Lamo language

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Lamo
mBo
’Bo skad
Native toChina
RegionZogang County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Lamo (also called mBo; IPA: mbo˥; ’Bo skad) is an unclassified Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Tshawarong, Zogang County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet. It was recently documented by Suzuki & Nyima (2016). sMad skad, a closely related language variety, is also spoken in Tshawarong.

Drag-yab is referred to by the Changdu Gazetteer (2005: 819)[1] as Dongba 东坝话, as it is spoken in Dongba Township 东坝乡, Zogang County. Suzuki & Nyima (2018) document the Kyilwa 格瓦 variety of Dongba Township 东坝乡.

Classification[edit]

Suzuki & Nyima (2016, 2018) suggest that Lamo may be a Qiangic language. Guillaume Jacques (2016)[2] suggests that mBo is a rGyalrongic language belonging to the Stau-Khroskyabs (Horpa-Lavrung) branch.

Suzuki & Nyima (2018) note that Lamo is closely related to two other recently documented languages of Chamdo, eastern Tibet, namely Larong (spoken in the Lancang River valley of Zogang County and Markam County) and Drag-yab (spoken in southern Zhag'yab County).

Lexicon[edit]

Suzuki & Nyima (2016) list the following Lamo words.

Gloss Lamo
one də˥
two na˥
three sɔ̰̃˩
four lə̰˥
five ɴʷɚ̰˥
six tɕi˩
seven n̥i˥
eight ʱdʑə˥
nine ᵑɡo˥
ten ʁɑ˥
hundred ʱdʑi˥
1.SG pronoun ŋa˥
2.SG pronoun nə˥
3.SG pronoun kə˥
blood sa˥
urine qo˩
meat tɕʰi˥
iron ʰtɕɑ˥
needle ʁɑ˩
fish ɲɛ˩ (Tibetic loan)
pig pʰo˥ ɦu
horse re˩
sky nɑ˥
land sɛ˥ tɕʰɛ (Tibetic loan)
sand ɕe˩ mɛ (Tibetic loan)
hillside ɴɢa˥
snow jʉ˥
road tɕɯ˥
water tɕə˥
eat wə˥-
sleep nə˥-

Comparison[edit]

Suzuki & Nyima (2018: 4-6) provide the following lexical items for Lamo, Larong, and Drag-yab.

The lexical data below is based on the following dialects.

