Lamia

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The Lamia (1909),[a] a painting by Herbert James Draper

Lamia (/ˈlmiə/; Greek: Λάμια), in ancient Greek mythology, was a woman (or queen) of Libya who became a child-eating, disfigured monster from grief over her children, all destroyed by the jealous Hera, who learned of her husband Zeus's trysts with her. Hera also afflicted Lamia with sleeplessness to force constant grieving, but Zeus gave her the ability to remove her own eyes. "Lamia" was also used as a bogey word to frighten and discipline children.

In later tradition, the lamiai became a type of phantom, which seduced youths to satisfy their sexual appetite then fed on their flesh afterwards; its names regarded as a synonym or a layman's term for the empusai.

The lamia has also been ascribed serpent-like qualities, which some commentators believe can be firmly traced to antiquity. A Greek account that refers to its lamia as a "snake" has inspired the poem Lamia by Keats. Some analogues from ancient texts designated as lamiai (or lamiae) are also part-serpent monsters.

Etymology[edit]

A scholiast to Aristophanes claimed that Lamia's name derived from her having a large throat or gullet (λαιμός; laimos).[2] Modern scholarship reconstructs a Proto-Indo European stem *lem-, "nocturnal spirit", whence also lemures.[3]

Classical mythology[edit]

In the myth, the Lamia was originally a beautiful woman beloved of Zeus, but after Zeus's jealous wife Hera destroyed all her children,[5] she became disfigured from the torment, transforming into a terrifying being who hunted and killed the children of others.[6]

Myths explain her transformation as a result of Hera's wrath, the pain of grief, the madness that drove her to murder, or—in some rare versions—a natural result of being Hecate's daughter.[7]

Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st century BC) gave an de-mythologized account of Lamia as Queen of Libya who ordered her soldiers to snatch children from their mothers and kill them, and whose beauty gave way to bestial appearance due to her savageness. The queen, as related by Diodorus, was born in a cave.[8][9] Further passing references to Lamia were made by Strabo (i.II.8) and Aristotle (Ethics vii.5). Heraclitus Paradoxographus (2nd century) also gave a rationalizing account.[10]

Lamia's eyes[edit]

According to one myth, Hera deprived Lamia of the ability to sleep, making her constantly grieve over the loss of her children, and Zeus provided relief by endowing her with removable eyes. He also gifted her with a shape-shifting ability in the process.[11][12]

Diodorus's rationalization was that the Libyan Queen in her drunken state was as if she could not see, allowing her citizens free rein to any conduct without supervision, giving rise to the folk myth that she places her eyes in a vessel.[8] Heraclitus's euhemerized account explains that Hera, consort of King Zeus gouged the eyes out from the beautiful Lamia.[13]

Genealogy[edit]

Lamia was the daughter born between King Belus of Egypt and Lybie, according to one source.[b][11]

According to the same source, Lamia was taken by Zeus to Italy, and that Lamos, the city of the man-eating Laestrygonians, was named after her.[11] A different authority remarks that Lamia was once queen of the Laestrygonians.[14][c]

Aristophanes[edit]

Aristophanes wrote in two plays an identically worded list of foul-smelling objects which included the "Lamia's testicles", thus making Lamia's gender ambiguous.[16][d] This was later incorporated into Edward Topsell's 17th century envisioning of the lamia.[17]

It is somewhat uncertain if this refers to the one Lamia, viz. Scholia to the passages whose annotations refer to her,[11] or "a Lamia" among many, as given in some translations of the two plays,[18] and by the definition as some sort of a "wild beast" in the Suda.[19]

Hellenistic folklore[edit]

As children's bogey[edit]

The "Lamia" was a bogeyman or bugbear term, invoked by a mother or a nanny to frighten children into good behavior.[20][21] Such practices are recorded by the 1st century Diodorus,[8] and other sources in antiquity.[11][22]

Numerous sources attest to the Lamia being a "child-devourer", one of them being Horace.[23] Horace in Ars Poetica cautions against the overly fantastical: "[nor should a story] draw a live boy out of a Lamia's belly".[e][24] Lamia was in some versions thus seen as swallowing children alive, and there may have existed some nurse's tale that told of a boy extracted alive out of a Lamia.[25]

