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Land Space Technology Corporation Ltd.
Native name
FounderZhang Changwu
Footnotes / references

LandSpace (Chinese: 蓝箭[2]; pinyin: Lán Jiàn; lit. 'Blue Arrow') or Landspace Technology Corporation (Chinese: 蓝箭空间科技[3][4]; pinyin: Lán Jiàn Kōngjiān Kējì; lit. 'Blue Arrow Space Technology') is a Chinese private space launch company based in Beijing.[5] It was founded in 2015 by Tsinghua University alumni Zhang Changwu.[6][5][7]

The company conducted its first launch of the Zhuque-1 launch vehicle on 27 October 2018, however the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[8][9]

The firm aims to develop, build and operate a solid-fueled orbital rocket Zhuque-1, which is technologically based on the Long March 11 rocket of the Chinese government. LandSpace also aims to develop an original rocket design, the liquid-fueled orbital rocket Zhuque-2.[10]

Launch vehicles[edit]



Zhuque-1 (ZQ-1, Chinese:朱雀一号 or 朱雀·南太湖号), also called LandSpace-1 or LS-1 (the name LandSpace-1 or LS-1 was originally reserved for a different rocket that did not in the end materialize;[11] after cancellation of the rocket, the name LandSpace-1 was affiliated to LandSpace's rocket-to-be-developed, the Zhuque-1), is a 19 m (62 ft)-tall, three-stage solid-propellant rocket. All stages have a diameter of 1.35 m. It is likely based on the DF-26 missile's rocket motor.[12] Zhuque-1 has a takeoff mass of 27 t (30 tons) and a thrust of 45 tf (99,000 lbf), and is able to carry 300 kg (660 lb) of payload into a 300 km (190 mi) low Earth orbit.[8]

The maiden flight of Zhuque-1 was on 27 October 2018 from a mobile platform at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, carrying Weilai-1 satellite for China Central Television. After a successful first- and second-stage firing, and fairing separation, the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[8][9] Zhuque-1 was the first Chinese private orbital rocket to attempt an orbital launch.[13]

According to some reports, the manufacturer of the solid rocket motors has ended their contract with LandSpace. This raised doubts as to whether there will be a second flight of Zhuque-1.[12]


LandSpace is also developing a liquid-fuelled rocket called Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2).[5] Zhuque-2 is a medium-sized rocket powered by liquid oxygen and methane capable of lifting 4,000 kg of payload into a 200 km low Earth orbit, or 2,000 kg of payload into a 500 km Sun-synchronous orbit.[14][15] As of July 2018, the rocket was planned to be launched in 2020,[16] however by 2019 this had slipped to 2021.[17]

Zhuque-2 will have a liftoff weight of 216 metric tons and use 4 TQ-12 methalox engines on the first stage each with a thrust of 67 metric tonnes.[18][19] The second stage will use 1 vacuum optimised TQ-12 with a thrust of 80 metric tonnes in combination with a 10 metric tonnes thrust TQ-11 engines which will act as a vernier thruster.

In May 2019, LandSpace did test firings of its liquid methane and LOX fuelled TQ-12 rocket engine at its test facility at Huzhou, Zhejiang province. LandSpace's head of research and development, Ge Minghe, says the engine has a thrust of 80 tonnes. The Huzhou facility will be able to produce about 15 ZQ-2 rockets and 200 TQ-12 engines starting in 2022, according to CEO, Zhang Changwu.[20][21]


LandSpace is one of several Chinese solid rocket startups in competition, others being OneSpace, LinkSpace, ExPace,[22] i-Space and Galactic Energy.


  1. ^ "About Us - Landspace". Landspace. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  2. ^ 蓝箭官网
  3. ^ "北京蓝箭空间科技有限公司(landspace)" (in Chinese). China Spaceflight. 30 September 2017.
  4. ^ Henri Kenhamn (2017). "LandSpace: le futur SpaceX chinois" (in French). East Pendulum.
  5. ^ a b c Jeffrey Lin; P.W. Singer (23 January 2017). "A private Chinese space company just scored a foreign contract for the first time". Popular Science.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Zhang Changwu". APSCC Satellite Conference.
  7. ^ Clay Dillow (28 March 2017). "China's secret plan to crush SpaceX and the US space program". CNBC.
  8. ^ a b c Barbosa, Rui C. (27 October 2018). "Chinese commercial provider LandSpace launches Weilai-1 on a Zhuque-1 rockets – fails to make orbit". Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  9. ^ a b Jones, Andrew (27 October 2018). "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  10. ^ Fernholz, Tim. "The SpaceX of China aims to commercialize a mysterious rocket on the world stage". Quartz (publication).
  11. ^ "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". SpaceNews. 27 October 2018.
  12. ^ a b "ZhuQue-1 (ZQ-1, LandSpace-1, LS-1)".
  13. ^ Clark, Stephen. "LandSpace falls short of orbit in private Chinese launch attempt". Spaceflight Now.
  14. ^ "Commercial Chinese companies set sights on methalox rockets, first orbital launches". SpaceNews. 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  15. ^ "LandSpace Unveils Highly Ambitious New Rocket". Satellite Today. 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission May 2019
  19. ^ LandSpace Completes Hot Fire Test of Groundbreaking TQ-12 Methalox Engine May 2019
  20. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission, Space Daily, 2019-05-21
  21. ^ Jones, Andrew (5 June 2020). "Chinese private launch firms advance with methane engines, launch preparations and new funding". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  22. ^ Doug Messier (20 December 2017). "EXPACE Raises US$182 Million for Small Satellite Launchers". Parabolic Arc.

External links[edit]