Landsberg am Lech
Landsberg am Lech
|District||Landsberg am Lech|
|• Lord mayor (2020–26)||Doris Baumgartl|
|• Total||57.89 km2 (22.35 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||630 m (2,070 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||585 m (1,919 ft)|
|• Density||510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Dialling codes||08191, 08246 (Ellighofen)|
Landsberg am Lech (Landsberg at the Lech) is a town in southwest Bavaria, Germany, about 65 kilometers west of Munich and 35 kilometers south of Augsburg. It is the capital of the district of Landsberg am Lech.
Landsberg am Lech developed where a major historic salt road crossed over the Lech. To protect the bridge, Duke Henry the Lion ordered a castle to be built, Castrum Landespurch, incorporating an older settlement and castle named Phetine. Soon a greater settlement evolved, which received its town charter as early as the 13th century.
In 1315, the town burned down, but was rebuilt because of its important location. In 1320, Landsberg was permitted to collect salt duties, bringing considerable wealth to the town. In 1419, a river tax added a further source of income.
The town is noted for its prison where Adolf Hitler was incarcerated in 1924. During this incarceration Hitler wrote/dictated his book Mein Kampf together with Rudolf Hess. His cell, number 7, became part of the Nazi cult and many followers came to visit it during the German Nazi-period. Landsberg am Lech was also known as the town of the Hitler Youth.
In the outskirts of this town existed a concentration camp, where over 30,000 victims were imprisoned under inhuman conditions, resulting in the death of around 14,500 of them.
The town comprises three main areas. The historic old town centre of Landsberg, which lies between the river Lech and its easterly elevated bank. The area to the west of the Lech (Katharinenvorstadt, Neuerpfting, Weststadt, Schwaighofsiedlung – today by far the biggest part of the town) and the area on the easterly elevated bank (Bayervorstadt) developed since the early 19th century.
Also belonging to Landsberg are the hamlets of Sandau and Pössing as well as the former independent boroughs of Ellighofen, Erpfting (with Friedheim, Geratshof and Mittelstetten), Pitzling (with Pöring) and Reisch (with Thalhofen).
Landsberg Concentration Camp and displaced person camp
The Landsberg camp began as a Nazi concentration camp. By October 1944, there were more than 5,000 prisoners in the camp.
The camp was liberated on 27 April 1945 by the 12th Armored Division of the United States Army. Upon orders from General Taylor, the American forces allowed news media to record the atrocities, and ordered local German civilians and guards to reflect upon the dead and bury them bare-handed. A dramatization of the discovery and liberation of the camp was presented in Episode 9: Why We Fight of the Band of Brothers mini-series.
In December 2019, Israeli academic and translator Ilana Hammerman wrote of the difficulties she encountered in trying to visit the site of the concentration camp and to find the memorial to the victims. She noted that "[f]or decades after the war, local residents and the authorities endeavored to ignore its existence and consign it to oblivion". Since 1983 Anton Posset and the association called Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert are working on the commemorating this part of history and established based on donations the European Holocaust Memorial on the former concentration camp Kaufering VII.
- Lanspergius (1489–1539), Carthusian monk and ascetical writer
- Ignaz Kögler (1680–1746), Jesuit missionary and mathematician
- Dominikus Zimmermann (1685–1766), architect
- Sir Hubert von Herkomer (1849–1914), artist, film and theatre director
- Alois Wolfmüller (1864–1948), inventor and aeronautical engineer
- Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (1876–1956), World War II field marshal and war criminal
- George Remus (1878–1952), attorney and famed bootlegger during U.S. Prohibition
- Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), dictator (was in prison in Landsberg 1923/24)
- Luise Rinser (1911–2002), writer and politician
- Johnny Cash (1932–2003), American singer/songwriter stationed in the Landsberg-Lech Airbase from 1951 until his discharge in 1954 while serving in the U.S. Air Force
- Siegfried Rauch (1932–2018), actor
- Samuel Bak (born 1933), painter and writer
- Anton Posset (1941–2015), holocaust researcher and founder of the European Holocaust Memorial located in Landsberg
- Erwin Neher (born 1944), biologist
- Julian Nagelsmann (born 1987), football manager
- Michael Unterbuchner (born 1988), darts player
- Florian Neuhaus (born 1997), footballer
Twin towns – sister cities
Landsberg is home to the following sports clubs:
|TSV Landsberg||Football||Landesliga Bayern||1882|
|Landsberg Riverkings||Ice hockey||Regionalliga (Bayernliga)||2008|
|Landsberg X-PRESS||American football||Regionalliga Süd||2007|
|Jahn Landsberg||Football||A-Klasse Oberbayern||1923|
|Türkspor Landsberg||Football||A-Klasse Oberbayern||--|
|Landsberg Cruisaders||Baseball||Bezirksliga Bayern||2003|
|Landsberg Kodiacs||Softball||Landesliga Bayern||2009|
|Landsberg BB-Dance Camp||Dance||Boogie Woogie Dance Festival||1987|
- Burgett, Daniel R. (2001). Beyond the Rhine. New York: Dell Publishing. pp. 119–134.
- Thomas Raithel, Die Strafanstalt Landsberg am Lech und der Spöttinger Friedhof (1944-1958). Eine Dokumentation im Auftrag des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte München-Berlin (München: Oldenbourg 2009).
- Liste der ersten Bürgermeister/Oberbürgermeister in kreisangehörigen Gemeinden, Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik, 15 July 2021.
- "Tabellenblatt "Daten 2", Statistischer Bericht A1200C 202041 Einwohnerzahlen der Gemeinden, Kreise und Regierungsbezirke". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik (in German). June 2021.
- Landsberg - the City of the Youth during WWII article by Anton Posset and the Citizens´Association "Landsberg in the 20th Century", see also Citizens´Association European Holocaust Memorial Foundation: „Landsberg: The City of Youth
- The future began at DP-Camp Landsberg article by Anton Posset. See also:This article traces the origin and history of the DP-camp Landsberg between 1945 and 1952.
- Original movie of the U.S. Army: liberation of the concentration camp Kaufering IV (by Landsberg Lech), in April 1945: This film and the photos, made by the U.S. Army, served as a template for Part 9 "Band of Brothers" given from the archive of Anton Posset to the film team.
- Hammerman, Ilana (6 December 2019). "A Picturesque Bavarian Town Shows That Germany Isn't Confronting Its Nazi Past". Haaretz. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
- English Homepage of the Association: Bürgervereingung Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert zur Erfoschung der Landsberger Zeitgeschichte
- Hilburn, Robert (2014). Johnny Cash : the life (First Back Bay paperback ed.). New York. ISBN 0-316-19474-3. OCLC 871788423.
- "Partnerstädte". landsberg.de (in German). Landsberg am Lech. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- Official Website (in German)
- European Holocaust Memorial Citizens´Association European Holocaust Memorial Foundation
- The Holocaust in the Landsberg area - Citizens´ Association "Landsberg in the 20th Century" (English)
- Landsberger lager-cajtung (Landsberg am Lech, Germany), B1110 is a digitized periodical at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York