As seductress[edit]

In later classical periods, around the 1st century A. D.,[26] the conception of this Lamia shifted to that of a sultry seductress who enticed young men and devoured them.[27][26]

Apollonius of Tyana[edit]

A representative example is Philostratus's novelistic biography Life of Apollonius of Tyana.[27]

It purports to give a full account of the capture of "Lamia of Corinth" by Apollonius, as the general populace referred to the legend.[29] An appartition (phasma φάσμα[30][f]) which in the assumed guise of a woman seduced one of Apollnius's young pupils.

Lamia is the common vulgar term, as empousa appears as the proper term for her in Apollonius speech, stating the seductress is "one of the empousai, which most other people would call lamiai and mormolykeia".[32][28] The use of the term lamia in this sense is however considered atypical by one commentator.[33]

Regarding the seductress, Apollonius further warned, "you are warming a snake (ophis) on your bosom, and it is a snake that warms you".[34][30] It has been suggesed from this discourse that the creature was therefore "literally a snake",[35] although Apollonius had not seen her at this point.[g] The empousa admits in the end to fattening up her victim (Menippus of Lycia) to be consumed, as she was in the habit of targeting young men for food "because their blood was fresh and pure".[28]

Another aspect of her powers is that this empusa/lamia is able to create an illusion of a sumptuous mansion, with all the accoutrements and even servants. But once Apollonius reveals her false identity at the wedding, the illusion fails her and vanishes.[30]

Lamia the courtesan[edit]

A longstanding joke makes a word play between Lamia the monster and Lamia of Athens, the notorious hetaira courtesan who captivated Demetrius Poliorcetes (d. 283 BC). The double-entendre sarcasm was uttered by Demetrius's father, among others.[h][36][37] The same joke was used in theatrical Greek comedy,[38] and generally.[39] The word-play is also seen as being employed in Horace's Odes, to banter Lucius Aelius Lamia the praetor.[i][40]

Golden Ass[edit]

In Apuleius's The Golden Ass[j] there appear the Thessalian "witches"[k] Meroe and her sister Panthia, who are called lamiae in one instance.[43][44][l][m]

Meroe has seduced a man named Socrates, but when he plots escape, the two witches raid his bed, thrust a knife in the neck to tap the blood into a skin bag, eviscerate his heart and stuff the hole back with sponge.[47]

Some commentators, despite the absence of actual blood-sucking, find these witches to share "vampiric" qualities of the lamiae (lamiai) in Philostratus's narrative, thus offering it up for comparison.Stannish & Doran (2013), pp. 115–118

Kindreds[edit]

Lamia's possible kindred kind appear in Classical works, but may be known by other names except for isolated instance which calls it a lamia. Or they may be simply unnamed or differently named. And those analogues that exhibit serpent-like form or nature have been especially noted.

Poine of Argos[edit]

One such possible lamia is the avenging monster sent by Apollo against the city of Argos, and killed by Coroebus. It is referred to as Poine or Ker[48] in classical sources, but later in the Medieval period, one source does call it a lamia (First Vatican Mythographer, c. 9th to 11th century).Pache (2004), p. 70[49]

The story surrounds the tragedy of the daugher of King Crotopus of Argos named Psamathe, whose child by Apollo dies and she is executed for suspected promiscuity. Apollo as punishment then sends the child-devouring monster to Argos.

In Statius's version, the monster had a woman's face and breasts, and a hissing snake protruding from the cleft of her rusty-colored forehead, and it would slide into children's bedrooms to snatch them.[50] According to a scholiast to Ovid, it had a serpent's body carrying a human face.[51]

In Pausanias's version, the monster is called Poinē (ποινή), meaning "punishment" or "vengeance", but there is nothing about a snake on her forehead.[52][53]

One evidence this may be a double of the Lamia comes from Plutarch, who equates the word empousa with poinē.[54]

Libyan myth[edit]

A second example is a colony of man-eating monsters in Libya, described by Dio Chrysostom. These monsters had a woman's torso, the lower extremities of a snake, and beastlike hands.[55][56][n] The idea that these creatures were lamiai seems to originate with Alex Scobie (1977),[58] and accepted by other commentators.[59]

