Tributary state of Qing China
|Historical era||New Imperialism|
|Today part of||Indonesia|
Part of a series on the
|History of Indonesia|
The Lanfang Republic (Chinese: 蘭芳共和國; pinyin: Lánfāng Gònghéguó, Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Làn-fông Khiung-fò-koet) was a Chinese state and kongsi federation in Western Borneo. It was established by a Hakka Chinese named Luo Fangbo (羅芳伯) in 1777, until it was ended by Dutch occupation in 1884.
Arrival of the Chinese
The sultans of Western Borneo imported Chinese laborers in the 18th century to work in gold or tin mines. A number of mining companies (kongsi) enjoyed some political autonomy, but Lanfang is the best known thanks to a history written by Yap Siong-yoen, the son-in-law of the last kapitan of the Lanfang kongsi, which was translated into Dutch in 1885. None of the other Chinese mining settlements in western Kalimantan left written accounts (Heidhues 2001:169).
Rule of Luo Fangbo
The founding father of the Lanfang Republic was Luo Fangbo, who hailed from Meizhou in Guangdong Province. Chinese settlers have long lived in Borneo island, with most engaging in trading and mining. They formed their own companies, among which was the Southern Company headed by Luo.
As Dutch imperialism encroached upon modern-day Indonesia, Luo established the Lanfang Republic in 1777 (with its capital in East Wanjin) to protect the Chinese settlers from Dutch oppression. The settlers subsequently elected Luo as their inaugural president. Luo implemented many democratic principles, including the idea that all matters of state must involve the consultation of the republic's citizenry. He also created a comprehensive set of executive, legislative, and judicial agencies. The Republic did not have a standing military, but had a defense ministry that administered a national militia based on conscription. During peacetime, the populace mostly engaged in farming, production, trading, and mining. Lanfang's administrative divisions included three tiers (province, prefecture, and county) with the people electing leaders for all levels. Lanfang was allied with Sultan Abdurrahman of the Pontianak Sultanate.
Although Luo discarded the ancient institutions of monarchism and dynastic succession, he continued to adhere to many Chinese traditions. For example, he established the founding year of the republic as the first year of the calendar. Moreover, he submitted a report to the Chinese emperor notifying him about the Republic's founding and paid tribute to the Chinese Qing Empire.
Luo served as head of state until his death in 1795. Afterwards, Lanfang citizens elected Jiang Wubo (江戊伯) as their next president. Lanfang citizens elected a total of twelve leaders, who helped improve agricultural techniques, expand mine production, develop cultural education, and organize military training. These measures allowed Lanfang to increase its wealth and power, which encouraged the non-Chinese indigenous population to pledge their allegiances to Lanfang.
Although the Republic had both ethnic Chinese citizens (numbering in the tens of thousands) and indigenous subjects (numbering in the hundreds of thousands), the ethnic Chinese were the only ones who voted in presidential elections. Thus, Luo would not dare call himself a king in front of the ethnic Chinese citizens, but was not afraid to do so in front of his indigenous subjects.
In the mid-to-late 19th century, the Chinese Qing Empire weakened substantially and became increasingly unable to support the Lanfang Republic as its vassal state. Thus, Lanfang Republic's vigorous development suffered from the eventual expansion of the Dutch. The Republic's citizenry waged a tenacious resistance, but ultimately failed due to poor weaponry. Lin Ah Sin was the last leader of Lanfang. Many of Lanfang's citizens and their descendants made their way to Sumatra or Singapore, which subsequently became another ethnic Chinese republic in Southeast Asia. The three campaigns waged by the Dutch East Indies Army against the Chinese kongsi, called the Kongsi Wars, were:
- Expedition to the West Coast of Borneo (1822–24)
- Expedition against the Chinese in Montrado (1850–54)
- Chinese uprising in Mandor, Borneo (1884–85)
This last one resulted in the subjugation of the Chinese and the loss of autonomy.
Wary of Qing intervention, the Dutch did not openly annex the Lanfang Republic, and created another puppet regime. It was not until 1912, when the Qing Dynasty collapsed, when the Dutch proclaimed their occupation.
