Guinness Book of Records.[41]
  • Around 400,000 cu.m.of concrete will be used for Lakhta Center's construction. During the first stage of foundation concreting 8,500 cu.m. of concrete will be used.[42]
  • Lakhta Center is designed with a high margin of safety, which exceeds general international standards. This skyscraper might stand still on one core even if all ten supportive columns collapsed. Besides the core structure has the highest fire rating (REI240). The properties of the structure will be able to stand 4 hour fire without any change.[43]
  • The Tower foundation geo-monitoring system consists of 2619 transducers out of which 2136 are box foundation force transducers. There are also 10 transducers of pressure under the box foundation and 336 strain gauges in pile shafts. The monitoring system also includes 40 soil pore pressure transducers and 95 soil mass vertical displacements transducers in measuring wells.[34]
  • It is planned to construct buildings only at 30% of the whole area of the Center. The rest of the territory will be granted for the public needs[44]
  • The main entrance in Lakhta Center is designed as an arch. The height of the arch is almost 24m. The length is 98m.

Innovations[edit]

  • Fire-fighting system

In order to provide more effective fire-fighting a water mist suppression system will be used. When the temperature exceeds 57 °C sprinklers creating a water mist will start working automatically. Along with the sprinklers there will be drenchers which could be switched on manually or by the means of remote control in order to create a water curtain if there is a need. This system allows to reduce the fire spread velocity by 2-5 times as well as lessen the damage from water on equipment and materials. Absorption of carbon monoxide and soot as well as the reduction of the level of oxygen is achieved by the high cooling effect of mist spraying. Besides special elevators capable to work in the cases of emergency and smoke proof stairs will be constructed.[45] Fire-fighting pumping station will be located in the stylobate of the building and consists of fire tank and water boosters.

  • Facade maintenance system

A system of hoisting mechanisms is tailor-made for Lakhta Center Tower to clean and repair its glazed facades. This system takes into consideration the peculiar properties of the building of a twisted and convex shape. An innovative system of fixing cradles of industrial climbers will allow to clean the facade of Lakhta Center safely and effectively. 300mm in diameter and approximately 500m long rails will be mounted to all the 15 ribs of the tower. Platforms with cradles will be placed on these rails. One of the advantages of this system is that it allows to change glass packs easier which is usually quite a problem for such complicated buildings. The system was worked out especially for Lakhta Center and has no analogues in the world at the moment.[46] A smart snow removal system is designed, PETD impulse method[47] will be applied.

  • Kinetic energy

Level of consumption of material and energetic resources is going to be decreased due to conversion of kinetic energy of Center workers and visitors' steps to electric energy. It is planned to illuminate the courtyard of the future complex using this energy.[48]

  • Ice formation control system

While working on the project of Lakhta Center ice formation control system was also considered. Lakhta Center is going to be the first skyscraper in the North Western region using such kind of system. At different heights, different ice formation control systems will be used. Heating of the glass at high floors will prevent ice formation and help maintain good visibility. Double glazing will minimize the difference of temperatures inside and outside the building. The spire of the Tower will be made from metal gauze because it will not let the thick layer of ice to form in winter. It is also planned to cover the whole building with special formulations aiming at preventing its contact with ice.[49]

  • Waste disposal system

A vacuum waste disposal system which is a modern pneumatic waste collection and transportation system will be used. It improves hygiene, prevents from infection, insects and rodent, mold and unpleasant smell, reduces CO2 emissions. During the waste disposal process wastes will be sorted, pressed and then supplied for further recycling. The total waste quantity of Lakhta Center mixed-use complex is 3,433,498 tons per year.

  • Smart lighting

Lighting of the facade will be made using the pixel technology. The colour of the lighting will be changed according to the time of the day and the season. In the periods of birds' migration special illumination will be used.[50]

"Green" and Energy-saving Technologies[edit]

While designing Lakhta Center several "green" and energy-saving technologies were planned for further application. They are