Middle Ages[edit]

By the Early Middle Ages, lamia (pl. lamiai or lamiae) was being glossed as a general term referring to a class of beings. Hesychius of Alexandria's lexicon (c. 500 A.D.) glossed lamiai as apparations, or even fish.[o][10] Isidore of Seville defined them as beings that snatched babies and ripped them apart.[10]

Christian writers warned against the seductive potential of lamiae. In his 9th-century treatise on divorce, Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, listed lamiae among the supernatural dangers that threatened marriages, and identified them with geniciales feminae,[60] female reproductive spirits.[61]

The Byzantine lexicon Suda (10th century) gave an entry for lamia (Λαμία), with definitions and sources much as already described.[62] The lexicon also has an entry under mormo (Μορμώ) stating that Mormo and the equivalent mormolykeion[p] are called lamia, and that all these refer to frightful beings.[63][64][65]

Interpretations[edit]

Lamia (first version) by John William Waterhouse (1905).[q]

This Lamia of Libya has her double in Lamia-Sybaris of the legend around Delphi, both indirectly associated with dragons. Strong parallel with the Medusa has also been noted. These, and other considerations have prompted modern commentators to refer to her as a dragoness.

Another double of the Libyan Lamia may be Lamia, daughter of Poseidon. Lamia by Zeus gave birth to a Sibyl according to Pausanias, and this would have to be the Libyan Lamia, yet there is a traition that Lamia the daughter of Poseidon was the mother of a Sibyl.[66] Either one could be Lamia the mother of Scylla mentioned in the Stesichorus (d. 555 BC) fragment.[67]

Identification as serpent-woman[edit]

Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st century BC) for instance describes Lamia of Libya as having nothing more than acquiring a beast-like appearance.[8] Diodorus, Duris of Samos and other sources which comprise the sources for builing an "archetypal" picture of Lamia do not designated as dragon, or given explicit serpentine descriptions.[68]

In the 1st century work by Life of Apollonius the female empousa-lamia is also called "a snake",[30] which may seem to the modern reader to be just a metaphorical expression, but which Daniel Ogden insists is a literal snake.[35] Philostratus's tale was reworked by Keats in his poem Lamia,[69] where it is made clear she bears the guise of a snake, which she wants to relinquish in return for human appearance.

Modern commentators have also tried to establish that she may have originally as a dragoness, by inference.[70][71] David Ogden argues that one of her possible reincarnations, the monster of Argos killed by Coroebus had a "scaly gait", indicating she must have had an anguipedal form in an early version of the story,[72] although the Latin text in Statius merely reads inlabi (declension of labor) meaning "slides".[50]

One of the doubles of Lamia, Queen of Libya is the Lamia-Sybaris, which is described only as a giant beast by Antoninus Liberalis (2nd century).[73][74] It is noted that this character terrorized Delphi, just as the dragon Python had.[74]

Close comparison is also made with the serpent-like Medusa. Not only is Medusa identified with Libya, she also had dealings with the three Graeae who had the removable eye shared between them. In some versions, the removable eye belonged to the three Gorgons, Medusa and her sisters.[75]

Stench of a lamia[edit]

The foul odor of the lamiai has been pointed out as a possible common motif or attribute. The examples are Aristophane's reference to the "lamia's testicles", the scent of the monsters in the Libyan myth which allowed the humans to track down their lair, and the terrible stench of their urine that lingered in the clothing of Aristomenes, which they showered upon him after carving out his friend Sophocles's heart.[76]

Mesopotamian connection[edit]

Lamia may originate from the Mesopotamian demoness Lamashtu.[77]

Modern age[edit]

From around the mid-15th century into the 16th century, the lamia came to be regarded exclusively as witches.[78]

Angelo Poliziano Lamia (1492) is a philosophical work, whose title is a disparaging reference to his opponents who dabble in philosophy without competence. It derives from Pluatarch who in his De curiositate suggests that the term Lamia is emblematic of meddlesome busibodies in society.[79]

