Lancelot Law Whyte
Lancelot Law Whyte (1896–1972) was a Scottish philosopher, theoretical physicist, historian of science and financier.
Unified field theory
Whyte was the author of the book Internal Factors in Evolution (1968). He proposed that Darwin's theory of natural selection is limited to external factors, and internal factors are a second directive agency in evolution. Whyte proposed the term "internal selection", John Tyler Bonner in the American Scientist positively reviewed the book. According to Bonner:
[Internal selection] is simply that there are two kinds of selection; an external Darwinian one and an internal one which is independent of the adaptability of the organism to a particular environment. The internal selection takes place by the machinery of the organism passing upon whether or not a particular mutation can survive considering the nature of internal milieu.
In 2014 the philosopher Hans-Joachim Niemann wrote about Whyte:
Whyte's ideas were beyond the long-established tracks but do not sound too far-fetched today. He postulated the existence of »directive factors« in the machinery of the cell. These factors control mutations as well as an »internal selection«, a particular kind of evolution separately optimizing processes in the cell. Whyte’s »internal selection« explained »the directions of evolutionary change by internal organizational factors«. His model demonstrates why some well-corroborated genes are protected, and why, on the other hand, sensible variations of certain traits are supported by well-directed mutations of the related genes. The cell is the conductor, and the genome is its score to be interpreted wisely.
Other scientists have been more critical. Biologist Robert E. Hillman gave the book a negative review, commenting "in a weak and ill-supported effort to deemphasize the role of natural selection in evolution Whyte has detracted from what could have been a fine analysis and philosophical discussion of the latest advances in the chemical basis of heredity and evolution."
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- Internal Factors in Evolution (Soc. Sci. Pbs.), Lancelot Law Whyte. Tavistock Pubns. 1968
- The Unconscious Before Freud (Soc. Sci. Pbs.), Lancelot Law Whyte. Tavistock Pubns. 1967
- The Next Development in Man, Lancelot Law Whyte, et al. Transaction Publishers, US 2002
- The Universe of Experience: A Worldview Beyond Science and Religion, Lancelot Law Whyte, et al. Transaction Publishers, US 2003
- Hierarchical Structures, Lancelot Law Whyte (Editor). Elsevier. 1969
- Essay on Atomism: From Democritus to 1960, Lancelot Law Whyte. Nelson. 1961
- The Atomic Problem: A Challenge to Physicists and Mathematicians, Lancelot Law Whyte. Allen & Unwin. 1961
- Accent on Form: An Anticipation of the Science of Tomorrow (World Perspectives, Volume Two), Lancelot Law Whyte. Harper & Brothers Publishers. 1954.
- Aspects of Form: Symposium on Form in Nature and Art, Lancelot Law Whyte (editor). Lund Humphries Publishers, London. 1968.
- Critique of Physics, Lancelot Law Whyte. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., LTD., London. 1931.
- Everyman Looks Forward, Lancelot Law Whyte. The Cresset Press. 1946.
- Archimedes, or the Future of Physics, Lancelot Law Whyte. E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York. 1928.
- PEP Web – A Biographical Note on L. L. Whyte
- Focus and Diversions, L L Whyte, Cresset Press, London 1963
- Roger Joseph Boscovich SJ FRS, 1711 -1787 Studies of his life and work on the 250th anniversary of his birth, edited L L Whyte, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1961
- The Unitary Principle in Physics and biology, LL Whyte, London, 1949
- Scientific Basis for World Civilization: Unitary Field theory, Leo J Baranski, The Christopher Publishing House, USA, 1960
- Clovis, Jesse F. (1968). Internal Factors in Evolution by L. L. Whyte. Castanea. Vol. 33, No. 2. p. 156.
- Bonner, John Tyler. (1965). Internal Factors in Evolution by L. L. Whyte. American Scientist. Vol. 53, No. 2. p. 198A, 200A.
- Niemann, Hans-Joachim, Karl Popper and the Two New Secrets of Life, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2014, chap. I, sect. 6, subsection 'Lancelot L. Whyte', p. 36-37.
- Hillman, Robert E. (1965). Internal Factors in Evolution by Lancelot Law Whyte. Chesapeake Science. Vol. 6, No. 2. pp. 123–124.
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