Lancia Fulvia

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Lancia Fulvia
Lancia Motor Club AGM 2011 DSC 4294 - Flickr - tonylanciabeta.jpg
Series II Lancia Fulvia Berlina
Overview
Manufacturer Lancia
Production 1963–1976
Designer Piero Castagnero at Centro Stile Lancia (Berlina and Coupé)
Ercole Spada at Zagato (Sport)[1]
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 4-door saloon (Berlina)
2-door coupé (Coupé)
2-door fastback coupé (Sport)
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1,091 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
  • 1,199 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
  • 1,216 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
  • 1,231 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
  • 1,298 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
  • 1,584 cc Lancia V4 (petrol)
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,480 mm (97.6 in) (Berlina)
2,330 mm (91.7 in) (Coupé, Sport)
Length 4,110 mm (161.8 in) (Berlina)
3,975 mm (156.5 in) (Coupé)
4,090 mm (161.0 in) (Sport)
Width 1,555 mm (61.2 in) (Berlina, Coupé)
1,570 mm (61.8 in) (Sport)
Height 1,400 mm (55.1 in) (Berlina)
1,300 mm (51.2 in) (Coupé)
1,200 mm (47.2 in) (Sport)
Chronology
Predecessor Lancia Appia
Successor Lancia Beta

The Lancia Fulvia (Tipo 818) is an Italian car introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1963 by Lancia and produced until 1976. Fulvias are notable for their role in motorsport history, including winning the International Rally Championship in 1972.[2] On testing it in 1967, Road & Track summed up the Fulvia as "a precision motorcar, an engineering tour de force".[3] Named after Fulvia Flacca Bambula, an aristocratic Roman woman and wife of Mark Antony.

The Fulvia was available in three variants: Berlina 4-door saloon, 2-door Coupé, and Sport, an alternative fastback coupé designed and built by Zagato on the Coupé floorpan. When leaving the factory all but a few of the Coupés originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres (CA67).

Specifications[edit]

Chassis[edit]

The Fulvia Berlina was designed by Antonio Fessia, to replace the Lancia Appia with which it shared almost no components. The Appia was a rear wheel drive car, however, while the Fulvia moved to front wheel drive like the Flavia. The general engineering design of the Fulvia was identical to that of the Flavia with the major exception of the engine, the Flavia having a four cylinder horizontally opposed engine and the Fulvia a 'Narrow Angle' vee configuration as featured on most production Lancias from the Lambda. The Fulvia used a longitudinal engine mounted in front of its transaxle. An independent suspension in front used wishbones and a single leaf spring, while a beam axle with a panhard rod and leaf springs was used in back. Four wheel Dunlop disc brakes were fitted to first series Fulvias. With the introduction of the second series in 1970 the brakes were uprated with larger Girling calipers all round and a brake servo. The handbrake design was also changed - using separate drums and brake-shoes operating on the rear wheels.

Engine[edit]

The V4 engine of a 1972 Fulvia Berlina

One element that was new was the narrow-angle V4 engine. Designed by Zaccone Mina, it used a narrow angle (12°53'28") and was mounted well forward at a 45° angle. The engine is a DOHC design with a one camshaft operating all intake valves and another operating all exhaust valves. The very narrow angle of the cylinders allowed for use of a single cylinder head.

Displacement began at just 1091 cc with 58 bhp (44 kW) with a 72 mm bore and 67 mm stroke. A higher (9.0:1) compression ratio and the fitment of twin Solex carburettors raised power to 71 bhp (53 kW) soon after.

The engine was bored to 6 mm to enlarge displacement to 1216 cc for the HF model. This, and some tuning, raised output to 80 to 88 bhp (60 to 66 kW).

