Lane centering

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Use of Tesla Autopilot may reduce accident rates.[1][2]

In road-transport terminology, lane centering, also known as auto steer, is a mechanism designed to keep a car centered in the lane, relieving the driver of the task of steering. Lane centering is similar to lane departure warning, but rather than warn the driver, or bouncing the car away from the lane edge, it keeps the car centered in the lane.[3] [4] [5][6] Together with adaptive cruise control this feature may allow unassisted driving for some seconds.[7][8] That is the meaning of Level 2 driverless, where two or more features work together to take over part of the driving.

Features that differentiate systems are how well they perform on turns, speed limitations and whether the system resumes from a stop.[9][10]

Current lane centering systems rely on visible lane markings. They typically cannot decipher faded, missing, incorrect or overlapping lane markings. Markings covered in snow, or old lane markings left visible, can hinder the ability of the system.[11] GM's Super Cruise only works on known freeways that have been previously mapped.[12]

Most vehicles require hands on the wheel, but GM super cruise monitors the driver's eyes to ensure human monitoring of the road, and thus allows hands-free driving.

In addition to passenger vehicles, Semi trucks are expected to be fitted with this technology, starting with the Tesla Semi and other vendors in 2019.[13]

History[edit]

The first commercially available lane centering systems were all based on off-the-shelf systems created by Mobileye, such as the Tesla Autopilot and Nissan Propilot[14], although Tesla has switched to an in-house system when Mobileye ended their partnership.[15] A handful of companies like Bosch, Delphi, and Mobileye provide sensors, control units, and even algorithms to car makers, who then integrate and refine those systems.[16] While not directly attributable to lane centering, crash rates on the Tesla Model S and Model X equipped with the Mobileye system were reduced by almost 40% while Tesla Autopilot was in use.[17][18][19]

Working principle[edit]

Lane detection algorithm
An example implementation of the lane detection algorithm showing Canny edge detection and Hough transform outputs

The lane detection system used by the lane departure warning system uses the principle of Hough transform and Canny edge detector to detect lane lines from real-time camera images fed from the front-end camera of the automobile. A basic flowchart of how a lane detection algorithm works to produce lane departure warning is shown in the figures.

2018 Mobileye EyeQ4[edit]

Mobileye claims 11 automakers will incorporate their EyeQ4 chip that enables L2+ and L3 autonomous systems. This would collectively represent more than 50% of the auto industry.[20] Level 2 automation is also known as "hands off": this system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). Level 3 is also known as "eyes off": the driver can safely turn their attention away from driving, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie.[21] Will launch in 2018 and 2019.

Average selling price for the EyeQ4 chip to auto makers is about $450 U.S. dollars.[22]

Sample of level 2 automated cars[edit]

Because all of these vehicles also have adaptive cruise control that can work in tandem with lane centering, this meets the SAE standard for level 2 automation.

Sample of vehicles with lane centering ability
Manufacturer Sample of vehicles Branding for lane
centering
Notes
Fiat-Chrysler Maserati brand[23]
Ford 2019 Ford Edge[24][25][26], 2019 Lincoln Nautilus, 2019 Ford Focus[27][28][29] Lane centering
GM 2018 CT6 Super Cruise Only on approved freeways[30]

Uses eye tracking system, which does not require driver to hold steering wheel.

Honda 2019 Honda Pilot[31][32] Honda Sensing: Lane keeping Assist System[33][34] Between 45 mph and 90 mph[35]
2019 Acura MDX[36] AcuraWatch Only at higher speeds[37]
Hyundai Late 2018 for 2019 model car(s)[38] Highway Driving Assist 2 (HDA2)
Kia 2018 Stinger[39] 2019 Kia Niro[40] Lane Follow Assist[41] Top Speed 130 kph, 81 mph
Mazda Lane Trace Can be activated at speeds above 60 km/h[42]
Nissan 2018 Leaf, Rogue[43][44]

2019 Altima[45][46][47]

Propilot Assist Can handle stop and go traffic if stopped for less than 4 seconds[48][49]
Subaru Japan only, then expanding Touring Assist Plans to bring as a standard feature to all cars except some sports cars[50]
Tesla Model S, X and 3 Autopilot, Autosteer AutoPilot 1 (2014 - October 2016) AutoPilot 2 (October 2016 - Present)

Works at all speeds other than at certain margins above posted speed limits.