Cognates
no. gloss Lamo Larong Drag-yab
1 bitter qa˥ qʰɛ˥ n̥tsʰə˥ tsʰə˥
2 cry qo˧˥ qo̰˧˥ qə˧˥
3 earth ndzɔ̰˧˥ ndzɑ˧˥ ndza˧˥
4 eat ndzə˥ ndzə˥ ndzə˥
5 house tɕi˥ tɕo˥ tɕẽ˧˥
6 blood se˥ se˥ sɛ˥
7 needle ʁɑ˧˥ ʁɑ˧˥ ʁɑ˧˥
8 cow ŋʉ˧˥ ŋʉ˧˥ ŋu˧˥
9 wait ɦlḭ˥ ɦle˥ ɦli˥
10 horse re˧˥ re˥ re˧˥
11 salt tsʰo˥ n̥tsʰə˥ tsʰə˥
12 six tɕi˧˥ tɕʰu˧˥ tɕʰu˥
13 meat tɕʰi˧˥ ɲtɕʰi˥ ɲ̥tɕʰə˧˥
14 you nə˥ ɲe˥ ɲa˥
15 seven n̥i˥ n̥i˧˥ ɲ̥e˥
16 hand lu˧˥ ndi˥ nde˧˥
17 butter jwɚ̰˥ wa˥ we˧˥
18 head wɔ̰˥ wɔ̰˥ ʁo̰˧˥
19 eye məʔ˥ do˧ ɦɲi˥ ɲə˥
20 nose n̥ʉ˥ ɲ̥u˥ n̥a˥ rə˧
21 tongue ʰl̥ə˥ ndə̰˥ mda˧˥
22 tooth xʉ˧˥ ʰl̥i˧˥ xɯ˧˥
23 milk χɔ̰˧˥ ʰl̥ɔ̰˥ χl̥ɔ̰˧
24 moon le˥ ɦli˥ ɦla̰˧ jḭ˧
Non-cognates
no. gloss Lamo Larong Drag-yab
25 mouth ɲ̥tɕʰu˥ to˧ (< Tibetan) mu˧˥ ɕi˧˥
26 foot siʔ˥ ka˧ ŋɡɯ˧˥ pʰə˥ ndɯ˧
27 liver se˥ je˥ ɲ̥tɕʰĩ˥ mbi˧ (< Tibetan)
28 laugh ɦɡɛ (< Tibetan) n̥tsʰə˧˥ ʁə˥
29 sleep nə˥ ɦgɯ˧ jṵ˧˥ nə˧˥ mḛ˧
30 child no˥ no˧ n̥tʰe˥ ɲa˧˥
31 take le˧˥ ɣi˧˥ tɕʰõ˥
32 search xɯ˥ ɦzɔ̃˥ ɲə˧˥ ŋo˧
33 forget nɛ˧˥ tʰa˥ ɦmɛ˥ ɣə˧˥ ɦmu˧ se˧
34 sky ɦnɑ˥ (< Tibetan) ŋo˥ mo˧˥
35 sun nə˥ ɲi˧˥ ɲi˧˥ me˧ (< Tibetan)
36 red ɦmaʔ ɦma˧ (< Tibetan) nḛ˥ nḛ˧ ndja̰˥
37 body hair ʰpu˥ (< Tibetan) mɔ˧˥ mo̰˧˥
38 urine qo˥ pi˧˥ bi˧˥
39 look ʈu˥ ŋi˧˥ tʰa˧˥ ŋɛ̃˧
40 person mə˧˥ ŋʉ˥ nɛ̰˧ ɦŋɯʔ˥ ɲi˧
41 male no˥ zə˧˥ zə˧˥
42 daughter nu˧˥ mo˧ m̥e˧˥ m̥ə˧˥
43 road tɕə˥ rɛ˥ ra˧˥
44 fear ɦlɛ˥ ɦɣe˥ ɣe˧˥
45 be born no˥ mbə˧ ndzə˧˥ ndzɑ˧˥
46 go xɯ˥ n̥tʰõ˥ n̥tʰɛ̃˥
47 shout kəʔ˥ ɕi˧ rɛ˥ rḛ˧˥
48 four lə̰˥ ɦɣə˧˥ (< Tibetan) ɦɣe˧˥ (< Tibetan)
49 eight ɦdʑə˥ (< Tibetan) ɕe˧˥ ɕa˥
50 ten ʁɑ˧˥ ʔa˥ qõ˧ ɦa̰˧˥ ʁõ˧
51 twenty ɲe˧˥ qɑ˧ nɑ˧˥ nɑ˧˥
52 be sick ŋo˥ nø̰˧˥ nɛ˧˥ ŋa˧
53 rain mo˧˥ tsu˥ mo˧˥
54 wear to˧˥ ŋɡʉ˧ ŋɡu˥ qe˧˥
55 wind mɛ̰˥ ŋɑ˧˥ mi˧ ɦdʑa˧˥ ɦɡə˧ rə˧
56 wipe nə˥ ɕə˧ ɕḛ̃˥ xɔ̰˧˥

The Changdu Gazetteer (2005: 819)[1] provides the following comparative data in Tibetan script. The table below uses Wylie romanization. English translations for the Chinese glosses are also provided.

