Laki dialect

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This article is about the Iranian languages variety. For the Northeast Caucasian language, see Lak language.
Laki
Lekî
لەکی
Native to Iran
Region Central Zagros
Ethnicity Laks
Native speakers
1 million (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lki
Glottolog laki1244[3]
Linguasphere 58-AAC-aac

Laki[4](لەکی; Lekî) is considered an independent Iranian language[5][6][7] and sometimes as a dialect of Lurish language[8][9][10] or Southern Kurdish.[11][12][13][14] Lexical similarity with Khorramabadi Luristani is 78%, with Persian is 70%, and with Northern Luri is 69%.[1]

Laki is presently spoken in the areas south of Hamadan and including the towns of Nahavand, Tuyserkan, Nursbad, Ilam, Gilan, and Pahla (Pehle), as well as the countryside in the districts of Horru, Selasele, Silakhur, and the northern Aleshtar in western Iran. There are also major Laki colonies spread from Khorasan to the Mediterranean Sea. Pockets of Laki speakers are found in Azerbaijan, the Alburz mountains, the Caspian coastal region, the Khurasani enclave (as far south as Birjand), the mountainous land between Qum and Kashan, and the region between Adiyaman and the Ceyhan river in far western Kurdistan in Anatolia. There are also many Iranian tribes named Lak who now speak other Iranian dialects (or other languages altogether) and are found from Adana to central Anatolia in Turkey, in Daghistan in the Russian Caucasus, and from Ahar to the suburbs of Teheran in Iran.

The syntax and vocabulary of Laki have been profoundly altered by Lurish language, a Southwest Iranic language. The basic grammar and verb systems of Laki are, like other Northwestern Iranian languages especially Kurdish dialects and Zaza-Gorani languages, clearly Northwest Iranic. This relationship is further affirmed by remnants in Laki of the Kurdish grammatical hallmark, the ergative construction. Despite this, Shahsavari based on his linguistics and semantics characteristics concluded that Laki is obviously different from Kurdish.[15]

laki and Ancient Persian[edit]

Ancient Persian English Laki Farsi
mother mādar
ima we ima
awa it aœa ān
baw father bawa pedar
hyat When the hanî[16] zamni ke
hvar sun hœar xorshid
aδa At that time asa ān zaman
tauhmā Seed tûîm toxm
brātā Brother berā barādar
ah is hast,budan
Jani Female žan zan
Xvasura Spouse's family hasûira xānevadeh hamsar
Asrav Tears asr ashk
Varaza Boar verāz gorāz
zān Know zān dān
zamā Groom zœmā dāmād
varkā Lamb vark bare
māung Month māŋ māh
āsen Iron āsen āhan
berz Height barz boland
tāu Heat tāu garmā

Comparison between Laki and some other Kurdish varieties[edit]

Feyli Kelhuri Central Kurdish Northern Kurdish Laki Hawrami English
wehar wehar behar, wehar behar, bihar wehar, vihar wehar spring
tawsan tawsan hawîn, tawsan havîn tawsan hamîn summer
payîz payîz payîz pahîz, payîz payîz payîz autumn
waran waran baran, werişt baran varan, waran, veşt waran, weşt rain
çaw çaw çaw çav çem çem eye
dut dut kiç keç, dot dit, afiret kinaçê girl
kurr kurr kurr kurr kurr kurr boy
gurdalle gurdalle gurçîle gurçik gurdalle wellk kidney
rêwêar rêwêar rêbwar rêbwar, rêwî rêvêar rawyar wayfarer
minall minall minall, mindall zarok ayîl zarolle child
xwem xwem xom ez bi xwe wijim wêm myself
minîş minîş minîş ez jî / min jî minîş minîç me too
keftin keftin kewtin ketin ketin kewtey to fall
xistin xistin hawêştin avêtin aîtin, aîştin - to throw
(mi) hatim (mi) hatim (min) hatim ez hatim (mi) hetim - I came
(mi) xwem/xwerim (mi) xwem/dixwim (min) exwem/dexom ez dixwim (mi) merim/mexwim min meweru I eat
(mi) nan xwardim (mi) nan xwardim (min) nanim xward min nan xuard (mi) nanim hward - I ate the meal
(mi) nan xwem (mi) nan xwem (min) nan dexwim ez nanê di xwum (mi) nane merim/mexwim - I am eating the meal
(mi) nan xwardisim (mi) na xwardêam (min) nanim dexward min nan di xuard (mi) nanme mehward - I was eating the meal
(mi) hatime (mi) hatime (min) hatûme ez hatime (mi) hetime - I have come
(mi) hatoîm (mi) hatoîm (min) hatibûm ez hatibûm (mi) hetoîm - I had come

