Laki language

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Laki
Lekî
لکي
Native toIran, Turkey, Iraq
RegionNahavand, Tuyserkan, Nurabad, Lorestan, Ilam, Gelan, Pahleh, Horru, Selseleh, Silakhor, Aleshtar,[1] Adana[2]
EthnicityLaks
Native speakers
1,000,000 (2000 estimate), including 150,000 monolinguals[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-3lki
Glottologlaki1244[5]
Linguasphere58-AAC-aac

Laki; (لکي, Lekî) is a vernacular that constitutes of two dialects; Pish-e Kuh Laki and Posht-e Kuh Laki.[6] Laki is considered a Kurdish dialect,[3][7][8][9][10][11][12] by most linguists,[4] while others argue that Laki is closely related to Kurdish but refrain from deciding its place among the Northwestern Iranian languages.[6] Laki has also been classified as a Luri dialect, but speakers of Luri claim that Laki is "difficult or impossible to understand".[7] Linguist Shahsavari argues that Laki is sometimes seen as 'a transitional dialect between Kurdish and Luri'.[13]

The classification of Laki as a sub-dialect of Southern Kurdish or as a fourth dialect of Kurdish is unsettled,[4] but the differences between Laki and other Southern Kurdish dialects are minimal.[11] In terms of vocabulary and syntax, Laki has been affected by Luri due to their proximity.[1]

Laki phonology

The phonology of Laki is identical to that of other Southern Kurdish dialects, which diverges from Kurmanji and Sorani by also having the /øː/, /oː/ and /ʉː/[14]

Vowel phonemes[15][14]
  Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close ʉ
ɨ
ʊ
Close-mid øː o
Open-mid ɛ
Open a ɑː

Comparison of cognates

English[6] Laki Kurdish Khorramabadi Luri
salt xöwa xwê nəmak
oil rīn řûn reğo
fire āgör agir taš
go šī, ra čû ra
come hawt hat ōma
fall kat ket oftā
say vöt, gōt got got
hungry vörsönī, versörnī biřčî gosna
here īra vir īčö
there ūra wir ūčö

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Mehrdad Izady (1993). The Kurds : a concise handbook. ISBN 1135844976.
  2. ^ "Kürt Aşiretlerinin Konfederasyonları". Bitlisname. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Laki". Ethnologue.
  4. ^ a b c "Atlas of the Languages of Iran A working classification". Languages of Iran. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Laki". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b c Erik John Anonby. "Kurdish or Luri? Laki's disputed identity in the Luristan province of Iran". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.621.4714. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ a b Anonby, Erik John (29 September 2003). "Update on Luri: How many languages?" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 13 (2): 171–197. doi:10.1017/S1356186303003067. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  8. ^ Gernot Windfuhr (2009). The Iranian Languages. London & New York: Routledge. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-7007-1 131-4.
  9. ^ Hulst, Harry van der; Goedemans, Rob; Zanten, Ellen van (2011). A Survey of Word Accentual Patterns in the Languages of the World. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198966.
  10. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt (2000). Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte (in German). 200. p. 85. ISBN 3895001503.
  11. ^ a b "Lak Tribe". Iranica Online. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  12. ^ Dehqan, Mustafa (2008). "Zîn-ə Hördemîr: A Lekî Satirical Verse from Lekistan". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 18 (3): 295–309. doi:10.1017/S1356186308008523. ISSN 1356-1863. JSTOR 27755955.
  13. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz (2010). "Lakī and Kurdish*". Iran & the Caucasus. 14 (1): 79. doi:10.1163/157338410X12743419189423.
  14. ^ a b Fattah, Ismaïl Kamandâr (2000), Les dialectes Kurdes méridionaux, Acta Iranica, ISBN 9042909188
  15. ^ Mirdehghan, Mahinnaz; Moradkhani, Simin (September 2010). "Personal Pronouns in the Kakavandi Laki Dialect of Harsin (Kermanshah, Iran)". Iranian Studies. 43 (4): 513–531. doi:10.1080/00210862.2010.495569.

Further reading