The engine was re-engineered with a slightly narrower bank angle (12°45'28") and longer (69.7 mm) stroke for 1967. Three displacements were produced: 1199 cc (74 mm bore), 1231 cc (75 mm bore), and 1298 cc (77 mm bore). The new 1298 cc engine was produced in two versions; the type 818.302 produced 87 bhp (65 kW) at 6000 rpm and was fitted to 1st series Coupés, Sports and Berlina GTE and later to the 2nd Series Berlina. The Type 818.303 was first produced with 92 hp (69 kW) and was fitted to the 1st series Coupé Rallye S and Sport S. For the 2nd Series Coupé and Sport power was slightly reduced to 90 hp (67 kW) at 6000 rpm. The 1199 cc engine was only fitted to the Berlina sold in Greece.

The engine was completely reworked for the new 1.6 HF with an even-narrower angle (11°20' now) and longer 75 mm stroke combined with a bore of 82 mm gave it a displacement of 1584 cc, and power ranged from 115 to 132 bhp (85 to 98 kW) depending on tune.

Model history[edit]

Series I Lancia Fulvia Berlina 2C
Lancia Fulvia Berlina GTE
Rear view of a Series II Fulvia Berlina

Berlina[edit]

Series I
  • Berlina (Tipo 818.000/001): 1963–64. A compact four-door saloon introduced in 1963 with a 1098 cc, single twin-choke carburettor engine producing 58 bhp (43 kW) at 5800 rpm.
  • Berlina 2C (Tipo 818.100/101): 1964–69. Improved, more powerful Berlina launched late in 1963, with a 71 bhp (53 kW) engine fitted with double twin-choke Solex carburettors. The body-shell also had revised front subframe mountings. Distinguished by an enamelled "2C" badge on the radiator grille and rear "Fulvia 2C" script.
  • Berlina GT (Tipo 818.200/201/210/211): 1967–68. Introduced in 1967 with the 1216 cc (later 1231 cc) engine from the Coupé, producing 80 bhp (60 kW) at 6,000 rpm. Distinguished by an enamelled "GT" badge on the radiator grille and rear "Fulvia GT" script.
  • Berlina "Grecia" (Tipo 818.282/292): 1967–69. Greece-only version fitted with a smaller 818.282 1.2 L (1,199 cc) engine, putting out 78 PS (57 kW; 77 hp) at 6,200 rpm.
  • Berlina GTE (Tipo 818.310/311): 1968–69. Introduced in 1968 with the 1298 cc (818.302) engine from the Coupé Rallye 1.3, for an output of 87 bhp (65 kW) at 6000 rpm. In addition the brakes were uprated with a brake servo.
Series II

The Fulvia saloon was updated for 1969 with a redesigned body on a 20 mm (0.8 in) longer wheelbase, and an updated interior.

  • Berlina (Tipo 818.610/611): 1969–70. Series 2 introduced for 1969 with the 1298 cc.
  • Berlina "Grecia" (Tipo 818.682): 1969–70. Series 2 Greece-only limited displacement version; the 818.282 1.2-litre engine was unchanged.
  • Berlina (Tipo 818.612/613): 1970–72. Updated Series 2, introduced 1970 with the 1298 cc (818.302) engine and 5-speed gearbox. Larger Girling calipers and pads replaced the Dunlop system fitted to 1st series cars.
  • Berlina "Grecia" (Tipo 818.694): 1970–72. Updated with the 5-speed gearbox like the regular saloon.

Coupé[edit]

1967 Lancia Fulvia Coupé
1970 Lancia Fulvia Rallye 1.6 HF Fanalone

The Fulvia Coupé was a compact two-door, three-box coupé introduced in 1965. Like the saloon it was designed in-house by Piero Castagnero. The coupé used a 150 mm (5.9 in) shorter wheelbase. It was the last Fulvia model to be discontinued, being replaced only in 1977 by a 1.3-litre version of the Beta Coupé.