Comparison between Laki and some other Lurish varieties[edit]

Laki South Lurish Minjai Bakhtiari English Perian Persian transcription
berd/kıçık berd/kuçuk berd berd stone سنگ sang
sē/sia šé/sē black سیاه siyah
čem tye češ ti/tye eye چشم chashm
da/daleke da/dey da/daleke da mother مادر maadar
pet nuft pet nuft nose بینی bini
verza verza verza verza bull گاونر gāve nar
manga maga maga maga cow گاو ماده gave made
jejŭle cilé/cŭlé jejŭ/jejŭle čŭlé Porcupine تشی tashi
agır/awır teš agır/teš teš/agır fire آتش aatash
bìlam bēlum bílam bēlum let me به من اجازه بده be man ejaze bedeh
kur kur kur kur son/boy پسر pesar
dōt/dit duwer/dōder duxter dōder daughter دختر dokhtar
piayēl piayel piaya piayel men مردها mardha
jenēl zenel zenia zenel women زنها zanha
mezg mezg mezg mezg brain مغز maghz
pıšì gulŭ pıšì/gulŭ gulŭ cat گربه gorbeh
gemal kutŭ/seg gemal/sey kutŭ dog سگ sag
bet bet bet bet duck مرغابی morghabi

Laki colors[edit]

Laki Zaza Northern Kurdish Central Kurdish English
ispê, çermê sipî sipî spî white
reş, sê sîya reş reş black
kaû kiho, kewe şîn şîn, kewe blue
sor sûr sor sûr red
suz sewz, kesk, kewe kesk sewz green
hoîl, qehveyî qehweyî qehweyî qaweyî brown
xakî-bur gewr, bor gewr bor gray
zerd zerd zer zerd yellow

Laki calendar[edit]

Mangê lekî
  pence
  mêrêan
  gakûr
  agranî
  mirdar
  male jêr
  male jêr domaêne
  tül tekin
  mange sêe
  niwrûj
  xake lêe
  mang êd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Laki at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/lki
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Laki". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Laki - Kurdish Academy of language
  5. ^ Template:Shahsavari, Faramarz(2010): Laki and Kurdish. Iran and the Caucasus: volume14, Number 1, Pages 79-82
  6. ^ Lakī and Kurdish, Author: Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[1]
  7. ^ Template:یادکرد وب
  8. ^ B. Grimes, (ed.), Luri, in Ethnologues (۱۳th edition), Dallas 1996, p.677
  9. ^ ایزدپناه، ح. : فرهنگ لکی، موسسه فرهنگی جهانگیری، تهران ۱۳۶۷خ، ص ده (مقدمه).
  10. ^ نقل منابع از ایزدپناه، ح. : فرهنگ لکی، موسسه فرهنگی جهانگیری، تهران ۱۳۶۷خ، ص ۱۱
  11. ^ Windfuhr, G. (2009). The Iranian Languages, Routledge, p. 587
  12. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt: Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 2000.
  13. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt (Hg.): Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 1989.
  14. ^ V. Minorsky, "Lak", Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  15. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[2]
  16. ^ Different, "hani» that the Laki and the Lury that means "still".

External links[edit]