Lanfang Republic

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Lanfang Republic

蘭芳共和國  (Chinese)
Flag of Lanfang
Republic's seal of Lanfang
Republic's seal
StatusTributary state of Qing China
CapitalDong Wan Li (東萬律) (now Mandor)
Common languagesHakka Chinese, Malay
Demonym(s)Hakka or Lanfangren
GovernmentPresidential republic
Kongsi federation
• 1777–1795
Low Lan Pak
• 1795–1799
Jiang Wubo
• 1799–1804
Yan Sibo
• 1804–1811
Jiang Wubo
• 1811–1823
• 1823–1838
Liu Taiji
• 1838–1842
Gu Liubo
• 1842–1843
Xie Guifang
• 1843–1845
Ye Tenghui
• 1845–1848
Liu Ganxing
• 1848–1876
Liu Asheng
• 1876–1880
Liu Liang
• 1880–1884
Liu Asheng
Historical eraNew Imperialism
• Founding
Succeeded by
Dutch East Indies
Today part ofBorneo


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The Lanfang Republic (traditional Chinese: 共和國; simplified Chinese: 兰芳共和国; pinyin: Lánfāng Gònghéguó, Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Làn-fông Khiung-fò-koet) was a Chinese state and kongsi federation in Western Borneo. It was established by a Hakka Chinese named Low Lan Pak [hak] in 1777, until it was ended by Dutch occupation in 1884. It was one of many tributary states of Qing China. The Lanfang Republic was one of the earliest modern republics in the world.

Arrival of the Chinese[edit]

The sultans of Western Borneo imported Chinese laborers in the 18th century to work in gold or tin mines. A number of mining companies (kongsi) enjoyed some political autonomy,[1] but Lanfang is the best known thanks to a history written by Yap Siong-yoen, the son-in-law of the last kapitan of the Lanfang kongsi, which was translated into Dutch in 1885.[2][3][4][5][6][7] None of the other Chinese mining settlements in western Kalimantan left written accounts.[8]

Rule of Low Lan Pak[edit]

The founding father of the Lanfang Republic was Low Lan Pak, who hailed from Meizhou in Guangdong Province. Chinese settlers have long lived in Borneo island, with most engaging in trading and mining. They formed their own companies, among which was the Southern Company headed by Low.

As Dutch imperialism encroached upon modern-day Indonesia, Low established the Lanfang Republic in 1777 (with its capital in East Wanjin) to protect the Chinese settlers from Dutch oppression.[9][10][11][12][13][14] The settlers subsequently elected Low as their inaugural president. Low implemented many democratic principles, including the idea that all matters of state must involve the consultation of the republic's citizenry. He also created a comprehensive set of executive, legislative, and judicial agencies. The Republic did not have a standing military, but had a defense ministry that administered a national militia based on conscription. During peacetime, the populace mostly engaged in farming, production, trading, and mining. Lanfang's administrative divisions included three tiers (province, prefecture, and county) with the people electing leaders for all levels. Lanfang was allied with Sultan Abdurrahman of the Pontianak Sultanate.[15][16][17][18][19]

Although Low discarded the ancient institutions of monarchism and dynastic succession, he continued to adhere to many Chinese traditions. For example, he established the founding year of the republic as the first year of the calendar. Moreover, he submitted a report to the Chinese emperor notifying him about the Republic's founding and paid tribute to the Chinese Qing Empire.

Low served as head of state until his death in 1795. Afterwards, Lanfang citizens elected Jiang Wubo (江戊伯) as their next president. Lanfang citizens elected a total of twelve leaders, who helped improve agricultural techniques, expand mine production, develop cultural education, and organize military training. These measures allowed Lanfang to increase its wealth and power, which encouraged the non-Chinese indigenous population to pledge their allegiances to Lanfang.

Dutch conquest[edit]

In the mid-to-late 19th century, the Chinese Qing Empire weakened substantially and became increasingly unable to support the Lanfang Republic as its vassal state. Thus, Lanfang Republic's vigorous development suffered from the eventual expansion of the Dutch. The Republic's citizenry waged a tenacious resistance, but ultimately failed due to poor weaponry. Lin Ah Sin was the last leader of Lanfang.[20] Many of Lanfang's citizens and their descendants made their way to Sumatra or Singapore. The three campaigns waged by the Dutch East Indies Army against the Chinese kongsi, called the Kongsi Wars, were:

This last one resulted in the subjugation of the Chinese and the loss of autonomy.

Wary of Qing intervention, the Dutch did not openly annex the Lanfang Republic, and created another puppet regime. It was not until 1912, when the Qing Dynasty collapsed, that the Dutch proclaimed their occupation.



  1. ^ "Archived copy" 海外華人創建了世上第一個共和國. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2010-10-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Groot, J.J.M. (1885), Het Kongsiwezen van Borneo: eene verhandeling over den grondslag en den aard der chineesche politieke vereenigingen in de koloniën, The Hague: M. Nijhof.
  3. ^ Lindsey'& Pausacker & Coppel &Institute of Southeast Asian Studies & Monash Asia Institute 2005, p. 105.
  4. ^ ed. Gerber &Guang 2006, p. 164.
  5. ^ ed. Reid & Alilunas-Rodgers 1996, p. 169.
  6. ^ ed. Blussé & Zurndorfer & Zürcher 1993, p. 288.
  7. ^ Chin 1981, p. 19.
  8. ^ Heidhues 2001:169
  9. ^ Gernet 1996, p. 489.
  10. ^ YUNOS 2011. Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "The Eurozone as a Lan Fang Republic" 2012
  12. ^ Zheng 1982, p. 40.
  13. ^ Wang 1994, p. 87.
  14. ^ "The Sarawak Museum Journal, Volume 19" 1971, p. 119.
  15. ^ "The Sarawak Museum Journal" 1959, p. 671.
  16. ^ Heidhues 2003, p. 65.
  17. ^ Heidhues 2003, p. 103.
  18. ^ Luo & Luo 1941,
  19. ^ 羅 1961,
  20. ^ Irwin 1955, p. 173.


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