  • Double facade. Usage of double glazing will help to increase the level of thermal insulation, which allows to reduce costs for heating and conditioning.
  • Usage of the excess heat generated by working technical equipment for the heating of premises.
  • Usage of equipment with reduced noise level along with noise suppressors, sound-proof curtain walls and floating floors.
  • Usage of economical infrared radiators.
  • Usage of contactless sensors or motion detectors for economizing electric energy and water.
  • Mounting of the systems supporting the optimal level of temperature and humidity inside the building.
  • Constructing of the ice storages which will accumulate up to 1000 tons of ice at night for air conditioning during the daytime. It will help to reduce the differences in the usage of electricity during the night and day periods. It also allows to shorten expenditures on electric power on the account of the differences in tariffs for day and night usage of electricity. As the cooling of the building is to be made using accumulative ice generators it will be possible to save on electricity expenditures up to 13 thousand rubles a day.
  • In support to the World Wide Fund for Nature and FLAP's (Fatal Light Awareness Program) "Bird - Friendly Building Program", Lakhta Center's illumination will be designed so to make the building bird-safe especially in the periods of migration of birds (autumn, winter). The system of the illumination intensity and color change is under development at the moment.[51][52]
  • Due to the peculiarities of the highly humid and windy climate in the North Western region of Russia the possibility of icing up of buildings is relatively high. In order to prevent complete icing up of the spire of the Lakhta Center's tower engineers changed glassing to the metal gauze.[53]

All in all, while constructing Lakhta Center approximately 100 innovations are to be used. It lets increase the indexes of energy saving by 40% compared to the buildings where standard technologies are in use.[54] Okhta Center project entered to a list of "10 most ecological skyscrapers in the world" made up by the Consumer Energy Report. Experts say that the same status may be assigned to Lakhta Center because it will provide even better power efficiency.[55][56]

In experts' opinion, period of recoupment of using green and energy-saving technologies in Lakhta Center may be at about 20 years though Lakhta Center's Projection department's specialists think that this figure is a bit overestimated.[57]

Prehistory of Construction[edit]

On November 15, 2005, Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller and Saint Petersburg governor Valentina Matviyenko announced the intention of Sibneft to build the Gazprom City Business center. The plans included a 300-metre-high skyscraper with its headquarters on the right bank of the Neva River 59°56′37.6″N 30°24′27.1″E / 59.943778°N 30.407528°E / 59.943778; 30.407528 (original site), across from the Smolny Cathedral, despite the fact that current regulations forbid construction of a building of more than 42 (48 with expert approval) metres high there. The plans were later revised to increase the height of the skyscraper to more than 400 metres.

On March 20, 2006, Gazprom and the city signed an agreement under which Sibneft agreed to pay 20 billion rubles of taxes to the city annually after moving there, which was supposed to occur in the near future, while St. Petersburg agreed to allocate 60 billion rubles during ten years for the project's construction.[58]

On December 1, 2006, Gazprom and the city authorities announced, live on television, that British architectural firm Robert Matthew Johnson Marshall Ltd., had been chosen to build the center by a committee consisting of four foreign architects, four representatives of the St. Petersburg City Administration, including Matviyenko herself, and representatives of Gazprom: Alexei Miller, Valery Golubev (Deputy CEO Gazprom, Head of the Department for Construction and Investment of Gazprom, former Head of the Vasileostrovsky Administrative District of St. Petersburg) and Alexander Ryazanov (President of Gazprom Neft, fired on November 17 during the competition). In fact, three of the four architects, namely Norman Foster, Rafael Viñoly and Kisho Kurokawa, retired from the jury before it convened, opposing all of the shortlisted designs because of their height.[59] The construction of the entire Gazprom City was supposed to be completed by 2016.

The proposed twisting tower is inspired by a Swedish fortress named Landskrona (not to be confused with the town of that name), which occupied the original Okhta site in the early 14th century, and another fortress Nyenschantz on the site until the 18th century in the form of a five-sided star to maximize views for defensive purposes.[60] The inspiration for the design also comes from energy in water, with the building form deriving its shape from the changing nature of water and ever changing light. It gives a new interpretation to the historical fortresses with modern aesthetics and technology - transparency and democracy, internal and external interactions. It also features a unique environmental strategy, which acts as a low energy double-layered skin of the tower allowing maximum daylight and minimum heat loss in the extreme climate of the city.[61]

In March 2007 the project was renamed from Gazprom City to Okhta Center (after the river of Okhta). It was also decided that Gazprom Neft would allocate 51% of funds for the construction project, while city budget would account for only 49%.[62]

In late 2008, St. Petersburg Governor Valentina Matviyenko introduced an amendment into the city budget, delaying investment in the Okhta Center for the first half of 2009. The reason was due to the current financial crisis.[63]