English gloss Chinese gloss Lhasa Tibetan Khams Tibetan
(Chamdo)
Lamo
(Dongba 东坝话)
Larong
(Rumei 如美话)
Drag-yab
(Zesong 则松话)
house 房子 ཁང་པ (khang pa) ཁོང་པ (khong pa) ཅིས (cis) ཅོང (cong) ཅིམ (cim)
chhaang (Tibetan alcohol) 青稞酒 ཆང (chang) ཆོང (chong) ཨོས (os) ཆང (chang) དགེས (dges)
hand ལག་པ (lag pa) ལག་པ (lag pa) ལུའུ (lu'u) འདིས ('dis) འདིས ('dis)
ride horse 骑马 རྟ་བཞོན (rta bzhon) རྟ་ཀྱ (rta kya) རིས་གྱིས (ris gyis) རེ་གག (re gag) རེའུ་ན་ཚེམ (re'u na tshem)
hat 帽子 ཞྭ་མོ (zhwa mo) ཞ་མགོ (zha mgo) ཇའ (ja'a) དེའུ (de'u) དེའུ (de'u)
eat rice 吃饭 ཁ་ལག་ཟས (kha lag zas) ཟ་མ་ཟ (za ma za) ཆོག་ཅོག་ཏོས (chog cog tos) གཟིས་མའི་མཛད (gzis ma'i mdzad) གཟིན་ཐོ་འམ (gzin tho 'am)
sheep 绵羊 ལུག (lug) ལུག (lug) ཡིས (yis) ལའ (la'a) ལྭའུ (lwa'u)
beautiful 漂亮 སྙིང་རྗེ་མོ (snying rje mo) གཅེས་ལི་མ (gces li ma) ཀ་ཞིས་ཉིས (ka zhis nyis) དངེས་ཡིས (dnges yis) དངུད་ལུ (dngud lu)
donkey 毛驴 བོང་བུ (bong bu) ཀུ་རུ (ku ru) བ་ཅི (ba ci) ཅོའུ (co'u) གུའུའུ (gu'u'u)
salt ཚྭ (tshwa) ཚྭ (tshwa) ཚོག་ཏི (tshog ti) ཚེའུ (tshe'u) ཚྭའུ (tshwa'u)
swell སྐྲངས་པ (skrangs pa) སྐྲོང་པ (skrong pa) སྐྲེ་བེ (skre be) དུ་རགས (du rags) དུའུ་རམས (du'u rams)
head མགོ (mgo) མགོ (mgo) དབུ (dbu) དབོག (dbog) གཞོག (gzhog)
child 小孩 སྤུ་གུ (spu gu) ཉོག (nyog) ཉོག་ཉོག (nyog nyog) ཐད (thad) ཆ་ཆོག (cha chog)
dry beef 干牛肉 ཤ་སྐམ (sha skam) ཤ་སྐམ (sha skam) བྱིས་རོ (byis ro) ཆེས་རོང་རོང (ches rong rong) ཆོའུ་རིམ་རིམ (cho'u rim rim)
What is this? 这是什么 དེ་ག་རེ་རེད (de ga re red) འདི་ཆི་རེད་ལས ('di chi red las) ཏེ་ཧ་ཆོས (te ha chos) ཨེ་ཏི་ཐོའུ (e ti tho'u) ཙེ་དུ་ཁྱི (tse du khyi)
Where are you going? 你去哪里 རང་ག་བ་འགྲོ་ག (rang ga ba 'gro ga) ཁྱོད་ག་ན་འགྲོ་ཇི (khyod ga na 'gro ji) ནི་རི་ཧི་ལོ་ཤས (ni ri hi lo shas) གནད་མདོ་ཧུ་ནུ་ངོག (gnad mdo hu nu ngog) འདེ་རུ་ཧེན ('de ru hen)
crazy person 疯子 སྨྱོན་པ (smyon pa) མྱོན་པ (myon pa) འ་རོ ('a ro) སྨྱོན་འབས (smyon 'bas) ཡ་རོག (ya rog)
crow (bird) 乌鸦 པུ་རོག (pu rog) ཁ་ཏ (kha ta) ཕོ་རོག (pho rog) ཁ་གཏེ (kha gte) ཕུའུ་རོག (phu'u rog)
Thank you. 谢谢 ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ (thugs rje che) ཡག་བྲུང (yag brung) བྱུ་ནུ་པུ་ང་ཉིད་གུ་ནི་ད (byu nu pu nga nyid gu ni da) དེ་སྒྲ་དགེ (de sgra dge) ཏི་སྒྲ་དགེ (ti sgra dge)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Xizang Changdu Diqu Difangzhi Bianzuan Weiyuanhui 西藏昌都地区地方志编纂委员会 (2005). Changdu Diquzhi 昌都地区志. Beijing: Fangzhi Chubanshe 方志出版社.
  2. ^ Jacques, Guillaumes. 2016. Les journées d'études sur les langues du Sichuan.