A 17th-century depiction of Lamia from Edward Topsell's The History of Four-Footed Beasts

Bestiary[edit]

In Edward Topsell's History of Four-footed Beasts (1607), the lamia is described as having the upper body (i.e., the face and breasts) of a woman, but with goat-like hind quarters with large and filthy "stones" (testicles) that smell like sea-calves, on authority of Aristophanes. It is covered with scales all over.[17]

Adaptations[edit]

John Keats's Lamia in his Lamia and Other Poems is a reworking of the tale in Apollonius's biography by Philostratus, described above. In Keats's version the student Lycius replaces Mennipus the Lycian. For the descriptions and nature of the Lamia, Keats drew from Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy.[80] August Enna wrote an opera called Lamia.[26]

Modern folk traditions[edit]

Lamia (second version).[r]

In modern Greek folk tradition, the Lamia has survived and retained many of her traditional attributes.[81] John Cuthbert Lawson remarks "the chief characteristics of the Lamiae, apart from their thirst for blood, are their uncleanliness, their gluttony, and their stupidity".[82] The contemporary Greek proverb, "της Λάμιας τα σαρώματα" ("the Lamia's sweeping"), epitomises slovenliness;[82] and the common expression, "τό παιδί τό 'πνιξε η Λάμια" ("the child has been strangled by the Lamia"), explains the sudden death of young children.[82]

Later traditions referred to many lamiae; these were folkloric monsters similar to vampires and succubi that seduced young men and then fed on their blood.[83][84]

Fine arts[edit]

In a 1909 painting by Herbert James Draper, the Lamia who moodily watches the serpent on her forearm appears to represent a hetaera. Although the lower body of Draper's Lamia is human, he alludes to her serpentine history by draping a shed snake skin about her waist. In Renaissance emblems, Lamia has the body of a serpent and the breasts and head of a woman, like the image of hypocrisy.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

Keat's "Lamia" published in 1820.[85] has influenced later works of Western literature. Elizabeth Barrett Browning's epic poem "Aurora Leigh" contains numerous references to Lamia, including Book One in which at times a portrait of her dead mother appears as a Lamia, and Book Six in which she repeatedly refers to Lady Waldemar as Lamia. Booker Prize winner A. S. Byatt's 1998 collection of short fiction, Elementals: Stories of Fire and Ice, contains a short story entitled "A Lamia in the Cévennes", which references Keats' poem.[86] The character Brawne Lamia appears in Dan Simmons' novels Hyperion and The Fall of Hyperion. The works of John Keats feature heavily in the novels.[87][88] The Genesis album The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway features a track called The Lamia which features the protagonist, Rael, meeting 3 Lamia.

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lamia has human legs and a snakeskin around her waist. There is also a small snake on her right forearm.
  2. ^ Making her the granddaughter of Poseidon. Lybie is a personification of Libya.
  3. ^ Horace makes a related joke, referring to the aforementioned Lucius Aelius Lamia the praetor as "Lamus", in this instance regarded as the founding figure of the city of the Laestrygonians.[15]
  4. ^ This prompted Henderson (1998) to "humorlessly infer" that the Lamia must have been a hermaphrodite. Ogden (2013a), p. 91, note 117.
  5. ^ Neu pransae Lamiae vivum puerum extrahat alvo (v. 340). Alexander Pope translates the line: Shall Lamia in our sight her sons devour, /and give them back alive the self-same hour?
  6. ^ This phasma is a more "generic term for creatures".[31]
  7. ^ Keats's reworking makes this Lamia have serpent form for certain, which she wants to lose.
  8. ^ Demeterius's father Antigonus and Demochares of Soli.
  9. ^ Grandfather of his namesake, the consul Lucius Aelius Lamia (d. 33 CE).
  10. ^ Or Metamorphoses, thus abbreviated "Apu. Met."
  11. ^ They are not strictly speaking "witches", but they are referred to as such by convention.[41] In the Latin text, Meroe is referred to as a wikt:saga, a wise woman or soothesayer.[42]
  12. ^ It has been cautioned that there may not be great import in the label "lamiae" here beyond derogatory insult,[39] and Apuleius uses the label rather indescriminately elsewhere.[45]
  13. ^ The Elizabethan translator William Adlington rendered lamiae as "hags".[46]
  14. ^ Incidentally, Dio in Oration 37 quotes a Sibyl's song in which the Sibyl (Libyan Sibyl) identifies her mother as Lamia (daughter of Poseidon).[57]
  15. ^ Aristotle says there is a shark called "lamia".Resnick & Kitchell (2007), p. 83
  16. ^ Begins with lower case
  17. ^ Note the snakeskin wrapped around her arm and waist.
  18. ^ Note the snakeskin on her lap.