In December 2010, Governor Matviyenko announced that the project plan on the Okhta site was abandoned and will be built in the suburbs.[64] The new planned site is farther from the historic center of St. Petersburg, on the northern shore of the Neva Bay (Gulf of Finland). This site is on the Primorskoye Highway (Приморское Шоссе), in the Lakhta area of the Primorsky District, northwest of Vasilyevsky Island.[65]

Construction of the project at the Lakhta site is supposed to resolve the conflicts that previously existed with the city's laws concerning cultural preservation. Some aspects of the design, including the height of the skyscraper, may need to be adjusted in accordance with the engineering and geologic characteristics of the new site.[66]

Planning and Construction[edit]

10 March 2011 Gazprom bought a site of 140 thousand square metres for the construction of the business center at Lakhtinsky prospect, 2.[67][68] 18 March 2011 press office of Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC informed that it received from The Committee of State Control, Usage and Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments in Saint Petersburg the document stating that there were no any historical or cultural restrictions on the territory of the site in Lakhta.[69]

In April, 2011 it was declared that the architectural concept of Lakhta Center was to be created on the basis of the Okhta Center's project.[70] Along with this it became known that Lakhta's soils were appropriate for constructing a building of 500 metres high which let engineers significantly decrease costs of foundation construction.[71]

24 June 2011 public hearing on the Lakhta Center project was held. Tony Kettle, that time International Group Design Director at RMJM presented the conceptual design of Lakhta Center's architecture as well as the data of the research showing how a high storey building may affect Saint Petersburg's panoramas. Public hearing participants were mostly interested in knowing how the construction would influence vehicular traffic, ecology and historical appearance of Saint Petersburg.[72] Center's investors highlighted that project involved many ecologic innovations and it was planned to try-out to construct the first energy efficient district on the territory of the site of Lakhta Center.[73] Despite all Commersant newspaper stated that most of the public was against the construction and there were many rejections and reprimands submitted for the public hearing protocol.[74]

External video
Laktha Center's presentation at the public hearing 24 June, 2011. Animation film demonstrating the impact of Lakhta Center on Saint Petersburg's historical views.

5 October 2011 Gorproekt CJSC (Russia) was announced as the contractor for working out project's design documentation. According to the plan presented by Gorproekt CJSC skyscraper and auxiliary buildings were to be designed in spring, 2012 and stylobate part was to be engineered in summer, 2012.[75]

26 January 2012 it became known that Gazprom was planning to build a new harbour for yachts near Lakhta Center and Krestovsky Island. A new company for managing these sea assets was to be created.[76]

16 March 2012 it was announced that a new metro station was to be constructed near Lakhta Center. This metro station's building was included in the City development plan of Leningrad in 1980 but only with Lakhta Center construction it again entered the agenda. The plan of the metro station's construction was to be finalized by the end of 2012.[77]

18 July 2012 companies chosen for geodesic and ecologic investigations on the site were announced. They were Trest GRII JSC (Russia) for geodesic and Petrochim-Technologiya, LLC (Russia) for ecologic investigations.[78]

External video
«Lakhta Center. Architectural Concept.». Animation film about architecture of Lakhta Center»

17 August 2012 the permit for construction of the first stage of Lakhta Center, which included skyscraper and stylobate was obtained.[79] 31 August 2012 the public hearing on the topic of the layout and surveying of the site of the Lakhta Center was held in the administration of the Primorsky district of Saint Petersburg. Objects planned for placing in the area of construction, scheme of communications and transportation infrastructure were presented to the public. Besides, representatives of the Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC answered the questions of people.[80]

12 September 2012 "Okhta" CJSC signed a contract with Dubai company Arabtec Holding for carrying out some of the underground cycle works. The company is supposed to construct a diaphragm wall and pile footing for the tower. Contractual time is 28 months, its value is 95 million euro.[81]

In October, 2012 the zero cycle works has been started. Zero cycle consists of the pit excavation, installation of the disk system, piling under the tower, multifunctional building and stylobate and construction of the foundation itself.[82]

22 April 2014 the main potential general contractor for the construction of Lakhta Center was selected. It was Turkish Renaissance Construction company.[83] 22 May 2014 the contract for the construction of the foundation of one of the buildings in Lakhta Center was finally signed. Construction is to be completed in 7 months.[84]

