Landing flare

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Piper PA-28 Cherokee flaring for landing

The landing flare, also referred to as the round out,[1] is a maneuver or stage during the landing of an aircraft.[2][3][4]

The flare follows the final approach phase and precedes the touchdown and roll-out phases of landing. In the flare, the nose of the plane is raised, slowing the descent rate, and the proper attitude is set for touchdown. In the case of conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (front) landing gear first. In the case of tricycle gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (rear) landing gear. In the case of monowheel gear-equipped gliders, the flare consists only of leveling the aircraft.[2][3][4]

In parachuting, the flare is the part of the parachute landing fall preceding ground contact and is executed about 15 feet (5 m) above ground.[5]

During a helicopter landing, a flare is used to reduce both vertical and horizontal speed to allow a near zero-speed touchdown.[6]


  1. ^ Airplane Flying Handbook. Federal Aviation Administration. 2016. pp. 8–6.
  2. ^ a b Transport Canada: Aeroplane Flight Training Manual, 4th Edition, page 105. Gage Educational Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-7715-5115-0
  3. ^ a b KaiserG, John W.: How to Fly Book - Cessna 150, page 33. Victoria Flying Club, 1977
  4. ^ a b Reichman, Helmut Flying Sailplanes, page 51. Thomson Publications, 1980. Library of Congress 80-52798
  5. ^ Dan Poynter; Mike Turoff (2003). Parachuting: The Skydiver's Handbook. Para Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56860-087-1. Retrieved 2011-10-15. Flare at 15', push both toggles down to pelvis....or blow the timing on the landing flare.
  6. ^ Simon Newman (1994). The foundations of helicopter flight. Halsted Press. ISBN 978-0-470-23394-8. Retrieved 2011-10-15. ...the final part of the autorotative manoeuvre. This is the landing flare prior to touchdown, which is necessary to arrest the vertical descent rate of the helicopter.

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