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LandSpace Technology Corporation
Native name
FoundedJune 2015; 8 years ago (2015-06)[1]
FounderZhang Changwu[2]
Footnotes / references
LandSpace Technology Corporation
Simplified Chinese蓝箭航天空间科技股份有限公司
Traditional Chinese藍箭航天空間科技股份有限公司
Traditional Chinese藍箭航天

LandSpace Technology Corporation (doing business as LandSpace)[4][5][6] is a Chinese private space launch provider based in Beijing.[7] It was founded in 2015 by Zhang Changwu.[7][8]

LandSpace developed its first launch vehicle Zhuque-1, powered by solid-propellant motors. Zhuque-1 was launched on 27 October 2018, however the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[9][10] The company also developed the liquid-fueled Zhuque-2, based on its methalox TQ-11 and TQ-12 engines, whose maiden launch (failed to orbit) occurred in December 2022.[11][12]

Launch vehicles[edit]



Zhuque-1 (ZQ-1, Chinese:朱雀一号 or 朱雀·南太湖号), also called LandSpace-1 or LS-1 (the name LandSpace-1 or LS-1 was originally reserved for a different rocket that did not in the end materialize;[13] after cancellation of the rocket, the name LandSpace-1 was then affiliated to LandSpace's rocket-to-be-developed at the time, the Zhuque-1), is a 19 m (62 ft)-tall, three-stage solid-propellant rocket. All stages have a diameter of 1.35 m. It is likely based on the DF-26 missile's rocket motor.[14] Zhuque-1 has a takeoff mass of 27 t (30 tons) and a thrust of 45 tf (99,000 lbf), and is able to carry 300 kg (660 lb) of payload into a 300 km (190 mi) low Earth orbit.[9]

The maiden flight of Zhuque-1 was on 27 October 2018 from a mobile platform at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, carrying Weilai-1 satellite for China Central Television. After a successful first- and second-stage firing, and fairing separation, the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[9][10] Zhuque-1 was the first Chinese private orbital rocket to attempt an orbital launch.[15]

According to news reports, the manufacturer of the solid rocket motors has ended its contract with LandSpace. This raised doubts as to whether there will be a second flight of Zhuque-1.[14]


LandSpace developed a liquid-fuelled rocket called Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2).[7] Zhuque-2 is a medium-sized rocket powered by liquid oxygen and methane capable of lifting 4,000 kg of payload into a 200 km low Earth orbit, or 2,000 kg of payload into a 500 km Sun-synchronous orbit.[16][17] The rocket was initially planned to be launched in 2020,[18] however by 2019 this had slipped to 2021,[19] and later to December 2022.

Zhuque-2 has a liftoff weight of 216 metric tons and use 4 TQ-12 methalox engines on the first stage each with a thrust of 67 metric tonnes.[20][21] The second stage utilizes one vacuum optimised TQ-12 with a thrust of 80 metric tonnes in combination with an 8 metric tonnes thrust TQ-11 engine which acts as a vernier thruster.[22]

In May 2019, LandSpace performed test firings of its liquid methane and LOX fuelled TQ-12 rocket engine at its test facility at Huzhou, Zhejiang province. LandSpace's head of research and development, Ge Minghe, says the engine has a thrust of 80 tonnes. The Huzhou facility will be able to produce about 15 ZQ-2 rockets and 200 TQ-12 engines starting in 2022, according to CEO, Zhang Changwu.[23][24]

On 14 December 2022, LandSpace conducted the debut flight of Zhuque-2, but failed to reach orbit due to an early shutdown of its second stage vernier engines after the second stage main engines apparently completed a successful burn. It was the world's first orbital launch attempt by a methane-fueled launch vehicle,[25] and was the first methane launch vehicle to reach space.

In March 2023, LandSpace confirmed that the second Zhuque-2 launch vehicle had completed assembly and was undergoing preparations for a launch attempt in the coming months.[26]


Rocket & Serial Flight No. Date Payload Orbit Launch Site Outcome Notes
Zhuque-1 [9][10] 27 October 2018,
08:00 UTC
Weila-1 (‘Future’) satellite LEO Jiuquan Failure
Zhuque-2 [11] Y1 14 December 2022,
08:30 UTC
Various SSO Jiuquan Failure First methane launch vehicle to reach space
Zhuque-2 [11] Y2 Jiuquan Planned


LandSpace is in competition with several other Chinese space rocket startups, being LinkSpace, Galactic Energy, ExPace, i-Space, OneSpace and Deep Blue Aerospace.[27]


  1. ^ "LANDSPACE 关于我们". Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  2. ^ "Zhang Changwu". APSCC Satellite Conference.
  3. ^ "About Us - Landspace". Landspace. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  4. ^ 蓝箭官网
  5. ^ "北京蓝箭空间科技有限公司(landspace)" (in Chinese). China Spaceflight. 30 September 2017.
  6. ^ Henri Kenhamn (2017). "LandSpace: le futur SpaceX chinois" (in French). East Pendulum.
  7. ^ a b c Jeffrey Lin; P.W. Singer (23 January 2017). "A private Chinese space company just scored a foreign contract for the first time". Popular Science.
  8. ^ Clay Dillow (28 March 2017). "China's secret plan to crush SpaceX and the US space program". CNBC.
  9. ^ a b c d Barbosa, Rui C. (27 October 2018). "Chinese commercial provider LandSpace launches Weilai-1 on a Zhuque-1 rockets – fails to make orbit". Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  10. ^ a b c Jones, Andrew (27 October 2018). "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Fernholz, Tim. "The SpaceX of China aims to commercialize a mysterious rocket on the world stage". Quartz (publication).
  12. ^ Jones, Andrew (18 January 2022). "China's Landspace appears to be preparing to launch its new methane-fueled rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  13. ^ "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". SpaceNews. 27 October 2018.
  14. ^ a b "ZhuQue-1 (ZQ-1, LandSpace-1, LS-1)".
  15. ^ Clark, Stephen. "LandSpace falls short of orbit in private Chinese launch attempt". Spaceflight Now.
  16. ^ "Commercial Chinese companies set sights on methalox rockets, first orbital launches". SpaceNews. 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  17. ^ "LandSpace Unveils Highly Ambitious New Rocket". Satellite Today. 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  18. ^ "Landspace - ZQ-2 / Suzaku No. 2".
  19. ^ "Chinese space launch firm Landspace raises $71 million". 10 December 2019.
  20. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission May 2019
  21. ^ LandSpace Completes Hot Fire Test of Groundbreaking TQ-12 Methalox Engine May 2019
  22. ^ Lan, Chen; Myrrhe, Jacqueline (3 September 2019). "Will LandSpace be China's SpaceX?". The Space Review. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  23. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission, Space Daily, 2019-05-21
  24. ^ Jones, Andrew (5 June 2020). "Chinese private launch firms advance with methane engines, launch preparations and new funding". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  25. ^ Beil, Adrian (14 December 2022). "Chinese Zhuque-2 fails during first methalox orbital launch attempt". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  26. ^ Beil, Adrian (31 March 2023). "LandSpace readies for second flight of ZhuQue-2 amid launch salvo". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  27. ^ Doug Messier (20 December 2017). "EXPACE Raises US$182 Million for Small Satellite Launchers". Parabolic Arc.

External links[edit]