The old water tower in Landskrona is a landmark that can be seen from far away
|• Total||12.09 km2 (4.67 sq mi)|
|Population (31 December 2010)|
|• Density||2,524/km2 (6,540/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Landskrona is a late medieval town located at the shores of Øresund, founded at the location of the former Danish fishing village Sønder Sæby in the province of Scania by king Erik VII of Pomerania early in the 15th century. In 1720 the town, like its province, became a formal part of Sweden. Around the Castle build by Danish king Christian III in 1549, Landskrona Citadel, a huge system of moats emerged over the centuries, also in the town's Swedish history. Today the Citadel is famous for its well-preserved moat system, which includes parts of four moats. At the northern part of the Citadel, Sweden's second, and today oldest allotment area is located. Its port is based on a natural chute in the sandy sea floor, despite the lack of any nearby debouching river.
For many years the town had a car ferry line to Copenhagen (Tuborg harbour, 70 minutes). Landskrona is located close to the Danish capital. From Rådhustorget (Town Hall Square) in Landskrona to Amalienborg Royal Palace in central Copenhagen, the crow flight distance is around 22–23 km. In the later parts of the 19th century, the town was transformed from a military settlement to a heavy industrial town. Between 1917 and 1983 Öresundsvarvet shipyard had up to 3,500 employees, but the town also had large manufacturers in the chemical and textile industry sectors. The football club Landskrona BoIS, which has participated in either of the top two Swedish league divisions during all but six seasons (as of January 2017, and there will be at least one more), ever since the Swedish football league system began in 1924–25, has always been important for the town and its inhabitants.
The city of Landskrona was founded at the location of Scania's (at that time a part of Denmark) best natural harbour, this an example of King Eric of Pomerania's anti-Hanseatic policy intended to compete with Danish towns under Hanseatic control. The foundation was done at a place for a fishing settlement, historically described as Sønder Sæby ("sønder" means "southern"). Today, there is still a very small settlement just north of the town, known as Säby (Sæby in Danish). This probably was the Nørre Sæby ("nørre" means "northern") in the beginning of the 15th century, but since the southern village became the town, the need for distinguishing northern and southern Sæby disappeared. The original name of the officially founded town was Landszcrone. But changed to Landskrone sometime before 1450.
A Carmelite monastery was founded in 1410, English merchants were granted the privileges in a royal charter in 1412, and the town itself was chartered in 1413. The monastery was closed by King Christian III after the reformation. A smaller street is named after this very contemplative and closed order, "Karmelitergatan". Around 1960 did a convent return to the countryside 8–9 km north of the town centre, it is located on the south side of a road which constitutes the boundary between Landskrona and Helsingborg municipalities. The closest settlement Rydebäck belongs to the neighbouring city, but the convent is entirely located within Landskrona's countryside. The corresponding monastery is located in Norraby. This is located east of the town and its quite small countryside.
The town supported the king Christian II (1525), and opposed the Reformation in Denmark (1535), and in both cases found itself among the defeated. The Reformist King Christian III of Denmark opted not to retaliate against the town, and instead founded a castle to protect the harbour. The castle, built where the monastery had been situated until the Reformation (which reached Denmark in 1536), was completed by 1559.
When Scania had been ceded to the Swedish Crown in 1658, the good harbour and the strong fort were reasons for plans to make Landskrona a commercial center of the acquired territory, with extraordinary privileges for foreign trade. The castle was reinforced by bastions, and the area inside the moats extended to 400x400 meters. The castle was considered the strongest and most modern in Scandinavia, but was temporarily lost to the Danes after a comparably short siege July 8 – August 2, 1676. The commandant Colonel Hieronymus Lindeberg was consequently sentenced to death for high treason.
In 1753 the Swedish military commander suddenly feared that the tower of Sancti Johannis Baptistae church could be a threat to the citadel and demanded a demolition of the church  Even though the cornerstone of a new church was laid the following year, the Sofia Albertina Church (by Carl Hårleman) wasn't inaugurated until 1788. And first by 1812 it was finished. Possibly as a compensation for the medieval and much larger old church, the new one got two towers, which is considered rare for a non-Bishop seat church.