8 September 2014 the final cost of the design and construction of the zero cycle of Lakhta Center was announced. The cost made up 200 billion dollars.[85]

Chronology of Construction[edit]

Lakhta Center Construction Time Schedule
  • March, 2013 - zero cycle works are in process. Piles are being installed.[86] According to the schedule of construction diaphragm wall is to be completed by the end of April while piling works will continue up to 15 August 2013.[87]
  • July, 2013 - mounting of the 264 piles under the box-type foundation has been finished. Excavation of foundation pit is in the process.[88]
  • September, 2013 - total area of the site is announced to be increased from 330 to 400 thousand square meters due to the extension of the size of the parking by 700 parking places.[89]
  • October, 2013 - construction of box-type foundation has been started. According to the plan this part of the work is to be finished in 2014.[90]
  • December, 2013 - mounting of the concrete disks to the diaphragm wall has started. Disks are to provide the diaphragm wall with more resistance to outside ground pressure.[91]
  • April, 2014 - construction of foundation pit for the skyscraper is over.[92]
  • June, 2014 - piling is totally completed. 264 piles were mounted for the tower of Lakhta Center, 848 piles were mounted for the mixed-use building and entrance arch and 968 piles were mounted for the stylobate (undergroung parking). All in all 2080 piles were dug in.[93]
  • September, 2014 - excavation of the foundation pit for the mixed-use building has been finished. Foundation concreting has started.
  • February - March, 2015 - the pouring of the bottom slab of the box shaped foundation of Center's high-rise building is over. 19,624 cubic meters of concrete were cast in the foundation.[94]

Key Contractors[edit]

  • Arabtec (UAE) — underground cycle
  • Bauer Group (Germany) — piling
  • Gorproekt CJSC (Russia) — design documentation
  • Geostroy CJSC (Russia) — diaphragm wall installation
  • NIIOSP (Russia) — investigation of the bearing soil of the high-rise building foundations
  • Petrochim-technologiya LLC (Russia) — ecologic investigations
  • Arup Group Limited (Great Britain) — verification calculation for the underground part, foundation pile base and the superstructure
  • Trest GRII JSC (Russia) — geodesic investigations[95]
  • Renaissance Construction (Turkey) — construction of the foundation of one of the buildings[96]
  • AECOM (USA) — project management[97]
  • Samsung C&T (Korea) — development of the working documentation on the whole complex; optimization of processes and works completion dates[98]
  • Bovis Land Lease — technical supervision[99]
  • Inforsproekt CJSC (Russia) — working out the constructional parts of the project for the tower
  • Beaton CJSC — concrete production
  • Lujabeton LLC (Finland) — concrete production
  • Betomix CJSC (Finland) — concrete production[100]

Transportation Development in Lakhta District due to the Construstion of Lakhta Center[edit]

Lakhta Center's construction raises a problem of transportation development because of the expected growth of the traffic flow in the region. Two traffic circles are to be built near Lakhta Center. These will be one of the stages of the construction of the future М32А highway. The design of two traffic circles is pending approval of GlavGosExpertisa of Russia and the construction is expected to be started as early as this year.[101] The construction of new 32nd and 49th highways will lay the foundations of the solution of traffic congestion near Lakhtinsky Razliv. By going in parallel to the Ring Road, it will transverse the Western Speed Diameter and closes onto Suzdalsky prospect. The extension of the road lane at the road police station owing to the extension of Suvalovsky prospect and the construction of a road junction will finally resolve the issue of traffic communication in this area. A free entrance and exit to the area of a new business center will facilitate a new road junction which has access to all the large highways. This will allow forming convenient transport routes in advance connecting the future business district with an administrative center and other districts of the city.[102] In the nearest plans of the city administration are the launch of the light rail line from the Finland Railway Station to Lakhta Center and new tram line from Primorskaya underground station. It is also planned to build a new underground station with the working title of "Lakhta".[103]

It is planned to build three pedestrian paths as well. One of them will be a pedestrian underpath connecting Lakhta Center with the new subway station. Two others are to connect mixed-use complex with a public transport stop and a pier.[104]

Saint Peterburg's government plans to build 600m long bicycle paths near the Center, and Lakhta Center in its turn will provide 90 parking places for bicycles.[105][106]

Public Attitude[edit]