Series I
  • Coupé (Tipo 818.130/131): 1965–67. Equipped with a 1,216 cc 818.100 engine—from 1967 enlarged to 1,231 cc—producing 80 bhp (60 kW) at 6,000 rpm. The same engines were subsequently used on the Berlina GT.
  • Coupé HF (Tipo 818.140): 1966–67. Competition version of the coupé introduced later in 1965, fitted with a tuned version of the 1,216 cc engine producing 88 bhp (66 kW) at 6,000 rpm. Bodywork was lightened by removing the bumpers, using an aluminium bonnet, doors and boot lid, Plexiglas side and rear windows, and bare steel wheels without hubcaps.
  • Rallye 1.3 HF (Tipo 818.340/341): 1967–69. 1.3-litre HF. New 1,298 cc engine with 101 bhp (75 kW) at 6,400 rpm.
  • Rallye 1.3 (Tipo 818.330/331): 1967–68. An updated coupé with the 818.302 1,298 cc engine with 87 hp (65 kW) at 6,000 rpm.
  • Rallye 1.3 S (Tipo 818.360/361): 1968–70. Updated, more powerful Rallye 1.3 with a new 818.303 1,298 cc engine producing 92 hp (69 kW) at 6,000 rpm.
  • Rallye 1.6 HF (Tipo 818.540/541): 1969–70. Known as Fanalone ("big lamps") because of the characteristic up-sized inner pair of headlamps. The evolution of Rallye 1.3 HF, equipped with an all-new 818.540 1,584 cc engine producing 115 hp (86 kW) at 6,500 rpm. Other changes included negative camber front suspension geometry, with light alloy 13 inch 6J wheels; and a close ratio 5 speed gearbox and wheel arch extensions. The easiest way to distinguish this version is by the triangular holes between headlamps and grille.[4]
    • Rallye 1.6 HF tipo 818.540 variante 1016: 1969–70. Works rally-spec Fanalone, produced in very limited numbers. The most powerful Fulvia with a 1,584 cc engine producing up to 132 hp (98 kW) depending on tune. This was the version used by the works rally team until 1974, when it was superseded in competition by the Stratos HF. 45 mm bore Solex carburettors were used that were later replaced by 45 DCOE Webers. The cam cover had special blue stripe over yellow paintjob (HF cars had just yellow paintjob).
Lancia Fulvia Coupé 3
Series II
  • Coupé 1.3 S (Tipo 818.630/631): 1970–73. Face-lifted body and new 5 speed gearbox with 1298 cc (818.303) engine producing 90 hp (67 kW) at 6000 rpm. Larger Girling calipers and pads replaced the Dunlop system fitted to 1st series cars.
    • Coupé 1.3 S Montecarlo: 1972–73. Special edition based on the 1.3 S, commemorating Lancia's victory at the 1972 Monte Carlo Rally. The livery resembled the works car, with matte black bonnet and boot lid bearing Monte Carlo rally plate-style stickers. This version used his own bodyshell with flared wheel arches, similar to but different from the 1.6 HF bodyshell. Other accoutrements included 1.6 HF Lusso interior fittings such as bucket seats with headrests, rectangular front fog lamps, no bumpers and black single wing mirror; 4.5J steel wheels of the standard Coupé were fitted.
  • Coupé 1600 HF (Tipo 818.640/641): 1970–71. Face-lifted all steel body with 1,584 cc engine with Solex C42DDHF carb producing 115 hp (86 kW) at 6,000 rpm. The bodywork was changed from the standard 1.3 Coupé to incorporate flared wheel arches (replacing the extensions used on 1st series HFs).
  • Coupé 1600 HF "Lusso" (Tipo 818.740/741): 1970–73. As 1600 HF, but with extra trim, radio and fitted with bumpers. Mostly produced for export.
  • Coupé 3 (Tipo 818.630/631): 1974–76. Updated Coupé introduced 1974, mechanically the same as the earlier Series 2 1.3 S except for the addition of emission control on the Solex carburettors. Other than for "Fulvia 3" badges, it is easily recognized by its matte black grilled and headlight frame. It featured new design of seats incorporating headrests and new white faced instrument dials with an updated range of trim colours, materials and options.
    • Coupé 3 Montecarlo: 1974–76. As the earlier Montecarlo, but with Coupé 3 accoutrements.
    • Safari: 1974–76. A limited edition based on the standard Coupé 3 with simplified trim and equipment, celebrating the Fulvia's participation to the Safari Rally. It came without bumpers, with matte black exterior trim, seats upholstered in denim cloth and leatherette, exterior badges on the bonnet and on the boot lid and also special numbered plaque on the dashboard.[5]

Sport[edit]

Series I Fulvia Sport 1.3 S

The Fulvia Sport was a fastback 2-seater based on Coupé mechanicals, built for Lancia by Zagato—where it had been designed by Ercole Spada.[6] The Sport was commissioned by Lancia to Zagato as more aerodynamic and sportier version of the coupé, which could be used in road and track competitions.