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ West, David R. (1995), Some cults of Greek goddesses and female daemons of Oriental origin, Butzon & Bercker, p. 293 
  2. ^ Scholiast on Wasps, 1035.[1]
  3. ^ Polomé, Edgar C.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). "Spirit". In Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 538. 
  4. ^ Ogden (2013b), p. 98: "Because of Hera.. she lost [or: destroyed] the children she bore".
  5. ^ Or caused Lamia herself to kill her own offspring. Given as a possible reading of Duris of Samos, Libyica, Book 2.[4]
  6. ^ Duris of Samos (d. 280 B. C.), Libyca, quoted by Ogden (2013b), p. 98
  7. ^ Odyssey 12.124 and scholia, noted by Karl Kerenyi, Gods of the Greeks 1951:38 note 71.
  8. ^ a b c d Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st century BC), Library of History XX.41, quoted by Ogden (2013b), p. 98
  9. ^ Bekker, Immanuel, ed., Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica XX.41
  10. ^ a b c Ogden (2013b), p. 99.
  11. ^ a b c d e Scholium from the Byzantine-Hellenistic period to Aristophanes, Peace 758, quoted by Ogden (2013b), p. 98
  12. ^ Bell, Robert E. (1993), Women of Classical Mythology, drawing upon Diodorus Siculus XX.41; Suidas 'Lamia'; Plutarch 'On Being a Busy-Body' 2; Scholiast on Aristophanes' Peace 757; Eustathius on Odyssey 1714)
  13. ^ Heraclitus Paradoxographus (2nd century) De Incredibilibus 34, quoted by Ogden (2013b), p. 98
  14. ^ The schol. Theocritus 15.40, cited by Ogden (2013b), p. 98
  15. ^ Mulroy, D. (1994), Horace's Odes and Epodes, University of Michigan Press, p. 86 
  16. ^ Aristophanes, The Wasps, 1035; Peace 758, cited by Ogden (2013a), p. 91, note 117.
  17. ^ a b Topsell, Edward (1607), "Of the lamia, The historie of foure-footed beastes.
  18. ^ "a Lamia's groin" (Benjamin Bickley Rogers, 1874), "a foul Lamia's testicles" (Athenian Society, 1912), "sweaty Crotch of a Lamia" (Paul Roche, 2005).
  19. ^ "Lamia", Suda On Line", tr. David Whitehead. 27 May 2008
  20. ^ Ogden (2013b), p. 98.
  21. ^ Leinweber (1994), "Witchcraft and Lamiae in 'The Golden Ass'" Folklore 105, p. 77.
  22. ^ Tertullian, Against Valentinius (ch. iii)
  23. ^ Ogden (2013a), pp. 90–91, note 114.
  24. ^ Kilpatrick, Ross Stuart (1990). The Poetry of Criticism: Horace, Epistles II and Ars Poetica. University of Alberta. p. 80. 
  25. ^ Member of the university (1894). A literal Translation of Horace's Art of Poetry. With explanatory notes. Cambridge. p. 22. 
  26. ^ a b c Skene, Bradley (2016). Lamia. The Ashgate Encyclopedia of Literary and Cinematic Monsters. Routledge. pp. 369–370. 
  27. ^ a b Schmitz, Leonhard (1873), Smith, William, ed., "La'mia", A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, London: John Murray, 2, pp. 713–714  Perseus Project "La'mia".
  28. ^ a b c Philostratus (1912). "25". In Honour of Apollonius of Tyana. 2. Translated by Phillimore, J. S. Clarendon Press. pp. 24–26. 
  29. ^ This is given in the concluding paragraph of the chapter, Vit. Apollon. 4.25. Phillimore tr., p. 26.[28]
  30. ^ a b c d e Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 4.25, quoted by Ogden (2013a), pp. 106–107.