Any further plans for Landskrona were however not realized, for various reasons. The continued Swedish–Danish wars favoured Karlskrona, located at a safer distance from Denmark, replacing Landskrona as a naval base, and as such the fortifications were discontinued. Malmö remained the most important commercial town, despite Malmö lacking a harbour until the late 18th century. The fortifications at Landskrona were expanded considerably between 1747 and 1788, but were condemned in 1822, whereafter the garrison was abolished in 1869. The last military regiment, Skånska Husarregimentet, K5 was renamed and moved from Landskrona  (and neighbouring city Helsingborg) in 1926, to Uppsala, and the military's large exercise field became there after a public heath. It's called "Exercisfältet" or simply "Exan", and hasn't become build up. A minor part of "Exan" has become a sports field with several football pitches. Another part is the reserved for touring Circuses, but most of the heath is more or less wilderness, and will remain that way.
Also the walls and moats of the fortifications of Landskrona Citadel are today a recreational area. On its northern side, an allotment-garden area of cottages was founded in the final years of the 19th century. It is the oldest of its kind in Sweden today.
The town grew quickly after the industrial revolution and subsequent urbanization. During the first World War a large shipyard, Öresundsvarvet was constructed, but after the war the fast growing of Landskrona slowed, while nearby towns like Helsingborg, Lund and Malmö continued to grow. In the mid-1970s the shipyard had more than 3,500 people employed, this in a town with only 30,000 inhabitants (38,000 in the broader municipality). The shipyard was closed down in stages, and the very end came in 1983.
On 14 May 1919 the great Swedish flight pioneer Dr Enoch Thulin, who lived and worked in Landskrona, crashed his own airplane at the Södra Fäladen fields and died. His funeral service was held in Sofia Albertina Church
Between 1930 and 1939 the Saxtorp TT-races were held, just south of the town. These motorcycle races are considered the largest sporting events by crowd ever held in Sweden, as the events gathered up to 160,000 attendees.
The town's centre and buildings along the entrance streets generally consists of buildings with between two and seven floors. Some of the buildings may give an impression of the town being larger than it actually is. Landskrona was also relatively larger today compared with a century ago. Between approx. 1880 and 1920 was the town transformed from a military town to a town with much heavy industry within many sectors. The Öresundsvarvet shipyard opened in 1917 became the largest employer (with close to 4000 employees in the early 1970s). But the industry was not limited to shipbuilding, and a sugar refinery, several textile industries, fertilizers and other chemical plants, as well as a spectrum of various manufacturing industries, grew up. But after the First World War, the town stopped growing as fast as many other Swedish towns did. And the very last military regiment moved to Hässleholm in 1924. Between the mid-1920s and mid-1970s the town grew from approx. 20,000 inabitants to 30,000. And after the Swedish municipality reforms reached its end point, in 1974, the municipality counted around 38,000 inhabitants.
During "The Demolition Rampage Era", in Sweden a period between 1955 and 1975, when the word "old" in general meant "bad", in the context of architecture. Typically department stores and parking houses replaced older buildings in town and city centres. Landskrona was relatively spared from this, but not entirely. Around "Rådhustorget", the Town Hall Square, all but one building was built before Le Corbusier's Functionalism became popular. Most demolished buildings were low or of minor architectural value, but "Falcks hörna" (a block corner building with a rather unusual look) was considered a loss to the town in 1971. Pictures exists here  (the magnificent building) and at  (the police attended demolition).
As a fortified town, stone houses were early preferred instead of wooden houses. Hence few examples of traditional Danish and Scanian half-timbered houses exists. Apart from the Castle (the actual building at the Citadel) and Sofia Albertina Church, other notable 19th-century or older buildings are "Rådhuset", the Town Hall, Landskrona Museum, the old Railway station building and the Theatre.
By 1901 the town employed its first town architect, and much of the town's central parts, and buildings along the (partly former) entrance roads are characterized by the former town architechts Fredrik Sundbärg 1901–1913 and Frans Ekelund 1913–1949. Sundberg created a number of monumental buildings like the old Water tower, the remarkable school "Tuppaskolan", the power station and a hot bathhouse (which though was demolished in the 1970s), as well as two large block of flats Falken and Gripen, mainly intended for the working class.
Ekelund, who was a believer in "Trädgårdsstaden" or Garden City, created areas within for own homes whithin the town limits. Ralph Erskine created the row house area called "Esperanza" (Spanish for hope) around 1970. In that year also the "UFO-inspired" new Water Tower was taken into operation. No real monumental building has been build since then. Not even the new railway station can be considered as a such building.