As of 2018, requires driver to hold steering wheel every 30 to 60 seconds.

Toyota 2019 Corolla Hatchback[51][52] 2019 Rav4[53]

2019 Lexus ES[54]

Lane Tracing Assist[55] Video[56]
VW 2018 Audi Traffic Jam Pilot Top speed: 37.3 mph, 60 km/h[57]
2019 Audi A8[58] 2019 Traffic Jam Pilot[59] Level 3 Autonomy. Germany first. Not for U.S.A. in 2019. Top speed: 37.3 mph, 60 km/h[60]
2019 Audi A6[61]

2020 Porsche Taycan[62]

Tour Assist[63] Top speed 155 mph
Volvo XC40[64] XC60[65][66] XC90[67] Pilot Assist II[68]

Nissan Propilot[edit]

Propilot assists with acceleration, steering and braking input under single lane highway driving conditions.[69] Propilot keeps the car centered in the lane, handles stop-and-go traffic if stopped for less than 4 seconds[70], helps maintain a set vehicle speed and maintain a safe distance to the vehicle ahead. Propilot can follow curves.[71] Propilot utilizes a forward-facing camera, forward-facing radar, sensors and an electronic control module. A Traffic Sign Recognition system provides drivers with the most recent speed limit information detected by a camera unit located on the windshield in front of the inside rearview mirror. The information from detected signs is displayed.

In a review from ExtremeTech, Propilot worked well in 1,000 miles of testing and only on some twisty sections did it require driver intervention.[72] During Euro NCAP 2018 testing Propilot failed some tests as did all other systems tested.[73][74]

Evaluating Autonomy, IIHS examines driver assist featurers[edit]

http://www.iihs.org/iihs/news/desktopnews/evaluating-autonomy-iihs-examines-driver-assistance-features-in-road-track-tests
Quote from David Zuby, IIHS chief research officer:

We're not ready to say yet which company has the safest implementation of Level 2 driver assistance, but it's important to note that none of these vehicles is capable of driving safely on its own...

The report indicated that only the Tesla Model 3 stayed within the lane on all 18 trials.

Quote from the report:

The evidence for safety benefits of active lane-keeping systems isn't as pronounced as for ACC. Still, the potential to prevent crashes and save lives is large. IIHS research shows that preventing lane-departure crashes could save nearly 8,000 lives in a typical year...

Auto brake test[edit]

Quote from the report:

One series involved driving at 31 mph toward a stationary vehicle target with ACC off and autobrake turned on to evaluate autobrake performance. Only the two Teslas hit the stationary target in this test.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Q3 2018 Vehicle Safety Report". www.tesla.com. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  2. ^ "ADAS Systems | SEMA". www.sema.org. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  3. ^ "Hands On With Nissan ProPilot Assist: Self-Driving for Affordable Cars - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. 2017-12-19. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  4. ^ Levin, Doron. "Toyota Corolla Lane-Centering Tech – A Step Toward To Self-Driving – Cures Annoying 'Ping-Pong'". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  5. ^ "Lane Centering performance is bad". ClubLexus. Retrieved 15 January 2018.[self-published source]
  6. ^ "Today's lane keeping assistance tech steers the way to self-driving cars". Roadshow. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  7. ^ R R (2017-04-26), Self driving car / life hack active lane assist, retrieved 2018-02-25
  8. ^ www.etnews.com. "Hyundai Motor Company Planning to Apply Its Semi-Self-Driving Technology Called 'HDA2' Earlier than Initial Plan". 대한민국 IT포털의 중심! 이티뉴스. Retrieved 2018-04-30. ... it allows drivers to let go of their hands and feet and not to focus on their driving when they are driving on freeways.
  9. ^ "Cars With Advanced Safety Systems". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  10. ^ Frank Pulsinelli (2015-11-20), Honda Sensing Package Demonstration 2016 Civic, retrieved 2018-02-01
  11. ^ Richards, Gary (6 March 2014). "Roadshow: Driverless cars will alert motorists to missing lane markings". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  12. ^ "Hands Off With Cadillac Super Cruise, the Masterful One-Trick Pony of Self-Driving". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  13. ^ "Rollout of Active Steering in Trucking Draws Near | Transport Topics". ttnews.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Nissan ProPILOT Assist technology makes U.S. debut on 2018 Rogue – reduces the hassle of stop-and-go highway driving". Nissan Online Newsroom (Press release). Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  15. ^ Ramsey, Mike (2016-07-26). "Mobileye Ends Partnership With Tesla". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  16. ^ "From Audi to Volvo, most "self-driving" cars use the same hardware". Ars Technica. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  17. ^ "Tesla's crash rate was reduced by 40% after introduction of Autopilot based on data reviewed by NHTSA". Electrek. 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  18. ^ "Does Autosteer Actually Deserve Credit For a 40% Reduction In Tesla Crashes? – DailyKanban". DailyKanban. 2017-03-10. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  19. ^ "Elon Take The Wheel – DailyKanban". DailyKanban. 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  20. ^ "2018 CES: ADAS Partnerships and Products Propel the Drive Toward Full Autonomy". Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  21. ^ matthew.lynberg.ctr@dot.gov (2017-09-07). "Automated Vehicles for Safety". NHTSA. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  22. ^ "Mobileye Outlines Why It Considers Itself an Autonomous Driving Leader". Real Money. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  23. ^ "The new Bosch highway assist system installed on the Maserati 2018 range". Bosch Media Service. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  24. ^ "Ford® Driver-Assist Technologies – Driving Confidence & Convenience". www.ford.com. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  25. ^ DPCcars (14 January 2018). "2019 Ford Edge Driver Assist Technologies". Retrieved 25 February 2018 – via YouTube.
  26. ^ "Ford Co-Pilot360: Most Advanced Suite of Standard DriverAssist Technologies" (PDF). Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Ford Focus 2019 Revealed – (Fourth Generation Model)". 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  28. ^ http://europe.autonews.com/article/20180612/ANE/180619923/ford-gives-new-focus-multiple-personalities
  29. ^ "Tested: Ford Focus 2018 where robot takes the wheel – TU Automotive". www.tu-auto.com. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
  30. ^ Roy, Alex. "The Battle for Best Semi-Autonomous System: Tesla Autopilot Vs. GM SuperCruise, Head-to-Head". Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  31. ^ "2019 Honda Pilot First Drive Review | An original freshens up". Autoblog. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  32. ^ "First Drive: 2019 Honda Pilot Crossover Has Adventure Aspirations". Trucks.com. 2018-09-05. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
  33. ^ Honda (2017-11-20), Honda Sensing: Lane Keeping Assist System, retrieved 2018-08-21
  34. ^ "What is Honda Sensing® Suite? Features & More | Honda". Honda Automobiles. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  35. ^ "Lane Keeping Assist System (LKAS) (Honda Sensing® models)". Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  36. ^ "2019 Acura MDX". July 2018.
  37. ^ 2019 Acura RDX - AcuraWatch. 2018-06-15. Event occurs at 00:15. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