  31. ^ a b Felton (2013), p. 232, n15.
  32. ^ In Greek: "μία τῶν ἐμπουσῶν ἐστιν, ἃς λαμίας τε καὶ μορμολυκίας οἱ πολλοὶ ἡγοῦνται", Vit. Apollon. 4.25. Where Felton gives "mormolyces",[31] Ogden "renders as "bogey".[30]
  33. ^ Stoneman, Richard (1991). Vampire. Greek Mythology: An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend. Aquarian Press. pp. 178–179. : "Lamia (not the usual application of this term)".
  34. ^ Ogden (2013a), p. 90.
  35. ^ a b Ogden (2013b), p. 107.
  36. ^ Kapparis, Konstantinos (2017), Prostitution in the Ancient Greek World, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, p. 118 
  37. ^ Plutarch, Demetrius 19, Perrin, Bernadotte, ed.
  38. ^ Kapparis (2017), p. 118, citing Lamia O'Sullivan, Lara (2009), pp. 53–79, esp. p. 69
  39. ^ a b Stannish & Doran (2013), p. 117:"This is a pejorative expression, not a formal classification, but it is still meaningful"; "..labeling of a dangerous woman as a lamia was not uncommon.. Aelian records.. a notorious prostitute.. (Miscellany 12.17, 13.8)".
  40. ^ Griffiths, Alan (2002), "The Odes: Just where do you draw the line?", Traditions and Contexts in the Poetry of Horace, Cambridge University Press, p. 72 
  41. ^ Frangoulidis, Stavros (2008). Witches, Isis and Narrative: Approaches to Magic in Apuleius' "Metamorphoses". Walter de Gruyter. p. 116.  ISBN 9783110210033
  42. ^ Apul. Met.1.8
  43. ^ Apul. Met. 1.17. Leinweber (1994), p. 78: "Admittedly, Apuleius's use of the term "Lamiae" is an isolated occurrence. Elsewhere, Meroe and her sister are referred to as witches or sorcerer".
  44. ^ Leinweber (1994), pp. 77, 79–81.
  45. ^ Cupid refers to Psyche's sisters as Lamiae, Apul. Met. 5. 11(Stannish & Doran (2013), p. 117, note 26)
  46. ^ [Apuleius] (1989), Metamorphoses, Harvard University Press
  47. ^ Apul. Met. 1.12–17 (in Latin)
  48. ^ Greek Anthology 7.154, cited by Pache (2004), pp. 72–73
  49. ^ Ogden (2013a), p. 87.
  50. ^ a b Statius, Thebaid, I. 562–669, quoted by Ogden (2013b), pp. 100–102; Latin text: Thebais I; Bailey, D. R. Shackleton tr. (2003) Thebaid, Book I.
  51. ^ Fontenrose (1959), p. 104.
  52. ^ Ogden (2013a), p. 102.
  53. ^ Pausanias, translated by Jones, W.H.S.; Ormerod, H.A., Description of Greece, 1. 43. 7 - 8
  54. ^ Plutarch, Moralia 1101c, cited by Ogden (2013b), p. 107.
  55. ^ Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 5.1, 5–27, quoted by Ogden (2013b), pp. 103–104
  56. ^ Cohoon, J. W. tr., ed. Orations 5 (Loeb Classics).
  57. ^ Crosby, Henry Lamar ed., tr., Orations 37.13 (Loeb Classics).
  58. ^ Scobie, Alex (1977), "Some Folktales in Graeco-Roman and Far Easten Sources", Philologus, 121: 710 , cited by Resnick & Kitchell (2007), p. 82
  59. ^ Felton (2013), pp. 231–232.
  60. ^ Hincmar, De divortio Lotharii ("On Lothar's divorce"), XV Interrogatio, MGH Concilia 4 Supplementum, 205, as cited by Bernadotte Filotas, Pagan Survivals, Superstitions and Popular Cultures in Early Medieval Pastoral Literature (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2005, p. 305.
