Landtag of Bavaria
Landtag of Bavaria
|18. Bayerischer Landtag|
|Established||4 February 1819 (1311)|
|14 October 2018|
The Landtag of Bavaria, officially known in English as the Bavarian State Parliament, is the unicameral legislature of the German state of Bavaria. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum in Munich.
Elections to the Landtag are held every five years and have to be conducted on a Sunday or public holiday. The following elections have to be held no earlier than 59 months and no later than 62 months after the previous one, unless the Landtag is dissolved. The most recent elections to the Bavarian Landtag were held on 14 October 2018.
Bavaria's current state government, formed after the 2018 election, is a coalition of the Christian Social Union (CSU) and the Free Voters (FW). Markus Söder has been Minister-President of Bavaria since March 2018, when he succeeded Horst Seehofer.
The Landtag of Bavaria was founded in 1818, in the Kingdom of Bavaria. The first assembly was held on 4 February 1819. Originally it was called the Ständeversammlung and was divided into an upper house, the Kammer der Reichsräte (House of Councillors), and a lower house, the Kammer der Abgeordneten (House of Representatives). With the act to reform the election of the representatives in 1848 the Ständeversammlung was de facto renamed the Landtag (state diet). The name Landtag was used occasionally before this act.
In the Weimar Republic, from 1919 on, under the Bamberg Constitution, the upper house of the Landtag was abolished and its lower house became a unicameral democratic elected assembly. In 1933, in Nazi Germany, the Landtag suffered Gleichschaltung like all German state parliaments. It was dissolved on 30 January 1934.
After the Second World War, the new Constitution of Bavaria was enacted and the first new Landtag elections took place on 1 December 1946. Between 1946 and 1999 there was again an upper house, the Senate of Bavaria. The CSU has dominated the Bavarian Landtag for nearly the entire post-war period.
The CSU's 2003 election victory was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany that any party had won a two-thirds majority of seats in an assembly at any level. Five years later in 2008, the CSU saw a stunning reversal of fortunes, and failed to win a majority of seats in Bavaria for the first time in 46 years. In the aftermath of this result, the SPD floated the idea that the four other parties should all unite to form a government excluding the CSU, as it had "lost its mandate to lead": however, the FDP were not interested.
Like the Bundestag at the federal level, the Bavarian Landtag is elected through mixed-member proportional representation. There are at least 180 seats, but more are sometimes added as overhang and leveling seats.
As of the 2018 election, the state is divided into 91 electoral districts, which each elect one representative in the same manner as under first-past-the-post. To achieve a proportional result, another 89 seats are on open party lists in the 7 administrative districts of the state, which the constitution define as constituencies. Every constituency elect a fixed number of seats. The 89 seats are assigned such that, also taking into account the 91 districts seats, each party is represented in proportion to its share of the vote in the constituencies. On election day, people vote separately for a candidate in their electoral districts (called the "first vote") and for a candidate in their constituency (called the "second vote").
As of the 2018 election, seats are assigned to the constituency as follows:
|Constituency||Single-member districts||Seats[notes 1]|
- Without overhang and leveling seats
Election results 1946–2018
|Year||CSU||SPD||B'90/Grüne||AfD||Linke||BP||FDP||FW||BHE DG||GB BHE||KPD||NPD||ÖDP||REP||WAV|
- AfD: Alternative for Germany – Alternative für Deutschland
- B'90/Grüne: Alliance '90/The Greens – Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
- BP: Bavaria Party – Bayernpartei
- CSU: Christian Social Union of Bavaria – Christlich Soziale Union Bayerns
- FDP: Free Democratic Party – Freie Demokratische Partei
- FW: Independents – Freie Wähler
- GB/BHE: All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights – Gesamtdeutscher Block/Block der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten
- KPD: Communist Party of Germany – Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
- Linke: The Left – Die Linke
- NPD: National Democratic Party of Germany – Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
- ÖDP: Ecological Democratic Party – Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
- REP: The Republicans – Die Republikaner
- SPD: Social Democratic Party of Germany – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland
- WAV: Wirtschaftliche Aufbau Vereinigung
- Bavarian Landtag elections in the Weimar Republic
- 1998 Bavarian state election
- 2003 Bavarian state election
- 2008 Bavarian state election
- 2013 Bavarian state election
- 2018 Bavarian state election
- Welcome to the Maximilianeum, the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament
- Landtag A-Z – Legislaturperiode[permanent dead link] (in German) Landtag website. Retrieved 6 June 2008
- Tag der Abstimmung – Election date (in German) Landeswahlgesetz. Retrieved 6 June 2008
- Bavarian constitution – Article 16 Legislative terms, new elections Archived 21 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Landtag website. Retrieved 7 June 2008
- Stoiber – Dominant But Not Omnipotent Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine American Institute for contemporary German studies, author: Prof. Clayton Clemens. Retrieved 7 June 2008
- State Election
- Official website of the Bavarian Landtag (in German)
- Official website of the Bavarian Landtag (in English)
- Landeswahlgesetz – Laws and regulations governing elections in Bavaria (in German)
- Website of the Bavarian government (in German)
- Website of the Bavarian government (in English)