Series I

Three peculiarities of the Sport body were the engine bonnet hinged to the right hand side, the rear hatch, which could be lifted electrically by an handful of centimetres to aid cabin ventilation, and the spare wheel, housed in a separate compartment, accessed from a rotating panel which held the rear number plate.[7] The tail lights were sourced from the NSU Prinz 4.[7]

  • Sport (Tipo 818.132/133): 1965–67. Introduced at the 1965 Turin Motor Show, the first Sport had an all-aluminium alloy bodyshell and used the coupé's 1.2-litre (1,216 cc) engine.[7] Inside it reprised the wood-trimmed dashboard of the coupé, and featured two small bucket seats of Zagato's own design.[7] Just 202 were made in total.
  • Sport 1.3 (Tipo 818.332/333): 1966–69. In 1966 Sport was upgraded to a 818.302 1,298 cc engine from the Rallye 1.3, producing 87 hp (65 kW) at 6,000 rpm. Early versions still had all aluminium bodyshells (700 were produced with both 1,216 cc & 1,298 cc engines), but later ones were fitted with steel bodyshells with aluminium bonnet, doors, and spare wheel hatch. Whereas the first Sport was homologated as a two-seater, the car was now classified as a three-seater—or 2+1. The 1.3 can be distinguished from the 1.2 for its silver- instead of ivory-painted steel wheels, and the side mirror on the driver's side front wing.
  • Sport 1.3 S (Tipo 818.362/363): 1968–69. An updated Sport 1.3 with 1,298 cc (818.303) engine producing 92 hp (69 kW) at 6,000 rpm. These Sports were normally fitted with brake servos. It is recognizable by its larger hubcaps, decorated with Lancia flag logos instead of being plain.[7]
Series II

The second series Fulvia Sport was launched at the 1970 Turin Motor Show. Changes included a 5-speed gearbox, revised suspension geometry, taller ride height, an alternator in place of the previous dynamo, a taller final drive compared to coupés, and wider tyres.[7] The body was now all-steel, and seated 2+2 passengers.[7] Some of the Zagato's most unusual features were lost: the bonnet was now hinged at the front, and the spare wheel compartment hatch was deleted.[7] Several other changes set the second series apart from the first: new driving lights, side mirror moved from the wing to the door, larger bullet-shaped tail lights from the Peugeot 202, and stamped steel wheels without hubcaps.[7]

  • Sport 1.3 S (Tipo 818.650/651): 1970–72. Same engine as Series 1 1.3 S, but five-speed transmission. Very early versions of these Series 2 cars were fitted with Series I bodyshells with a separate spare wheel-hatch and smaller rear lights and aluminium bonnet and doors. Later versions have all-steel bodyshells, no spare wheel hatch, and larger rear lights.
Lancia Fulvia Sport 1600 Zagato
  • Sport 1600 (Tipo 818.750/751): 1971–72. Top of the rang Sport, with 1,584 cc engine from the HF, producing 115 hp (86 kW). This version was the fastest production Fulvia ever produced, with a top speed of 118 mph (190 km/h). The 1600 was distinguishable from the 1.3 S by a matte black radiator grille and band on the engine bonnet, rubber over-ridera on the bumpers, and new flush door handles. Some of these new fixtures—like the black grille and door handles—found their way on late 1.3 S examples.

Inside the 1600 had an oil temperature gauge, bucket seats with headrests and electric front windows as standard. Cromodora alloy wheels like those found on the 1600 HF were optional.