Alexei Miller claimed that he is "positive that St. Petersburg’s citizens will be proud of these new architectural masterpieces."[107] However, the Director of the Hermitage Museum, Mikhail Piotrovsky, along with numerous civil groups, has spoken out against the plan of Okhta Center. The Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation has also been reported to object to the tower's plan.[108] The Saint Petersburg Union of Architects also voiced opposition to it in July 2006, as did many other citizens.[109] In October 2009, about 3,000 people protested against the tower in St. Petersburg, arguing that it would spoil the city's historic skyline.[108]

As the historical centre of St. Petersburg has become a World Heritage Site since 1990; The World Heritage Committee opposed the construction of the 400-metre tower of Okhta Center as it will affect the cityscape of historic Saint Petersburg.[110] In December 2006 UNESCO World Heritage Centre Director Francesco Bandarin reminded Russia about its obligations to preserve it and expressed concern over the project.[111] In 2007, the World Monuments Fund placed the historic skyline of St. Petersburg on its 2008 Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites due to the potential construction of the building, and in 2009 reported that the tower "would damage the image of Russia."[112] During the 36 session of the The World Heritage Committee of UNESCO held in Saint Petersburg in 2012 it was stated that a large area of Saint-Petersburg falls within preservation and buffer zones provided for UNESCO World Heritage Sites. That is why it is good for the city that the Okhta Center, which had been planned by Gazprom in front of Smolny Cathedral was moved to Lakhta.[113] Eleonora Mitrofanova, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to UNESCO noticed that the approved construction project for Lakhta Center is located far from the buffer zone and the historical center, so in theory Gazprom is not even obliged to ask UNESCO. However, the government authorities will definitely have consultations for the project with UNESCO. Now we are working to clarify the boundaries of the World Heritage zone and the boundaries of the buffer zone.[114]

The project being moved to Lakhta didn't stop the discussions. On April 11, 2012, ex-governor of St. Petersburg and now Federation Council chairwoman Valentina Matvienko said to journalists that the "Lakhta center could become a new symbol of the city and attract the businessmen from all over the world to St. Petersburg."[115]

During his visit to Russia in 2011 the Chairman of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Professor Sang-Dae Kim was treated to a presentation of a project of Lakhta Center. Professor Kim commented on the “modern shape” of the proposed Lakhta Centre, which according to him had “nothing in common with ordinary boxes”.[116] He also stated that something new ought to be created, which can be shown to new generations in 200–300 years as for them what is created nowadays will be the same history as the architecture of the 18-19th centuries for us today. Professor also noticed that the project reminds him of an oriental concept Yin Yang: on the one hand, the historic part of the city with horizontal buildings and water, and on the other hand, a vertical which will add additional charm to the city. Lakhta Center combines an interesting form and modern technologies, so up to Mr. Kim, with the lapse of time the Center can become a new symbol of Saint Petersburg.[117]

On May 16, 2012, St. Petersburg governor Georgiy Poltavchenko emphasised in his annual report for House of Assembly the necessity of building a new "city" in St. Petersburg. According to Mr Poltavchenko, there are three appropriate districts for that: Lakhta center, Pulkovo and aggradated territories near Waterfront.[118]

Visualization[edit]

