Lal Bal Pal
Lal Bal Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal) were a triumvirate of assertive nationalists in British-ruled India in the early 20th century, from 1906 to 1918. They advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods in 1907 during the anti-Partition agitation in Bengal which began in 1905.
The final years of the nineteenth century saw a radical sensibility emerge among some Indian intellectuals. This position burst onto the national all-India scene in 1905 with the Swadeshi movement - the term is usually rendered as "self reliance" or "self sufficiency".
Lal-Bal-Pal mobilized Indians across the country against the Bengal partition, and the demonstrations, strikes and boycotts of British goods that began in Bengal soon spread to other regions in a broader protest against the Raj.
The nationalist movement gradually faded with the arrest of its main leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and retirement of Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh from active politics. While Lala Lajpat Rai suffered from injuries, due to British police superintendent, James A. Scott, ordered the British Indian police to lathi (baton) charge and personally assaulted Rai; he died on 17 November 1928 of a heart attack.
- Erez Manela, The Wilsonian moment: self-determination and the international origins of anticolonial nationalism, Published by Oxford University Press US, 2007, ISBN 0-19-517615-4, ISBN 978-0-19-517615-5
- "Death anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai" (pdf). Government of Orissa. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Lala Lajpat Rai". Government of India. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Smt. Ashalatha A.; Sri. Pradeep Koropath; Smt. Saritha Nambarathil (2009). "Chapter 6 - Indian National Movement". Social Science: Standard VIII Part 1 (PDF). Government of Kerala • Department of Education. State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT). p. 72. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Rai, Raghunath (2006). History For Class 12: Cbse. India. VK Publications. p. 187. ISBN 978-81-87139-69-0.
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