Concept cars and specials[edit]

Lancia Fulvia Sport Spider (1968)[edit]

At the October 1968 Turin Motor Show Milanese coachbuilder Zagato showed the Fulvia Sport Spider, a 2-seater roadster based on the Fulvia Sport.[8] The prototype reprised the lines of the Fulvia Sport, but was built on a 150 mm (5.9 in); the soft top folded underneath a flush tonneau cover.[7] The car was finished in red, with matching leather covering the seats, dashboard and steering wheel; Plexiglas-covered headlamps were fitted.[7] Outside details like the black front grille and Peugeot 202-derived tail lights previewed the 1970 Series 2 Fulvia Sport.

Lancia Fulvia Berlinetta Competizione (1969)[edit]

The Fulvia Berlinetta Competizione was a concept car by Ghia first displayed at the March 1969 Geneva Motor Show.[9] It was built with a fastback berlinetta body designed by Tom Tjaarda, on Fulvia Rallye 1.6 HF Fanalone floorpan and mechanicals.

Dunja 1.6 HF (1971)[edit]

The Dunja 1.6 HF was a concept car with kammback coupé body based on Fulvia 1600 HF mechanicals, first shown on the Glasurit stand at the 1971 Turin Motor Show.[10] Commissioned by Glasurit, it was designed by Aldo Sessano and built by Turinese coachbuilder Carrozzeria Coggiola[10] upon a Fulvia Coupé 1600 HF (type 818.740) chassis.[11]

Lancia Fulvia Coupé concept (2003)[edit]

Lancia Fulvia Coupé Concept at IAA 2003

In 2003 the Fulvia name was revived on a concept car, the Lancia Fulvia Coupé Concept, inspired by the original 1965 Coupé. Designed by Centro Stile Lancia under the direction of Flavio Manzoni, the car made its début at the September 2003 Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung in Frankfurt am Main.[12] The strictly two-seater cabin was upholstered in Testa di moro (dark brown) leather and trimmed in Tanganika wood, contrasting with the tree-layer Avorio (ivory) exterior paint colour. The prototype weighed 990 kg (2,180 lb), and was powered by a transverse-mounted 16-valve 1.8-litre VVT, 140 PS (103 kW) inline-four engine which could propel the vehicle from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 8.6 seconds and to a top speed of 213 km/h (132 mph).[13] The suspensions were McPherson struts at the front and trailing arms at the rear; electronic control systems were limited to ABS.[14] Despite the needs of a possible production model having been considered during development,[12] the new Fulvia Coupé did not progress past the prototype stage.

Motorsport[edit]

Rallying[edit]

Mauro Pregliasco on a Lancia Fulvia Coupé Rallye 1.6 HF at the Rallye Sanremo 1973

It was with the Fulvia that Lancia went officially back into racing after its withdrawal from Formula 1 in 1955; this time the effort was focused on rallying.[15] In 1965 the company absorbed the HF Squadra Corse, a privateer racing team founded by Lancia enthusiasts which previously received some factory support, which became the works team under the direction of Cesare Fiorio.[15] The same year the Fulvia Coupé made its racing debut at the Tour de Corse, placing 8th overall.[16] Starting with the lightened and more powerful 1965 Rallye HF, special HF version were put on sale to the general public to homologate improvements for the rally cars. In 1967 the larger displacement Rallye 1.3 HF followed. As the V4 engine had reached the limit of its development, an all-new 1.6-litre V4 engine was developed and installed on the 1967 Rallye 1.6 HF. The car raced as a prototype until August 1969, when it received FIA homologation.[17] With the exception of 1970, Fulvias won the Italian Rally Championship every year from 1965 to 1973. The Fulvia's racing career reached its zenith in 1972, when Lancia won the International Championship for Manufacturers two rounds in advance. First placements at rallies valid for the Chapionship were three: included Sandro Munari and Mario Mannucci at the famous Monte Carlo Rally, with a 10' 50" margin over the runner up, Larrousse/Perramond on a much more powerful Porsche 911 S,[18] Lampinen/Andreasson at the Rallye du Maroc, and Ballestrieri/Bernacchini at the Rallye Sanremo. In 1973 Lancia did not score any podium finishes valid for that year's first-ever World Rally Championship season; though at the hands of Munari the Fulvia won its second European Rally Championship, after the 1969 victory by Harry Källström. During the 1974 season the Lancia Stratos HF replaced in rallying the—by then ageing—Fulvia. That year Lancia won its second World Championship, also thanks points scored by the Fulvia in the first races—such as the third place Munari caught in the grueling East African Safari Rally.

