Laki dialect

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This article is about the Iranian languages variety. For the Northeast Caucasian language, see Lak language.
Laki
Lekî
لەکی
Native to Iran
Region Central Zagros
Ethnicity Laks
Native speakers
1 million (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lki
Glottolog laki1244[2]
Linguasphere 58-AAC-aac

Laki About this sound pronunciation  [3](لەکی; Lekî) is a speech variety that is either considered an independent Iranian language,[4][5][6] a dialect of Lurish[7][8][9] or of Southern Kurdish.[10][11][12][13] Lexical similarity with Khorramabadi Luristani is 78%, with Persian is 70%, and with Northern Luri is 69%.[1]

Laki is presently spoken in the areas south of Hamadan and including the towns of Nahavand, Tuyserkan, Nursbad, Ilam, Gilan, and Pahla (Pehle), as well as the countryside in the districts of Horru, Selasele, Silakhur, and the northern Aleshtar in western Iran. There are also major Laki colonies spread from Khorasan to the Mediterranean Sea. Pockets of Laki speakers are found in Azerbaijan, the Alburz mountains, the Caspian coastal region, the Khurasani enclave (as far south as Birjand), the mountainous land between Qum and Kashan, and the region between Adiyaman and the Ceyhan river in far western Kurdistan in Anatolia. There are also many Iranian tribes named Lak who now speak other Iranian dialects (or other languages altogether) and are found from Adana to central Anatolia in Turkey, in Daghistan in the Russian Caucasus, and from Ahar to the suburbs of Teheran in Iran.

The syntax and vocabulary of Laki have been profoundly altered by Lurish language, a Southwest Iranic language. The basic grammar and verb systems of Laki are, like other Northwestern Iranian languages, especially Kurdish the Zaza–Gorani languages, clearly Northwest Iranian. This relationship is further affirmed by remnants in Laki of the Kurdish grammatical hallmark, the ergative construction. Despite this, Shahsavari based on his linguistics and semantics characteristics concluded that Laki is obviously different from Kurdish.[14]

The sources for the Lurish Origin of Laki is by Izadpanah that he is Lur.

laki and Ancient Persian[edit]

Ancient Persian English Kurdish Laki Lurish Farsi
mother dāya mādar
ima we ima ima ima
awa it awa aœa ho/û ān
baw father bãwa bawa bawa pedar
hyat When the kati ka hanî[15] hanî zamni ke
hvar sun xor/war hœar hurşîd xorshid
aδa At that time awsā asa ûsa ān zaman
tauhmā Seed tōm tûîm tōm toxm
brātā Brother bera berā berār barādar
ah is haya hast,budan
Jani Female žen žan zan zan
Xvasura Spouse's family xazūra hasûira hasîra xānevadeh hamsar
Asrav Tears asrin asr asr ashk
Varaza Boar barāz verāz verāz gorāz
zān Know zān zān dŭn dān
zamā Groom zamā/zāwā zœmā dœmā dāmād
varkā Lamb barx vark vark bare
māung Month māŋ māŋ māh
āsen Iron āsen āsen āhen āhan
berz Height barz barz barz boland
tāu Heat taw tāu tāu garmā

Comparison between Laki and some other Kurdish varieties[edit]

Feyli Kelhuri Central Kurdish Northern Kurdish Laki Hawrami English
wehar wehar behar, wehar behar, bihar wehar, vihar wehar spring
tawsan tawsan hawîn, tawsan havîn tawsan hamîn summer
payîz payîz payîz pahîz, payîz payîz , małejêr payîz autumn
waran waran baran, werişt baran varan, waran, veşt waran, weşt rain
çaw çew çaw çav çem çem eye
dut dut kiç/kenîşk/afret keç, dot dit, afiret kinaçê girl
kurr kurr kurr kurr koirr kurr boy
gurdalle gurdalle gurçîle gurçik gurdałe , viłk wellk kidney
rêwêar rêwêar rêbwar rêbwar, rêwî rêvêar ,rîwar rawyar wayfarer
minall minall minall, mindall zarok ayîl zarolle child
xwem xwem xom ez bi xwe wijim wêm myself
minîş minîş minîş ez jî / min jî minîj ,minîş,minîc minîç me too
keftin keftin kewtin ketin ketin kewtey to fall
xistin xistin hawêştin avêtin aîtin, haîştin - to throw
(mi) hatim (mi) hatim (min) hatim ez hatim (mi) hetim (min) amam I came
(mi) xwem/xwerim (mi) xwem/dixwim (min) exwem/dexom ez dixwim (mi) merim/mexwim min mewerû I eat
(mi) nan xwardim (mi) nan xwardim (min) nanim xward min nan xuard (mi) nanim hward (min) nanim ward I ate the meal
(mi) nan xwem (mi) nan xwem (min) nan dexwim ez nanê di xwum (mi) nane merim/mexwim (min) nan mewerû I am eating the meal
(mi) nan xwardisim (mi) na xwardêam (min) nanim dexward min nan di xuard (mi) nanme mehward - I was eating the meal
(mi) hatime (mi) hatime (min) hatûme ez hatime (mi) hetime I have come
(mi) hatoîm (mi) hatoîm (min) hatibûm ez hatibûm (mi) hetoîm - I had come