  38. ^ www.etnews.com. "Hyundai Motor Company Planning to Apply Its Semi-Self-Driving Technology Called 'HDA2' Earlier than Initial Plan". 대한민국 IT포털의 중심! 이티뉴스. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  39. ^ "2018 Kia Stinger GT Test | Review | Car and Driver". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  40. ^ "All-electric Kia Niro EV Crossover now on Sale in Korea - THISDAYLIVE". THISDAYLIVE. 2018-07-21. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  41. ^ "Hyundai Worldwide on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  42. ^ "MAZDA: LAS | Active Safety Technology". www.mazda.com. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  43. ^ "2018 Nissan Rogue Review: Slick Self-Driving Compact SUV - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. 2018-08-09. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  44. ^ "2019 Nissan Rogue gets price adjustments and more features". Autoblog. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  45. ^ "Nissan's new Altima offers highly automated driving without the sticker shock". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  46. ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20180911/OEM/180919901/nissan-positions-altima-to-challenge-sedan-slump
  47. ^ Nissan Owner Channel (2018-10-15), 2019 Nissan Altima - ProPILOT Assist (if so equipped), retrieved 2018-10-21
  48. ^ "Nissan ProPILOT Assist technology reduces the hassle of stop-and-go highway driving, ready for U.S. launch". nissannews.com. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  49. ^ "Your next car may be safer than you think. Thanks, autonomy". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  50. ^ "Subaru sharpens EyeSight with self-drive functions". Automotive News. June 19, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  51. ^ jeff.youngs (2018-03-23). "2019 Toyota Corolla Hatchback Preview". J.D. Power Cars. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  52. ^ Levin, Doron. "Toyota Corolla Lane-Centering Tech – A Step Toward To Self-Driving – Cures Annoying 'Ping-Pong'". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  53. ^ America, Toyota Motor North. "All-New 2019 Toyota RAV4 Serves Up A Breakthrough Debut At New York International Auto Show". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  54. ^ "2019 Lexus ES First Drive | Edmunds". Edmunds. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  55. ^ "Toyota Expanding its Industry-Leading Safety Technology Package with Second Generation Toyota Safety Sense™" (Press release). Toyota. November 28, 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  56. ^ AutoMotoTV (2017-12-08), 2018 Toyota Safety Sense - Lane Tracing Assist, retrieved 2018-05-30
  57. ^ "Driver assistance systems". Audi MediaCenter. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  58. ^ Tracy, David. "The New Semi-Autonomous Audi A8 Will Let Drivers Watch Television At The Wheel". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  59. ^ Orlove, Raphael. "Audi Bails on 'Traffic Jam Pilot' Driver Assist for Us Americans". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  60. ^ SlashGear (2017-09-11), 2019 Audi A8 Level 3 self-driving real world test, retrieved 2018-09-12
  61. ^ jeff.youngs (2018-02-28). "2019 Audi A6 Preview". J.D. Power Cars. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  62. ^ "Porsche's U.S. CEO: Newly renamed Taycan electric sedan drawing 'exceptional' interest". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  63. ^ "Audi AI and driver assistance systems". Audi MediaCenter. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  64. ^ "2019 Volvo XC40 Review: Standout Subcompact Crossover, Heavy on Safety - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. 2018-02-22. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
  65. ^ https://www.cars.com/articles/whats-the-best-luxury-compact-suv-for-2018-1420700119340/
  66. ^ "Luxury Compact SUV Challenge | MotorWeek". www.motorweek.org. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
  67. ^ Newcomb, Doug. "A Week With Volvo's Semi-Autonomous Pilot Assist II". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  68. ^ "The limits of semi-autonomous driving tech: We go Volvo Pilot Assist II winter testing". SlashGear. 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  69. ^ "2019 Nissan Altima Press Kit". Nissan Online Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  70. ^ "Nissan ProPILOT Assist technology reduces the hassle of stop-and-go highway driving, ready for U.S. launch". nissannews.com. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  71. ^ Toma, Sebastian (2016-07-13). "Nissan Introduces Japan' First Autonomous Drive Feature On Serena Minivan". autoevolution. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  72. ^ "2018 Nissan Rogue Review: Slick Self-Driving Compact SUV - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. 2018-08-09. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  73. ^ "Propilot NCAP testing 2018" (PDF). Oct 18, 2018. Retrieved Oct 18, 2018.
  74. ^ Euro NCAP (2018-10-18). "Euro NCAP 2018 Automated Testing : Nissan Leaf ProPilot". Retrieved 2018-10-18.

External links[edit]

News[edit]

Comparisons[edit]