Endurance racing[edit]

The Fulvia Sport was prepared and raced by several privateers in track events. During 1968 Zagato built 27 Sport Competizione competition versions, as well as two specials which later became known as Sport Daytona.[6] These were modified with twin, different sized round headlamps under flush Plexiglas covers, a mesh front grille, widened fenders, Plexiglas side and rear windows, quick-fill fuel cap, and a 155 PS engine.[6] In 1969 these two cars were entered with Maglioli and Pinto as drivers at the 12 Hours of Sebring, placing 18th overall, and at the 24 Hours of Daytona, where they scored a remarkable class win in the sports prototype category and an 11th place overall.[6]

Fulvia HF F&M[edit]

In 1969 three competition Fulvia 1.6 HF were transformed into racing barchettas by Claudio Maglioli.[19] The roof and about 28 cm (11.0 in) of rear bodywork were cut away; heating, interior trim, the passenger seat, and the inner pair of headlamps were removed, while the fuel tank took place of the rear bench seat.[19] In spite of the chassis bracing needed to preserve rigidity without the roof, the car resulted 200 kg (441 lb) lighter than the coupé; the suspension had to be retuned to compensate for the lighter weight, and one leaf was removed from the front spring.[19] The car was christened Fulvia HF F&M Special, where F and M stood for the initials of Lancia team manager Cesare Fiorio and of Maglioli. The barchetta's first major race entry was the 1969 Targa Florio. Sandro Munari and Rauno Altonen drove one to a ninth overall placement as well as to a class victory.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  2. ^ Lancia Fulvia Coupé HF (1965) retrieved from www.autozine.org on 19 January 2011
  3. ^ Road & Track, September 1967, page 66
  4. ^ "Lancia Fulvias - Road versus Rally". classicandperformancecar.com. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  5. ^ "Lancia Fulvia Safari 1300". tonyerker.info. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Tagli di Spada". Automobilismo d'epoca (in Italian) (10): 84–91. October 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Piú Zagato di cosí...". AutoCapital (in Italian) (10): 86–93. October 1991. 
  8. ^ Fenu, Michele (29 October 1968). "Molte le novità fra i carrozzieri". La Stampa (in Italian). p. 9. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  9. ^ Bernabò, Feruccio (14 March 1969). "Successo delle auto italiane". La Stampa (in Italian). p. 13. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Due originali coupé con tanta "grinta"". La Stampa (in Italian). 6 November 1971. p. 19. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "I Carrozzieri e la Fulvia". alma.it. 
  12. ^ a b Bianco, Piero (18 September 2003). "Francoforte effetto Italia". La Stampa (in Italian). p. 6. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  13. ^ Hemmes, Henny (26 August 2003). "Wedergeboorte Lancia Fulvia" [Lancia Fulvia reborn]. autoweek.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Lancia Fulvia Coupé show car". lanciapress.com (press release). 26 August 2003. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  15. ^ a b Amatori et al. 1992, p. 345.
  16. ^ Amatori et al. 1992, p. 344.
  17. ^ Amatori et al. 1992, p. 346.
  18. ^ Fenu, Michele (28 January 1972). "Munari su Lancia". Stampa Sera (in Italian). pp. 1, 9. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Lancia F&M Special". Grace (in Italian) II (4). April 2004. 
  • "All about Lancia Fulvia". Fulvia Site. Retrieved 10 March 2005. 
  • Crowe, James T. (1968). "Toyota 2000 GT". Road & Track Road Test Annual: 110–113. 
  • Amatori, Franco et al. (1992). Storia della Lancia — Impresa Tecnologie Mercati 1906–1969. Milan: Fabbri Editori. p. 350. 

External links[edit]