Laki dialect

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Laki
Lekî
لەکی
Native to Iran IRAQ Turkey
Region Central Zagros
Ethnicity Laks
Native speakers
1.5 to 2.5 million (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lki
Glottolog laki1244[11]
Linguasphere 58-AAC-aac

Laki About this sound pronunciation  [12](لەکی; Lekî) is a speech variety that is either considered an independent Iranian language,[13][14][15], a dialect of Lurish[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] or a dialect of Southern Kurdish.[9][16][17][18][19][20] Lexical similarity with Khorramabadi Luristani is 78%, with Persian is 70%, and with Northern Luri is 69%.[1]

Laki is presently spoken in the areas south of Hamadan and including the towns of Nahavand, Tuyserkan, kuhdasht, Nursbad, Ilam, Gilan, and Pahla (Pehle), as well as the countryside in the districts of Horru, Selasele, Silakhur, and the northern Aleshtar in western Iran.

The syntax and vocabulary of Laki have been profoundly altered by Lurish language, a Southwest Iranic language. The basic grammar and verb systems of Laki are, like other Northwestern Iranian languages, especially the Zaza–Gorani languages, clearly Northwest Iranian. This relationship is further affirmed by remnants in Laki of the Kurdish grammatical hallmark, the ergative construction. Despite this, Shahsavari based on his linguistics and semantics characteristics concluded that Laki is obviously different from Kurdish.[21]

Laki and Ancient Persian[edit]

Ancient Persian[citation needed] English Kurdish Laki Lurish Farsi
mother dāya daya mādar / māmān
ima we ima ima ima
awa it awa aœa ho/û ān
baw father bãwa bawa bawa pedar / bābā
hyat When the kati ka hanî[22] hanî zamni ke
hvar sun xor/war hœar hurşîd xorşid
aδa At that time awsā asa ûsa ān zaman
tauhmā Seed tōm tûîm tōm toxm
brātā Brother bera berā berār barādar
ah is haya hast
Jani Female žen žan zan zan
Xvasura Spouse's family xazūra hasûira hasîra xānevadeh hamsar
Asrav Tears asrin asr asr ashk
Varaza Boar barāz verāz/tawena verāz gorāz
zān Know zān zān dŭn dān
zamā Groom zamā/zāwā zœmā dœmā dāmād
varkā Lamb barx vark vark bare
māung Month māŋ māŋ māh
āsen Iron āsen āsen āhen āhan
berz Height barz barz barz boland / borz
tāu Heat taw tāw tāu garmā

Comparison between Laki, some other Kurdish varieties, and Persian[edit]

Feyli Kelhuri Central Kurdish Northern Kurdish Laki Hawrami Persian English
wehar wehar behar, wehar behar, bihar wehar, vihar wehar bahar spring
tawsan tawsan hawîn, tawsan havîn tawsan hamîn tabestan,
hāmīn (Middle Persian)
summer
payîz payîz payîz pahîz, payîz payîz , małejêr payîz payîz autumn
waran waran baran, werişt baran varan, waran, veşt waran, weşt bârân rain
çaw çew çaw çav çem çem çašm eye
dut dut kiç/kenîşk/afret keç, dot dit, afiret kinaçê dôxtar girl
kurr kurr kurr kurr koirr kurr pesar boy
gurdalle gurdalle gurçîle gurçik gurdałe , viłk wellk gurde kidney
rêwêar rêwêar rêbwar rêbwar, rêwî rêvêar ,rîwar rawyar ? wayfarer
minall minall minall, mindall zarok ayîl zarolle baçe child
xwem xwem xom ez bi xwe wozhm/wozhem wêm xodam myself
minîş minîş minîş ez jî / min jî minîj ,minîş,minîc minîç man ham me too
keftin keftin kewtin ketin ketin kewtey oftodan to fall
xistin xistin hawêştin avêtin aîtin,azhten,ashten, haîştin - partoftan to throw
(mi) hatim (mi) hatim (min) hatim ez hatim (mi) hetim (min) amam (man) omadam I came
(mi) xwem/xwerim (mi) xwem/dixwim (min) exwem/dexom ez dixwim (mi) merim/mexwim min mewerû (man) xordam I eat
(mi) nan xwardim (mi) nan xwardim (min) nanim xward min nan xuard (mi) nanim hward (min) nanim ward (man) nanam xordam I ate the bread
(mi) nan xwem (mi) nan xwem (min) nan dexwim ez nanê di xwum (mi) nane merim/mexwim (min) nan mewerû (man) daram nan mixoram I am eating the bread
(mi) nan xwardisim (mi) na xwardêam (min) nanim dexward min nan di xuard (mi) nanme mehward - (man) nanam xordam I was eating the bread
(mi) hatime (mi) hatime (min) hatûme ez hatime (mi) hetime (man) omadam I have come
(mi) hatoîm (mi) hatoîm (min) hatibûm ez hatibûm (mi) hetoîm - (man) omade budam I had come

