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King of Malwa
Reignc. 1086 – c. 1094 CE

Lakshmadeva (IAST: Lakṣma-deva, reigned c. 1086-1094 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty, who ruled in the Malwa region of central India.

The Nagpur Prashasti inscription (1104-05 CE) of his successor and younger brother Naravarman describes his achievements. This suggests that Lakshma succeeded his father Udayaditya as the Paramara king. However, H. V. Trivedi believes that Lakshma never became the king, and Udayaditya was succeeded by Naravarman.[1] This is because his name is missing from the list of Paramara kings mentioned in the 1274 Mandhata copper-plate inscription of Jayavarman II. This inscription mentions his Naravarman as the next king after Udayaditya.[2]

The Nagpur Prashasti credits Lakshma with extensive military conquests.[3] These appear to be poetic exaggerations based on the victories of the legendary king Raghu, as described in Raghuvamsa.[4] The inscription states that Lakshma defeated the ruler of Tripuri. This might have some historical basis, as the Kalachuris of Tripuri were weak after the death of their king Karna. Lakshma might have raided Tripuri during the reign of Karna's successor Yashahkarna.[3]

The inscription also states that Lakshma defeated the Turushkas (Turkic people). Based on this, historian D. C. Ganguly speculated that he might have repulsed an attack by Mahmud of Ghazni, who belonged to the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty. This is not correct, as Mahmud died in 1030 CE. Some other historians believe that Lakshma might have defeated a Turkic Muslim governor of Punjab who invaded Ujjain, but this is not corroborated by any other evidence.[3] The Nagpur Prashasti also credits Lakshma with several other victories, including subjugation of the Cholas and the Pandyas. These are poetic exaggerations that do not have any historical basis.[5]

Lakshma was succeeded by his younger brother Naravarman.[6]


  1. ^ Jain 1972, p. 357.
  2. ^ Trivedi 1991, p. 213.
  3. ^ a b c Trivedi 1991, p. 110.
  4. ^ Jain 1972, p. 358.
  5. ^ Jain 1972, pp. 357-358.
  6. ^ Jain 1972, p. 359.


  • Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9.
  • Trivedi, Harihar Vitthal (1991). Inscriptions of the Paramāras, Chandēllas, Kachchapaghātas, and two minor dynasties. Archaeological Survey of India.