Landing flare

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Piper PA-28 Cherokee flaring for landing

The landing flare, also referred to as the round out,[1] is a maneuver or stage during the landing of an aircraft.[2][3][4]

The flare follows the final approach phase and precedes the touchdown and roll-out phases of landing. In the flare, the nose of the plane is raised, slowing the descent rate and therefore, creating a softer touchdown, and the proper attitude is set for touchdown. In the case of conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (front) landing gear first. In the case of tricycle gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (rear) landing gear. In the case of monowheel gear-equipped gliders, the flare consists only of leveling the aircraft.[2][3][4]

In parachuting, the flare is the part of the parachute landing fall preceding ground contact and is executed about 15 feet (5 m) above ground.[5]

During a helicopter landing, a flare is used to reduce both vertical and horizontal speed to allow a near zero-speed touchdown.[6]


  1. ^ Airplane Flying Handbook. Federal Aviation Administration. 2016. pp. 8–6.
  2. ^ a b Transport Canada: Aeroplane Flight Training Manual, 4th Edition, page 105. Gage Educational Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-7715-5115-0
  3. ^ a b KaiserG, John W.: How to Fly Book - Cessna 150, page 33. Victoria Flying Club, 1977
  4. ^ a b Reichman, Helmut Flying Sailplanes, page 51. Thomson Publications, 1980. Library of Congress 80-52798
  5. ^ Dan Poynter; Mike Turoff (2003). Parachuting: The Skydiver's Handbook. Para Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56860-087-1. Retrieved 2011-10-15. Flare at 15', push both toggles down to pelvis....or blow the timing on the landing flare.
  6. ^ Simon Newman (1994). The foundations of helicopter flight. Halsted Press. ISBN 978-0-470-23394-8. Retrieved 2011-10-15. ...the final part of the autorotative manoeuvre. This is the landing flare prior to touchdown, which is necessary to arrest the vertical descent rate of the helicopter.

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