Construction Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lakhta Center Website, Концепция проекта". Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  2. ^ "Federal Air Transport Agency Authorization" (PDF). 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  3. ^ "Lakhta Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, '100 Future tallest buildings in the world'". Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  5. ^ Largest Continuous Concrete Pour
  6. ^ "Okhta Center Tender Closed | The St. Petersburg Times | The leading English-language newspaper in St. Petersburg". Sptimes.ru. 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  7. ^ (Russian) Интерьеры для "Лахта-центра" разработают итальянцы Exclusiva Design Srl
  8. ^ Строительство "Лахта-центра" откроет новые возможности для петербургских профессионалов
  9. ^ (Russian)К бизнесу подселяют отели
  10. ^ "Лахта-центр". Объекты комплекса
  11. ^ Лахта-Ольгино. Петербургские студенты создадут интерьеры для "Лахта-центра"
  12. ^ (Russian)Небоскреб «Лахта центр»: по этажу в неделю
  13. ^ (Russian)В «Лахта-центре» создадут научный музей, не уступающий нидерландскому NEMO
  14. ^ Лахта-центр. Развивающий центр для детей
  15. ^ Наследники "Дома занимательной науки" подарили Смольному концепцию Центра-эксплуаториума
  16. ^ Лахта Ольгино. Новости о Лахта-центре. Интервью профессора Стафеева С.К.
  17. ^ Невское время. Городу сделают прививку "перельманита"
  18. ^ В Петербурге появится центр науки и техники для детей
  19. ^ (Russian)Совет ректоров предложил «Лахта-центру» дополнить детский центр инновационной площадкой для вузов
  20. ^ (Russian)Планетарий в виде шара появится в петербургском «Лахта центре»
  21. ^ Lakhta Center.Planetarium
  22. ^ Lakhta Center. Objects complex.
  23. ^ В «Лахта-центре» будет гостиница, планетарий, концертный зал и медцентр
  24. ^ Лахта-центр. Инфографика
  25. ^ Lakhta Center.Cinema
  26. ^ Lakhta Center.Observation deck
  27. ^ Смотровую площадку Лахта-центра оборудуют цифровыми интерактивными телескопами
  28. ^ Lakhta Center. Panoramic restaurant
  29. ^ (Russian)«Лахта-центр» выиграет по функционалу
  30. ^ “Underground Cycle” Works
  31. ^ Новости о Лахта центре на сайте МО «Лахта-Ольгино»
  32. ^ (Russian)Skyscrapers are changing public conscience|Небоскрёбы меняют сознание социума
  33. ^ Александр Бобков: «Лахта-центр» вынырнет из земли через 22 месяца
  34. ^ a b c Lakhta Center: Tower Foundation
  35. ^ Небоскреб на «коробке»
  36. ^ Фундамент «Лахта центра» — сверхпрочное основание небоскреба
  37. ^ (Russian)Такой же башни в мире нет
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ Лахта центр. На какие ветровые нагрузки рассчитан?
  40. ^ Небоскрёбы меняют сознание социума
  41. ^ (Russian)Construction director of Lakhta Center Elena Morozova: "We will become record-holders due to the volume of concrete poured"
  42. ^ В середине декабря начнется заливка фундамента первого здания "Лахта Центра"
  43. ^ Как строится «Лахта-центр» в Санкт-Петербурге
  44. ^ Елена Морозова, директор по строительству проекта «Лахта центр», о строительстве самого высокого в Европе делового центра: «Небоскреб не элитная и замкнутая „вещь в себе“, а открытый для всех комплекс»
  45. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино Об инновациях в "Лахта центре"
  46. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино Операция "Чистый небоскреб". Как это будут делать в Лахта центре
  47. ^ A high-tech way to defrost
  48. ^ (Russian)"Зеленое строительство" в Петербурге: энергия шагов осветит "Лахта-центр"
  49. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино. Лахта-центр: под контролем
  50. ^ (Russian)Lakhta Center Skyscraper Continues to Surprise with its Technologies
  51. ^ (Russian)Интервью с Юлией Гуляк
  52. ^ (Russian)Lakhta Center is eager to make friends with birds
  53. ^ Специальные ледовые генераторы позволят "Лахта центру" экономить до 13 тыс. руб. в сутки на электроэнергии
  54. ^ Lakhta Center. Power efficiency
  55. ^ Доработкой проекта «Лахта-центра» займется английская компания RMJM
  56. ^ Концепцию проекта «Охта центра» адаптируют под Лахту
  57. ^ (Russian)Интервью Юлии Гуляк
  58. ^ "Ъ-Газета - Парус им в руки". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  59. ^ Gazprom jury walk-out by Ellen Bennett, Building Design, the Architects' Website, December 8, 2006