Comparison between Laki and some other Lurish varieties with kormaci alfabet[edit]

Lakî South Lurish Minjai Bakhtiari English Perian Persian transcription
berd,koiçik,san berd / kuçuk berd berd / kuçuk stone سنگ sang
sê / sia šé / sê black سیاه siyah
çem tye češ tî / tye eye چشم chashm
da / daleke da / deî da / dałike da mother مادر maadar
pit nuft pit nuft nose بینی bini
kiłe ga verza verza verza bull گاونر gāve nar
tate tate tate tate uncle (Father's brother) عمو amu
halû halû halû halû uncle (mother's brother) دایی dayi
çûłê(big) , jijû(small) cilé / cŭlé jejŭ / jejŭle čŭlé Porcupine تشی tashi
agir / awir teš agır / teš teš / agır fire آتش aatash
bîlem ,biylim bêlum bîlam bêlum let me به من اجازه بده be man ejaze bedeh
koir kur kur kur son/boy پسر pesar
dit , afiret duwer/dōder duxter dōder daughter دختر dokhtar
pîayl , pîal pîayel pîaya pîayel men مردها mardha
jinel , jiniyl zenel zenîa zenel/zengel women زنها zanha
dîar dîar dîar dîar evident, obvious مشخص، آشکار moshakhkhas, ashkar
mezg mezg mezg mezg brain مغز maghz
pişî gulŭ pıšî / gulŭ gulŭ cat گربه gorbeh
gemal kutŭ / seg gemal / sey kutŭ dog سگ sag
bet bet bet bet duck مرغابی morghabi

Laki colors[edit]

Laki Minjai Lurish Zaza Northern Kurdish Central Kurdish English
ispê, çermê ispî, sipî sipî sipî spî/çermû white
reş, sê sîya reş reş black
kaw kaw, kîaw kiho, kewe şîn şîn, kewe blue
soêr sôr sûr sor sûr red
sioz sewz sewz, kesk, kewe kesk sewz green
hoiîl, qehviyî qehweyî qehweyî qehweyî qaweyî brown
xakî-bur xakî-bur gewr, bor gewr bor gray
zerd zerd zerd zer zerd yellow

Laki calendar[edit]

Mangê lekî
  pence
  mêrêan
  gakoir
  agranê
  mirdał
  male jêr
  male jêr doimaêne
  tül tekin
  mange sêe
  niorûj
  xake lêe
  mang êd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Laki at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Laki". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Laki - Kurdish Academy of language
  4. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz(2010): Laki and Kurdish. Iran and the Caucasus: volume14, Number 1, Pages 79-82
  5. ^ Lakī and Kurdish, Author: Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[1]
  6. ^ فرامرز شهسواری (1394). "ریشه‌شناسی و معناشناسی در زبان لکی". کرمانشاه: طاق بستان. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  7. ^ B. Grimes, (ed.), Luri, in Ethnologues (13th edition), Dallas 1996, p.677
  8. ^ ایزدپناه، ح. : فرهنگ لکی، موسسه فرهنگی جهانگیری، تهران ۱۳۶۷خ، ص ده (مقدمه).
  9. ^ نقل منابع از ایزدپناه، ح. : فرهنگ لکی، موسسه فرهنگی جهانگیری، تهران ۱۳۶۷خ، ص ۱۱
  10. ^ Windfuhr, G. (2009). The Iranian Languages, Routledge, p. 587
  11. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt: Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 2000.
  12. ^ Rüdiger Schmitt (Hg.): Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden (Reichert) 1989.
  13. ^ V. Minorsky, "Lak", Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  14. ^ Shahsavari, Faramarz, Source: Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 14, Number 1, 2010 , pp. 79-82(4)[2]
  15. ^ Different, "hani» that the Laki and the Lurish that means "still".

External links[edit]