Comparison between Laki and some other Lurish varieties with kormaci alfabet[edit]

Lakî South Lurish Minjai Bakhtiari English Persian Persian transcription
koiçik,san berd / kuçuk berd berd / kuçuk stone سنگ sang
sê / sia šé / sê black سیاه siyah
çem tye češ tî / tye eye چشم chashm
da / daleke da / deî da / dałike da mother مادر maadar
pet nuft pit nuft nose بینی bini
kła ga verza verza verza bull گاونر gāve nar
tate tate tate tate uncle (Father's brother) عمو amu
halû halû halû halû uncle (mother's brother) دایی dayi
çûłê(big) , jijû(small) cilé / cŭlé jejŭ / jejŭle čŭlé Porcupine تشی tashi
agir / awir teš agır / teš teš / agır fire آتش aatash
bîlem ,biylim bêlum bîlam bêlum let me به من اجازه بده be man ejaze bedeh
koir kur kur kur son/boy پسر pesar
dit , afiret duwer/dōder duxter dōder daughter دختر dokhtar
pîayl , pîal pîayel pîaya pîayel men مردها mardha
jinel , jiniyl zenel zenîa zenel/zengel women زنها zanha
dîar dîar dîar dîar evident, obvious مشخص، آشکار moshakhkhas, ashkar
mazg mezg mezg mezg brain مغز maghz
pişî gulŭ pıšî / gulŭ gulŭ cat گربه gorbeh
gemal kutŭ / seg gemal / sey kutŭ dog سگ sag
bet bet bet bet duck مرغابی morghabi

Laki colors[edit]

Laki Minjai Lurish Zaza Northern Kurdish Central Kurdish Persian English
ispê, çermê ispî, sipî sipî sipî spî/çermû sefîd white
reş, sê sîya reş reş sîya black
kaw kaw, kîaw kiho, kewe şîn şîn, kewe ābi blue
soêr sôr sûr sor sûr sôrx / relmez red
sioz sewz sewz, kesk, kewe kesk sewz sabz green
hoiîl, qehviyî qehweyî qehweyî qehweyî qaweyî qahveyî brown
bur xakî-bur gewr, bor gewr bor xāke-stari gray
zerd zerd zerd zer zerd zard yellow

Laki calendar[edit]

Mangê lekî
  pence
  mêrêan
  gakoir
  agranê
  mirdał
  male jêr
  male jêr doimaêne
  tül tekin
  mange sêe
  niorûj
  xake lêe
  mang êd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Laki at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b B. Grimes (ed.), ‘Luri’, in Ethnologue (13th edition) (Dallas, 1996), p. 677; M. Ruhlen, A Guide to the World's Languages (Stanford, 1991), p. 327.
  3. ^ a b ایزدپناه، ح. فرهنگ لکی، مؤسسه فرهنگی جهانگیری، تهران ۱۳۶۷خ، ص ده (مقدمه)
  4. ^ a b "The Lurs of Iran". Cultural Survival. Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  5. ^ a b امان الاهی بهاروند، سکندر. قوم لر. تهران: آتیه، 1393
  6. ^ a b William J. Frawley, William Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics& 4-Volume Set, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8, s. 310.
  7. ^ a b Albrecht Klose, Sprachen der Welt, De Gruyter, 2001, ISBN 978-3-598-11404-5, s. 227.
  8. ^ a b "Ethnologue 14 report for Iraq". 
  9. ^ a b "Laki". Ethnologue. 
  10. ^ Buǧnūrdī, zīr-i naẓar-i Kāẓim Mūsawī (2007). the great Islamic Encyclopedia (1 ed.). Tehran: the center for the great Islamic Encyclopedia. pp. 548, 549. ISBN 978-964-7025-04-1. 
  11. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Laki". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  12. ^ "Laki (Lekí) - Kurdish Academy of Language". 
  13. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz(2010): Laki and Kurdish. Iran and the Caucasus: volume14, Number 1, Pages 79-82
  14. ^ Lakī and Kurdish, Author: Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[1]
  15. ^ فرامرز شهسواری (1394). "ریشه‌شناسی و معناشناسی در زبان لکی". کرمانشاه: طاق بستان. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  16. ^ Windfuhr, G. (2009). The Iranian Languages, Routledge, p. 587
  17. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt: Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 2000.
  18. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt (Hg.): Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 1989.
  19. ^ V. Minorsky, "Lak", Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  20. ^ Hulst, Harry van der; Goedemans, Rob; Zanten, Ellen van (2011). A Survey of Word Accentual Patterns in the Languages of the World. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198966. KURDISH: Central Kurdish, Northern Kurdish, Laki, Southern Kurdish 
  21. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[2]
  22. ^ Different, "hani» that the Laki and the Lurish that means "still".

External links[edit]