The flare follows the final approach phase and precedes the touchdown and roll-out phases of landing. In the flare, the nose of the plane is raised, slowing the descent rate and therefore, creating a softer touchdown, and the proper attitude is set for touchdown. In the case of conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (front) landing gear first. In the case of tricycle gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (rear) landing gear. In the case of monowheel gear-equipped gliders, the flare consists only of leveling the aircraft.
- Airplane Flying Handbook. https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/airplane_handbook/: Federal Aviation Administration. 2016. pp. 8–6.
- Transport Canada: Aeroplane Flight Training Manual, 4th Edition, page 105. Gage Educational Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-7715-5115-0
- KaiserG, John W.: How to Fly Book - Cessna 150, page 33. Victoria Flying Club, 1977
- Reichman, Helmut Flying Sailplanes, page 51. Thomson Publications, 1980. Library of Congress 80-52798
Dan Poynter; Mike Turoff (2003). Parachuting: The Skydiver's Handbook. Para Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56860-087-1. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
Flare at 15', push both toggles down to pelvis....or blow the timing on the landing flare.
Simon Newman (1994). The foundations of helicopter flight. Halsted Press. ISBN 978-0-470-23394-8. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
...the final part of the autorotative manoeuvre. This is the landing flare prior to touchdown, which is necessary to arrest the vertical descent rate of the helicopter.