- Blussé, Léonard; Zurndorfer, Harriet Thelma; Zürcher, Erik Jan, eds. (1993). Conflict and Accommodation in Early Modern East Asia: Essays in Honour of Erik Zürcher. Volume 29 of Sinica Leidensia (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004097759. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Chin, John M. (1981). The Sarawak Chinese (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press, Incorporated. ISBN 0195804708. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Gakuen, Seijō (1967). Uchida, Naosaku; Ikedavolume=, Kōtarō, eds. Social and economic aspects of Japan: Seijo Gakuen jubilee year, 1917-1967. Economic Institute of Seijo University. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Gerber, James; Guang, Lei, eds. (2006). Agriculture and Rural Connections in the Pacific, 1500-1900. Volume 13 of The Pacific World: Lands, Peoples And History of the Pacific, 1500-1900 (illustrated ed.). Ashgate/Variorum. ISBN 0754639789. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Gernet, Jacques (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521497817. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Heidhues, Mary F. Somers (2003). Golddiggers, Farmers, and Traders in the "Chinese Districts" of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Volume 34 of Southeast Asia publications series (Issue 34 of Studies on Southeast Asia) (illustrated ed.). SEAP Publications. ISBN 0877277338. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Irwin, Graham (1955). Nineteenth-century Borneo: A Study in Diplomatic Rivalry. Part 15 of Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. M. Nijhoff. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Lindsey, Timothy; Pausacker, Helen; Coppel, Charles A.; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash Asia Institute (2005). Lindsey, Timothy; Pausacker, Helen; Coppel, Charles A., eds. Chinese Indonesians: remembering, distorting, forgetting. Volume 61 of Monash papers on Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812302867. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Luo, Xianglin; Luo, Fangbo (1941). Luo Fangbo suo jian Boluozhou Kundian Lanfang da zong zhi kao (illustrated ed.). Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- 羅, 香林 (1961). 西婆羅洲羅芳伯等所建共和國考. 中國學社. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Museum für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig (1997). Jahrbuch des Museums für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig, Volume 41. Lit-Verlag. ISBN 3825834328. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Oelschlägel, Anett C.; Nentwig, Ingo; Taube, Jakob, eds. (2005). "Roter Altai, gib dein Echo!": Festschrift für Erika Taube zum 65. Geburtstag (in German). Contributor Erika Taube. Leipziger Universitätsverlag. ISBN 3865830625. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Reece, Bob; Persatuan Kesusasteraan Sarawak (1993). Datu Bandar Abang Hj. Mustapha of Sarawak: some reflections of his life and times. Sarawak Literary Society. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Reid, Anthony; Alilunas-Rodgers, Kristine, eds. (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast China and the Chinese (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824824466. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Reid, Anthony (2008). Reid, Anthony, ed. The Chinese Diaspora in the Pacific. Volume 16 of The Pacific World Lands, Peoples and History of the Pacific, 1500 - 1900. Ashgate. ISBN 0754657493. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Yong, Paul (1994). A dream of freedom: the early Sarawak Chinese (2, illustrated ed.). Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 9679783774. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- YUNOS, ROZAN (May 23, 2011). "Saga of Lanfang Republic". THE BRUNEI TIMES (BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN). Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Setyautama, Sam; Mihardja, Suma (2008). Tokoh-tokoh etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia (in Malay). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9799101255. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Suryadinata, Leo, ed. (1997). Political Thinking of the Indonesian Chinese: 1900-1977; a Sourcebook. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9789971692018. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Wang, Tai Peng (1994). The origins of Chinese kongsi. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 9679784495. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Zhang, Delai (2002). The Hakkas of Sabah: A Survey of Their Impact on the Modernization of the Bornean Malaysian State. Sabah Theological Seminary. ISBN 9834084005. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Zheng, Dekun (1982). Studies in Chinese Archaeology. Volume 3 of Centre for Chinese Archaeology and Art Hong Kong: Studies series. Chinese University Press. ISBN 9622012612. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Zheng, Dekun (1969). Archaeology in Sarawak (illustrated ed.). Heffer. ISBN 0852700113. Archived from the original on Jul 20, 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "The Eurozone as a Lan Fang Republic". Manifesta Journal. 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- The Sarawak Museum Journal. Volume 9 of The Sarawak Museum Journal: For the Promotion of Scientific Knowledge and Study of the Natives and Natural History of the Island of Borneo, Sarawak Museum. Contributor Sarawak Museum. Sarawak Museum. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- The Sarawak Museum Journal, Volume 19. Contributor Sarawak Museum. Sarawak Museum. 1971. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- The Numismatic Chronicle, Volume 153. Contributor Royal Numismatic Society (Great Britain). Royal Numismatic Societ. 1993. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Excerpta Indonesica, Issues 58-62. Contributors Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands). Afdeling Documentatie Modern Indonesie, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands). Bibliotheek. Centre for Documentation of Modern Indonesia, Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology. 1998. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens, Volume 75; Volume 77. Contributor Deutsche Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens, Tokyo. 1979. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- China Today, Volume 6. Contributors China Today Society, Taiwan, Taipei (City). Institute for Chinese Culture, Institute of Chinese Culture, T'ai-pei, Institute for Advanced Chinese studies, Chung-kuo wen hua hsüeh yüan. Chung-Kuo wen hua yen chiu so, Chinese Translation Society, Chung-Kuo wen hua yen chiu so, Tai pei, United Publishing Center, Inc, Chinese Institute of Translation and Research. Institute of Chinese Culture. 1963. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Revue bibliographique de sinologie, Volumes 6-7 (in French=). Contributors Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, Ecole pratique des hautes études (France). Section des sciences économiques et sociales, École pratique des hautes études (France). Section des sciences historiques et philologiques. Editions de l'Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales. 1988. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Taiwan guang Hua za zhi, Volume 33, Issues 7-12. 光華畫報雜誌社. 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Tempo: Indonesia's Weekly News Magazine, Volume 4, Issues 43-52. Arsa Raya Perdana. 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Groot, J.J.M. (1885), Het Kongsiwezen van Borneo: eene verhandeling over den grondslag en den aard der chineesche politieke vereenigingen in de koloniën, The Hague: M. Nijhof.
- Lindsey'& Pausacker & Coppel &Institute of Southeast Asian Studies & Monash Asia Institute 2005, p. 105.
- ed. Gerber &Guang 2006, p. 164.
- ed. Reid & Alilunas-Rodgers 1996, p. 169.
- ed. Blussé & Zurndorfer & Zürcher 1993, p. 288.
- Chin 1981, p. 19.
- ed. Suryadinata 1997,
- Setyautama & Mihardja 2008, p. 233.
- ed. Oelschlägel & Nentwig & Taube 2005, p. 290.
- Zhang 2002, p. 2.
- Gakuen 1967, p. 258.
- Gernet 1996, p. 489.
- YUNOS 2011.
- "The Eurozone as a Lan Fang Republic" 2012
- Zheng 1982, p. 40.
- Wang 1994, p. 87.
- "Taiwan guang Hua za zhi, Volume 33, Issues 7-12" 2008, p. 119.
- "The Numismatic Chronicle, Volume 153" 1993, p. 172.
- "Revue bibliographique de sinologie, Volumes 6-7" 1988, p. 165.
- ed. Reid 2008, p. 74.
- Yong 1994, p. 27.
- "Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens, Volume 75; Volume 77" 1979, p. 189.
- Zheng 1969, p. xvi.
- "China Today, Volume 6" 1963, p. 33.
- Reece 1993, p. 3.
- "Tempo: Indonesia's Weekly News Magazine, Volume 4, Issues 43-52" 2004, p. 9.
- "Excerpta Indonesica, Issues 58-62" 1998, p. 45.
- "Jahrbuch des Museums für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig, Volume 41" 1997, p. 273.
- "The Sarawak Museum Journal, Volume 19" 1971, p. 119.
- "The Sarawak Museum Journal" 1959, p. 671.
- Heidhues 2003, p. 65.
- Heidhues 2003, p. 103.
- Luo & Luo 1941,
- 羅 1961,
- Irwin 1955, p. 173.
- Heidhues, Mary Somers (2001), "Chinese Settlements in Rural Southeast Asia: Unwritten Histories", in Anthony Reid, Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.