The town's first railway station opened in 1863 and was located a short walk from Rådhustorget, the City Hall Square.  Eventually did three lines (to Eslöv, to Kävlinge and further to either Lund or Malmö and to Billesholm) start from that station. The line to Billesholm was closed before the 1960's. And by the end of the 1970's was local railways considered to be outdated. However did Landskrona together with the other towns and cities in the former Malmöhus län join in a local train project, and the successful concept labeled as Pågatåg was born, and opened in 1983. In connection with the planning of the Øresund Bridge, was another train system invented, the Øresundståg. After some political discussions was it decided to build a new dual track high speed railway between Helsingborg and Lund (as a part of the still not completed West Coast Railway between Copenhagen and Gothenborg), and since Landskrona is located between these cities, was the town included on the new railway. But as the new railway just "touched" the town's eastern end, was the need of a new location for the station called for. And just a hundred meters or so, in to the former agricultural fields, became the location for the new station. The new station and its tracks is today forming a sharp boundary between town and countryside.
In January 2001, a new railway station opened in Landskrona on the West Coast railway between Lund and Gothenburg along the Swedish west coast. This was very important for the town, since the old station was a terminal for southbound trains only. The new station is along the high-speed dual track railway line between Copenhagen and Helsingborg (where the high speed and dual tracks vanishes for almost 30 km). All local Pågatågen trains and inter-regional Øresundståg trains stop at the station. Weekdays 4–6 trains in each direction every hour. The connection between the new station and the city centre, "the Station Shuttle," has been operated with trolleybuses since autumn of 2003. The "shuttle" runs between the new railway station and the ferry terminal in the harbour. This includes 4–5 stops in between, and one of the bus stops are located at "Rådhustorget" or The Court Square, which with surrounding streets forms the town centre.
It's a bit cheaper and not too uncomfortable, to travel to Copenhagen also with northbound trains to Helsingborg and there transfer to the ferries to Elsinore, and then travel southbound again. The time this route takes depends on how long one has to wait for the ferry and train at Danish side, but as the ferries at the HH Ferry route departures every 15th minute in each direction, and the trains from Elsinore to Copenhagen departures every 20th minute, so such waiting times are usually low. A special ticket "Öresund Rundt" (Around Øresund) is the cheapest return ticket possible, except for daily commuters. (By autumn 2014 priced to 249 SEK.) The ticket gives free local transport in Copenhagen (zones 1,2 & 3) and is valid for two days. The only obstacle is that one has to use the bridge in one direction and the ferries the opposite way.
History of the Øresund traffic
For many years, Landskrona was serviced by car ferries and other ships to and from Copenhagen. From 1951 to 1980 did the SL ferries operate the route between Port of Tuborg in northern Copenhagen and Landskrona. During a larger part of that period, also the Viking Bådene  operated smaller passenger ships between the inner port of Copenhagen harbour. They were owned in Denmark 19 From around 1970 they were purchased by the Swedish Centrumlinjen but kept their name. The 1973 energy crisis eventually caused the end of this shipping line.
Between 1980 and 1984 different kind of ships and shipping lines offered at least summer time traffic to Copenhagen. And From 1985 Scarlett Line was formed, and once again sailed to Port of Tuborg. From the spring of 1991 did Danish Vognmandsruten A/S merge with Scarlett Line, maintained the established name and began to sail every hour. The new shipping line mainly was intended to live on transport of lorries. In the autumn of 1993 Vognmandsruten A/S went bankrupt and this put an end to the car and lorry ferry traffic from Landskrona.
However hydrofoilic speedboats Flygbåtarna AB, which previously only had served passenger traffic in the southern part of Øresund, between Malmö and Copenhagen, now began to operate also from both Landskrona as well as from Helsingborg. Not until March 2002, almost two years after the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge did Flygbåtarna AB threw in the towel.
Copenhagen Airport influence
By train it takes 50 minutes to Copenhagen Airport, as it is referred to locally, – the largest in Scandinavia and Finland. Unless the wind conditions do not suit landings at Runway 22L. In fact 65.8% of all landings at Copenhagen take place at Runway 22L (220 degrees, left runway). During rush hours at the Danish airport, the aircraft's path down to Runway 22L becomes a longer and longer arch or bow. Runway 22L is the most used for landings, with winds from the west or south-west. More traffic means a longer arch, and during traffic peaks all aircraft are coming in above the northern part of the town, where they make a sharp right turn towards the south. (Actually within aviation, the longest approach is considered "standard". But if a single plane wants to land in the middle of the night, that aircraft will be allowed to land more or less as pleases its captain. In high traffic this is of course not possible.) Around Barsebäck 9 nautical miles to the south, the localiser can be intercepted and the runway in question is located straight ahead  The aircraft have around 5 minutes to go, when they turn over Landskrona. When they use the path to 22L above Landskrona, the time distance between every aircraft may shrink down to less than a minute between each aircraft.