  60. ^ Birch, Amanda (2008-08-08). "RMJM’s Russian odyssey | Technical | Building Design". Bdonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  61. ^ "Okhta Centre, Russia". RMJM. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  62. ^ ""Газпром-Сити" переименовали". Realty.lenta.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  63. ^ "Crisis Puts Gazprom Skyscraper In Doubt | News | The Moscow Times". Moscowtimes.ru. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  64. ^ 4/08/2012+29°C (2010-07-22). "Gazprom tower to be moved from central St. Petersburg | RUSSIA". The Moscow News. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  65. ^ "The Site at Primorskoye Highway". Ohta-center.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  66. ^ Shiryaevskaya, Anna (August 5, 2011). "Gazprom Neft Awarded Approval to Build St. Petersburg Skyscraper". Bloomberg. 
  67. ^ «Газпром» приобрел новый участок под «Охта центр» в Петербурге
  68. ^ ОДЦ «Охта»: Параметры нового проекта пока не определены
  69. ^ КГИОП разрешил «Газпрому» строить «Охта-центр» в Лахте
  70. ^ (Russian)В основу «Лахта-центра» ляжет проект с Охты
  71. ^ (Russian)Новая территория для общественно-делового центра имеет более прочные грунты, что может облегчить возведение высотной доминанты и удешевить строительство
  72. ^ (Russian)В администрации Приморского района состоялись общественные слушания по проекту «Лахта-центра»
  73. ^ (Russian)Петербурге обсудили высоту «Лахта-центра»
  74. ^ (Russian)Ростом вышел. Власти Петербурга согласовали 500-метровую высоту офиса "Газпрома"
  75. ^ (Russian)Проектировать «Лахта-центр» будет «Горпроект»
  76. ^ Газпром сделает из «Ленэкспо» территорию стартапов и яхт
  77. ^ Выход из станции метро «Лахта» будет расположен у старого поста ГИБДД 16.03.2012 13:26
  78. ^ «Лахта-центр» растёт на политике
  79. ^ (Russian)«Лахта-центру» выдано разрешение на строительство
  80. ^ На слушаниях «Лахта-центра» состоялся конструктивный диалог
  81. ^ Первым строителем небоскреба «Газпрома» будет дубайская Arabtec
  82. ^ "Lakhta Center. Project status". Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  83. ^ Potential general constructor selected
  84. ^ Renaissance Construction entered into a contract for the construction of the foundation of one of Lakhta Center buildings
  85. ^ [15 лет в Санкт-Петербурге: «Газпром-девелопмент» http://www.vedomosti.ru/newspaper/article/749821/gazprom-development]
  86. ^ Строительство «Лахта центра» на Skyscraper City
  87. ^ (Russian)Исполнительный директор ОДЦ «Охта» А.Бобков: «В „Лахта-центре“ деловая функция будет дополняться культурно-развивающей»
  88. ^ (Russian)Новости о Лахта центре
  89. ^ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО НУЛЕВОГО ЦИКЛА «ЛАХТА ЦЕНТРА» ОЦЕНИЛИ В $100 МЛН
  90. ^ Работы нулевого цикла на стройплощадке «Лахта центра».
  91. ^ Небоскреб у Финского залива.
  92. ^ Готов котлован для строительства небоскреба «Лахта-центра»
  93. ^ All 2080 Piles in Lakhta Center Foundation
  94. ^ (Russian)Alexey Miller: First floors of the skyscraper in Lakhta will appear this year
  95. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  96. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  97. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  98. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  99. ^ ""Underground Cycle" Works". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-12-25. 
  100. ^ В середине декабря начнется заливка фундамента первого здания «Лахта Центра»
  101. ^ [2]
  102. ^ Дорожную сеть Приморского района реконструируют под «Лахта центр»
  103. ^ Transport Infrastructure Development
  104. ^ (Russian)Общественные слушания
  105. ^ В проекте развязки трассы М-32 и Приморского шоссе предусмотрели велодорожку
  106. ^ Общественные слушания
  107. ^ Experts Slam Giant Gazprom Tower Plan by Evgenia Ivanova, The St. Petersburg Times #1188 (54), July 21, 2006.
  108. ^ a b "Protest over St. Petersburg tower". BBC News. 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  109. ^ Hermitage director joins outcry over city-centre skyscraper plan by Tom Parfitt, The Guardian, November 10, 2006.
  110. ^ UNESCO welcomes backing by President of Russian Federation for the preservation of St Petersburg
  111. ^ UNESCO is worried by Elena Ragozina, Vedomosti #229 (1756), December 5, 2006 (in Russian).
  112. ^ "Russian tower plans cause alarm". BBC News. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  113. ^ 36th session of the Committee of the The World Heritage Committee
  114. ^ Высотка «Лахта-центра» украсит панораму Петербурга со стороны Финского залива — постпред РФ в ЮНЕСКО
  115. ^ ""In the light circle", the interview with Ms.Matvienko at "Echo Moskvy"". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  116. ^ CTBUH Meeting: Russia
  117. ^ Without skyscrapers Russia is the Kremlin and the Red Army
  118. ^ "Poltavchenko: Petersburg needs a new business center and town-planning dictation". Fontanka.ru. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 

External links[edit]