  61. ^ In his 1628 Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, Du Cange made note of the geniciales feminae, and associated them with words pertaining to generation and genitalia; entry online.
  62. ^ "Lamia", Suda On Line", tr. David Whitehead. 1 April 2008
  63. ^ Suidas (1834), Gaisford, Thomas, ed., Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. K - Psi, 2, Typographeo Academico, p. 2523 : "Μορμώ: λέγεται καὶ Μορμώ, Μορμοῦς, ὡς Σαπφώ. καὶ Μορμών, Μορμόνος. Ἀριστοφάνης: ἀντιβολῶ σ', ἀπένεγκέ μου τὴν Μορμόνα. ἄπο τὰ φοβερά: φοβερὰ γὰρ ὑπῆρχεν ἡ Μορμώ. καὶ αὖθις Ἀριστοφάνης: Μορμὼ τοῦ θράσους. μορμολύκειον, ἣν λέγουσι Λαμίαν: ἔλεγον δὲ οὕτω καὶ τὰ φοβερά. λείπει δὲ τὸ ὡς, ὡς Μορμώ, ἢ ἐπιρρηματικῶς ἐξενήνεκται, ὡς εἰ ἔλεγε, φεῦ τοῦ θράσους".
  64. ^ Ogden (2013a), p. 91, note 114
  65. ^ "Lamia", Suda On Line", tr. Richard Rodriguez. 11 June 2009.
  66. ^ Fontenrose (1959), p. 107.
  67. ^ Campbell, David A., ed., tr. (1991), Stesichorus, Frag 220, p. 133, and note 2.
  68. ^ Ogden (2013b), pp. 98, 99, 105: "Nothing here explicitly declares.. a serpentine element" (Duris and Scholium), p. 98; "nothing here, again, speaks directly of a serpentin nature" (Diodorus and Heraclitus Paradoxographus), p. 98.
  69. ^ Stoneman (1991), pp. 178–179 "Vampire"
  70. ^ Ogden (2013b), p. 102: "This is not to say that the notion of an archetypal Lamia preceded the notion of lamiai as a category of monster".
  71. ^ Fontenrose (1959).
  72. ^ Ogden (2013b), pp. 97, 102.
  73. ^ Antoninus Liberalis (2nd century), Metamorphoses 8, paraphrasing Nicander, 2nd century B.C., quoted by Ogden (2013b), p. 105
  74. ^ a b Fontenrose (1959), pp. 44–45.
  75. ^ Fontenrose (1959), pp. 284–287.
  76. ^ Ogden (2013a), p. 91.
  77. ^ Ogden (2013b), p. 97.
  78. ^ Brauner, Sigrid (2001). Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews: The Construction of the Witch in Early Modern Germany. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 123.  ISBN 1-5584-9297-6
  79. ^ Candido, Igor (2010), Celenza, Christopher S., ed., Angelo Poliziano's Lamia: Text, Translation, and Introductory Studies, BRILL, p. 106 
  80. ^ Keats made a note to this effect at the end of the first page in the fair copy he made: see William E. Harrold, "Keats's 'Lamia' and Peacock's 'Rhododaphne'" The Modern Language Review 61.4 (October 1966:579–584) p 579 and note with bibliography on this point.
  81. ^ Lamia receives a section in Georgios Megas and Helen Colaclides, Folktales of Greece (Folktales of the World) (University of Chicago Prtes) 1970.
  82. ^ a b c Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion: A Study in Survivals (Cambridge University Press) 1910:175ff.
  83. ^ Jøn, A. Asbjørn (2003). "Vampire Evolution". mETAphor. English Teachers Association of NSW (August): 19–23. 
  84. ^ Information on Lamia from the Online Encyclopedia[dead link]
  85. ^ Keats, Johan (1888), Lamia, Will H. Low (illustr.), Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, pp. 1–67 
  86. ^ "There's a Lamia in My Swimming Pool". 
  87. ^ "El ascenso de Endymion, de Dan Simmons". 
  88. ^ "Hyperion by Dan Simmons". 
Bibliography

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