The following sports clubs are located in Landskrona:
- "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- "Erik af Pommern ca. 1382-1459". Danmarkshistorien.dk. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Source states the traditional 1413 as founding, but findings in Danish National archive indicates the town to be even older. However "early in 15th century" is supported by this source". Citadellet.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Riksarkivet. "Riksarkivet - Sök i arkiven". riksarkivet.se.
- See 3.July 1720 at Swedish National Archive
- "Landskrona Citadell en minihistoria | Landskrona Slott". Citadellet.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Landskrona | Sweden | Encyclopedia Britannica". Global.britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Special 600-year magazine given to all household in the municipality, labeled "Landzcrone"
- "Skandinavisk Linjetrafik". Faktaomfartyg.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Scarlett Line". Faktaomfartyg.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Flygbåtarna Landskrona-Köpenhamn - 0418473930 | Landskrona". Hitta.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Viktiga händelser i Öresundsvarvets historia | Artikel". Varvshistoriska.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Special "newspaper", labeled "Landszcrone" given free to all households in Landskrona municipality in March 2013, as a part of the 600-year anniversary celebration
- the "special newspaper" is , as almost evertthing else that's printed and sold or elsewise spread, available at the Swedish National Archive in both Lund and Stockholm, as well as at Landskrona Town Library
- Which should be easy to establish by using the map here
- "Landskrona Citadell en minihistoria | Landskrona Slott". Citadellet.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Swedish encyklopedia "Lilla Uppslagsboken", 1958 Förlagshuset Norden AB, Malmö, volume 6 of 10, article "Landskrona"
- "1027-1028 (Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 15. Kromat - Ledvätska)". Runeberg.org. 2014-10-31. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- About the specific year, in the local newspaper
- Swedish Wiki, "Skånska Husarregimentet"
- Swedish Protection of Nature Institution, Landskrona branch
- Rickard Lööf. "Sveriges äldsta koloni 100 år - Nyheter". SVT.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Saxtorps storhetstid får utställning - Helsingborgs Dagblad". Hd.se. 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- [dead link]
- Åke Jönsson "Historien om en stad", a folio format trilogy "The History of a Town" - part 2 ISBN 91-630-2099-8 (1994) and part 3 ISBN 91-630-2150-1 (1997)
- "Landskrona 1976". Landskronadirekt.com. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Frans Ekelund, arkitekt - via". Idstories.se. 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Landskrona stad - Arkitektur i Landskrona". Landskrona.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Timetable & Prices". Ventrafiken.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Tidtabell : 2 September - 31 December 2014". Scandliners.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Öresund Rundt - Skanetrafiken". Skanetrafiken.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Oresundstid". Oresundstid.dk. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Passagerskibe : Dan Viking (1959)". Kwmosgaard.dk. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "færgemodeller / skibsmodeller: Havnegade i Kbh og færgerne". Bjarneabel.blogspot.se. 2009-01-18. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "M/S DAN VIKING (1959)". Faktaomfartyg.se. 1957-03-28. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Centrumlinjens historia". Faktaomfartyg.se. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Flygbåtarna var ett sätt att leva - Sydsvenskan". Sydsvenskan.se. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Flygbåtarna lämnar Malmö-Köpenhamn | Nytt från Öresund". Nfo.nu. 2002-03-25. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- PDF at http://www.pht-formation.fr/ops/SID%20STAR/EKCH%20-%20Copenhagen.pdf Please note - these maps are NOT scalable. Page 8, left column shows approaches to 22L. The "star" CH88 I has position North 55:48.1 , East 12:56.5, the right turn is from 118 degrees to 219 degrees (one degree from the Runway's heading). This position is somewhere above Landskrona
- Landskrona Municipality - Official site
- Landskrona Trolleybus - Pictures from the construction of the trolleybus line (in Swedish)
- Landskrona Posten - Local Newspaper
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